Growth is a characteristic feature of all living organisms.
Most multi cellular organisms start life as a single cell and gradually grow into complex organisms with many cells. This involves multiplication of cells through the process of cell division.
This quantitative permanent increase in size of an organism is referred to as growth.
For growth to take place the following aspects occur
Reproduction in Plants and Animals Practical Activities
Examining the stages of mitosis
To examine spores on sori of ferns
Dispersal of fruits and seeds
Sexually transmitted infections (STl)
Advantages of Reproduction Asexual
Disadvantages of asexual reproduction
Advantages of sexual reproduction
Disadvantages of sexual reproduction
ROLE OF PLACENTA
The placenta facilitates the transfer of nutrients from maternal blood to foetus.
Placenta facilitates the removal of nitrogenous wastes from the foetus' blood to maternal blood.
Oxygen from the maternal blood diffuses into the foetal blood while carbon (IV) oxide from foetal blood diffuse into maternal blood.
Production of hormones
Placenta produces progesterone and oestrogen.
The period between conception and birth is called gestation.
In humans gestation takes nine months (40 weeks).
The embryo differentiates into tissues and organs during this period.
Week 1 to 3:
Zygote divides to form blastocyst.
Implantation takes place.
The three germ layers form endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm.
Nervous system starts to form.
Week 4 to 7:
Development of circulating and digestive systems.
Further development of nervous system, formation of sensory organs,
All major internal organs are developed.
At week 5, heartbeat starts.
Week 8 to 24:
All organs well developed including sex organs.
Hair, finger and toe nails grow.
Foetus move and eyelids open.
Week 25- 30:
The fully developed foetus responds to touch and noises and moves vigorously.
The head turns and faces downwards ready for birth.
Foetus increases in size.
Reproduction in Animals
Reproduction in Humans
Structure of female reproduction system,
The female reproduction system consist of the following: Ovaries
Structure of male reproductive system
The male reproductive system consists of the following:
Fertilisation in Animals
Ecology Practical Activities
The term disease denotes any condition or disorder that disrupts the steady state of wellbeing of the body.
Health is a state of physical, mental and emotional wellbeing in the internal environment of the body.
Some of the causes of diseases are due to entry of pathogens and parasites. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi.
Parasites are organisms which live on or in the body of another organisms.
Vectors are animals that carry the pathogen from one person to another. Most are ectoparasites that transmit the disease as they feed.
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Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
Most of the energy used in an ecosystem is derived from the sun. Solar energy is trapped by photosynthetic plants.
It flows through different trophic levels and at each level energy is lost as heat to space and also through respiration.
Besides animals lose energy through excretion and defecation, the amount of energy passed on as food from one trophic level to another decreases progressively.
The energy in the organisms is recycled back to plants through the various nutrient or material cycles.
Abiotic factors (environmental factors)
According to biology dictionary, abiotic factors are non-living factors in the ecosystem. These factors do affect the living things in it, but they are not living themselves. In this context, we will focus mainly on light, temperature, atmospheric pressure, salinity, humidity, pH and wind.
wHAT IS ECOLOGY?
Ecology, also called ‘bioecology’, ‘bionomics’, or ‘environmental biology’ is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
"The word ecology was coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who applied the term oekologie to the “relation of the animal both to its organic as well as its inorganic environment.” The word comes from the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” “home,” or “place to live.”" Thus, ecology deals with the organism and its environment. [Source: britannica.com]
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