1. Writing (20 mks)
Write a letter to your aunt asking her to visit you at school during the upcoming visiting day. Request her to bring you your story book. Describe the other things that you need and remember to inform her on the day, date and arrival time.
format 5 mks
Address – School name
City town – 1 mk
Date 1mk (must skip a line if not deny mark
Salutations i.e Dear aunt 1mks
Your niece/nephew 1 mk
Name 1 mk
Content (c) 10 mks
Introduction– Greetings and catching up 2mks
Requesting for attendance 1 mk
Mention of the title of the story book 1mk
Description of other things 2 mks
Mention of the day, date and time 3 mks
Conclusion 1 mk (passing on greetings)
Language – 4mks
Tone (Must be informal)- 1mk
Address must have school name
Complementary clause should be informal- only one name
2. Comprehension (20mks)
Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.
What is good governance? This is a question that people discuss very often. It refers to responsible management of the affairs of a village, town or country. Where there is good governance people live in harmony, ways of alleviating poverty are sought, inequalities and injustices are addressed and people assume ownership of the process of developing their communities. Good governance creates an environment in which individuals can pursue their dreams and contribute to the welfare of the community.
Although the government is expected to create a condusive political and legal environment for development, it cannot succeed if ordinary citizens do not co-operate and play their role. Everyone craves for the maintenance of the rule of law but if we do not obey the law, we will not know peace. We grumble about insecurity but give refuge to criminals. We accuse certain sectors of corruption but give bribes in order to induce others to give us preferential treatment. Our lives are riddled with contradictions. If we really desire to have positive changes in our society, we must change our attitudes, join hands and work towards building a society we can all be proud of.
But if we just sit and whine, we will continue to wallow in our valley of poverty and hopelessness.What can a person do? A lot. If every one of us would be committed to working hard, paying our taxes, co-operating with law enforcement officers, rejecting mediocre standards and helping others, Kenya could become the haven we all dream about. For too long, many of us have shunned our responsibilities. We think it is someone else’s duty to build Kenya. We have withheld our taxes and colluded with those who have ruined our economy. We thought we were clever but we have now tasted the fruit of such self-deception. Stealing public property makes us all poor. Poor infrastructure, homelessness, unemployment and insecurity are the fruits of our irresponsible behaviour.
Fortunately, things do not have to continue that way. Where there has been indiscipline and chaos, we can restore order. Consider the public transport sector for instance. People have been treated like trash—packed like sardines, abused, overcharged- Defective, un roadworthy vehicles have been plying various routes throughout the nation. And the result? Gruesome pictures on the television and in our newspapers, daily testifying of our self-destructive nature. But now sanity is returning. In one voice people have said, “Enough is enough!”. Commuters are now refusing to
board overloaded vehicles and reporting indisciplined and careless drivers to the police.
People have also been reporting those engaging in corrupt practices to the authorities.
It has been so inspiring to see thousands of Kenyans opting to walk to work rather
than give in to exploitation. This illustrates that it is possible to create order. We must
say “yes” to what is desirable and “no” to what is bad.
Answer the following questions.
Question 2: comprehension (20 mks)
3. Cloze Test (10 MARKS)
Fill in the blank spaces with the most appropriate word.
Relatives of people who have 1…………………….mysteriously in the border town of Liboi and Garissa have asked the government to 2…………………………. their whereabouts. The residents, who claimed their 3…………………………….ones were picked 4…………………………. people identifying themselves as police officers also accused the 5………………………….... of being involved 6…………………………the disappearances. They said their loved ones are yet to be 7………………………….despite numerous attempts to locate 8………………………… .At least 14 people have 9…………………………..missing in a span of one year. Liboi 10 …………… 18 Kilometers from the Kenya – Somalia border.
Question 3. Cloze test (10mks)
NB: All the answers must be in the lower case
4. Oral Skills (10 mks)
1. Identify the silent letter in each of the following words. (5mks)
Question 4: Oral Skills (10mks)
v) b 1mk each =5mks
v) sighs 1mk each = 5mks
5. Literature (20 mks)
Read the following narrative and answer the questions that follow.
The vulture and the Hen
Long ago the hen and the vulture used to live on excellent terms, helping each other at any time they needed a hand to procure their domestic necessities.
One day the hen thought of borrowing a razor from the vulture, to shave the little ones. The shaving was already much overdue, but it couldn’t be helped, because she had no razor, and was depending on the kindness of her neighbours. So the hen went to see the vulture and said, “Dear Vulture, I should like to borrow your razor; mine got lost months ago. My little ones are looking very ugly, and also very untidy, with their long unkempt hair overgrown.”
The Vulture listened to the hen with great concern and after a short silence, said, “Dear hen, l cannot refuse you this favour. Tomorrow perhaps l might need your help as well, and we must help each other. However, you must remember one thing. You know what the razor means to me. I have no other income except the rent of that razor; that is to say, that razor is my field, whence I get my daily food. I do not intend to ask you any fee as I do with others; but please be careful to return it to me as soon as you have finished your shaving.’’
“Thank you, brother vulture, I quite understand what you say, and I am very grateful to you. I’ll bring it back very soon.’’
The hen was very glad of the favour, and as soon as she arrived home, made arrangements to be shaved by another woman. The following morning she also shaved her two little ones, so that the whole family was now shining like the moon. The work over , instead of immediately returning the razor to the owner, she put it in a leather purse which was hanging in a corner of the hut.
The days passed, and passed like the water under the bridge, but the hen never thought again of returning the razor to the vulture. She forgot about it completely. The vulture grew impatient, and deeply resented in his heart the unkindness, no, the ingratitude of the hen. Pressed by necessity, he decided to go personally to the hen and demand his razor.
“Oh, dear Vulture,’’ said the hen with confusion and great regret, ‘forgive me; I am so sorry for my negligence. I really intended to return your razor very soon, but I put it in my leather purse, and forgot it completely. Let me go and take it; you will have it in half a minute.”
‘Yes, I know you are a forgetful creature, but look at the damage you have caused me. You have deprived me of my sustenance for many days. Mind you, if you have lost it, you will pay for it and very dearly,’’ said the vulture. The hen rushed into the hut to fetch the razor. She plunged her hand into the leather purse, but alas! It was empty; there was no razor in it. She was very shocked at the unpleasant discovery. She started searching on the floor to see if by chance it had dropped from the purse, but there was no finding it. She looked under the children’s bed, near the firestones, in the store; but there was no sign of it.
Tired and defeated, she came out and imploring said, “Oh dear friend and master. I can’t find it. Have mercy on me! I will search better; I am ready to demolish my hut altogether, and search diligently until I find it and return it to you.”
“I told you to be very careful, and l repeat it; I want my razor back! But mind, l want the very one I gave you, and no substitute.”
The poor hen spent all day searching and searching, but nothing came to light. She demolished her hut, and started searching in the roof-grass, among the rubble of the walls, between the poles, in the ashes, and even in the rubbish pit, but nothing was found.
The following day the vulture came to see the results of the searching. He found the hen still scratching the ground among a heap of dry grass and ox dung, but no razor was yet discovered.
“I am very sorry, dear Hen, “said the vulture, “but now nothing was found.
The following day the vulture came to see the results of the searching. He found the hen still scratching the ground among a heap of dry grass and ox dung; but no razor was yet discovered.
“I am very sorry, dear hen,’’ said the vulture, “but now l cannot wait any longer without compensation for my razor. For today you must give me a chick. Tomorrow I will return and see what has happened in the meantime.”
So the vulture flew away with a chick gripped within his talons under his breast. The following day he returned to the hen. She was still scratching the ground, but she could not see any razor. Another chick went with the vulture. And the same happened in the following days until today. That is the reason why the hen is always scratching the ground, and the vulture swooping on chicks even in our days. The hen is still searching for the razor, and the vulture is still compensating himself for his loss. (20mks)
Question 5: Literature (20 mks)
1. Aetiological/Explanatory narrative. (1mk) It explains why the hen is always scratching the ground and the vulture swooping on chicks. (1mk)
2. Opening formula – “Long ago”
Timelessness – “Long ago”
Closing formula “That is the reason why….”
Use of dialogue – The Hen talking to the vulture, “Dear vulture, should like….”
Personification/ use of animal characters – The Hen borrowing a razor to go share her little ones.
Repetition- ‘ the days passed and passed’ , ‘I am very sorry’
Any 3 features well illustrated 2mks x 3 = 6mks
No mark for identification minus illustration
3. The vulture – 1 strict/principled – sticks by his words
The Hen – forgetful did not remember to return the razor.
Identification 1mk, illustration 1mk
Mark any other relevant trait
4. Cattle keeping/Animal rearing/livestock keeping – mention of ox dung
Shaving- the vulture earns a living by shaving using a razor
Identification 1mk, illustration 1mk = 4mks
5. We should keep promises
We should be obedient
We should forgive our frinds
Any 2 relevant lessons 1mk each = 2mks
Ogre/monster [Any 1 = 1mk]
6. Grammar (20 mks)
1) Give the plural of each of the following nouns (5mks)
Question 6: Grammar (20 mks)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows
The statements, events and reactions of the past couple of weeks surrounding the perennially vexed subject of corruption makes me wonder. Are we on the cusp of the challenge to and confrontation against corruption?
Certainly we have come a long way in identifying and isolating it. Let me give a small example .Twenty one years ago, I wrote a piece for the Sunday Nation which was entitled ”Why Kenya’s looting brigade now has its eyes on public land”
The main thrust of the article was that after the monetary excesses of 1992 and 1993, there was a growing penchant for Kenya’s looting brigade to next move their focus and activities to public land. The process was as simple as was crude . A handful of politically connected private individuals or entities would get allocated a prime piece of public land for a nominal sum. A title would be processed and then it would be sold ,in part or whole, at a much higher price to a public institution that had the cash resources. It became known as “land grabbing” and most Kenyans can give countless examples of where this has taken place . It was double plunder because not was the land grabbed; it was often paid out of public resources or savings that were meant for other things.
Today we talk about this activity and make references to it with alacrity and in most cases without fear. Not so in 1994. When I first wrote the piece and offered it to the Sunday Nation ,It passed the relevant tests of being well researched and factually correct, but publishing it was another matter. There was culture of fear that surrounded the whole county and putting one’s head above the parapet was regarded as dangerous and reckless . The piece was pushed around and a couple of editorial desks and the decision to publish was deferred for a while I recall I was requested to “soften” the piece .When it it did eventually get printed ,I was very much aware that that I might get a backlash and braced myself accordingly. Today there is much less remaining of that culture of fear but as we have remained several times recently ,corruption at many levels continues unabated. The dossier compiled by the Ethics and Anti-corruption Authority (EACC) is evidence enough. The stance made by the president on Thursday is also encouraging .
So where to now ? There is no doubt that the public outrage the majority of the population, who are mare victims as opposed to beneficiaries .is gathering the momentum of landslide proportions. We should not underestimate that growing anger . This is both unsurprising and gratifying . for most of us , corruption just makes our lives much tougher ,more fatiguing and even expensive.
The big question is:how seriously will those who have been named take it ?. the norm is many countries which aspire to high integrity standards is that when a person is named by such a body as the EACC ,then that person should step aside . The onus is on the relevant bodies to complete investigations and prosecute as and when necessary and for the person named to defend him or herself.
That is where we should be heading. The presidential should make it clear that all the people named in the scandal should step aside. If we move down that road ,then we are indeed heading in the right direction. If we do not then this will just be another bout of public gesturing of the bread and circuses variety.
Lastly, the EACC and in turn the Director of Public Prosecution ,need to do some ground work to fully support and, where applicable ,prosecute what is being alleged. We are watching and in a number of cases, rather skeptically.
Love is madness.
Hard brutal madness
Love is fire
Love is a chameleon
A camouflaged dangerous chameleon
Hot fiery love,
I beg you……….
Put out your brazing flame,
Because I desire to fell for you
Hand remorseful love
Please change your stance
Before the fire of of my youth
(from the African saga by Susan N. Kiguli)
Instructions to candidates
Imagine you are a leader of a peer support group in your school. You have received numerous complaints about abuse of drugs and substances in your school and its environs. Carry out an intensive investigation and write a report. Include the sources of drugs and substances and possible ways of curbing the problem. (20mks)
Points of interpretation
-Must be a report if not 2 AD
Format – Title ½
Introduction – Background, scope purpose clearly set out: why, when, who carried out the investigation and scope (range of coverage) ½ mk for each item – 2mks
Procedure- Method(s) by which the information was collected eg interview observation, Any method that is clearly explained (2mks)
Findings – analyzed information on any two sources of drugs and substances that are abused (2mks)
Conclusion – Must be deducted from the findings if not logical (00mks) i.e a logical implication of the finding (2mks) If new material or evidence introduced at this point award (00mks)
Recommendations – Must be stated in definite terms eg recommend that ……if not – 1 mk Two logical recommendations for the findings – 2mks)
Total – 10mks)
Language ability (4mks)
A – 04
B – 03
C – 02
D – 01 TOTAL 20 MKS
Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with an appropriate word.
It is an indisputable fact that agriculture ______________ (1) the backbone of the economy. It is therefore _________________ (2) that we stop over-relying on the rain-fed agriculture. Israel is a classic ____________________ (3) of a country that has reclaimed its deserts and put them _____________________ (4) use. Land which was _______________________ (5)”useless” has been turned around and _________ (6) useful. Egypt which closely depends on ________________ (7) River Nile is a leading exporter of fruits and cereals. For our country to __________________ (8) self sufficiency in food production and to get a ________________ (9) for export, land should be utilized to the ________________ (10) this is only possible with irrigation.
Question 2 Cloze test;
Oral skills (30 MKS)
Read the following poem carefully and answer all the questions that follow. (6mks)
Crows on the wing!
What grace as they swim
Rising and driving
Like fish in the billows
In the willowy air
Or softly as feathers
Crows on the wing
What a symphony sings
The wind in their wings
As they swoop as the rise
To the sea to the skies
As they float in the light
(Barnabas J. Ramon Fortune)
E. Your school has organized a farewell party for the form four students. You have been asked on short notice to move a vote of thanks. This will take the form of an impromptu speech. List the elements of your speech in the order in which they will appear. (5mks)
(f)Shouting and screaming from your class disrupted the other students during study time. As the class monitor, you have been called by the teacher on duty to her office to give an explanation. Complete the conversation below by filling in the blank spaces
Teacher: You are the class monitor of form two East, aren’t you?
You: ____________________________________________ (1mk)
Teacher: why was your class shouting and screaming?
You: I am not sure, madam. The noise started at the back of the classroom.
Teacher :______________________________________( 1mk)
You: You see Madam, I sit at the front of the classroom and by the time I turned to look, the boys at the back were already on top of the desks and some were trying to jump out of the window.
Teacher: ________________________________ (1mk)
You: I ran out, Madam!
Teacher: _______________________________ (1mk)
You: I am sorry madam, but it seemed like there was great danger in the middle of the class.
I had to run for my life.
Teacher: when the noise subsided, what did you find out?
You: ______________________________ (1mk)
Teacher: a snake?
You :______________________________( 1mk)
Teacher: whose toy snake was it?
You :______________________________( 1mk)
Teacher: you can go now, but I will need to know whose toy snake it was.
You :___________________________( 1mk)
Imagine that you have completed secondary education. You have come across an advertisement in one of the daily newspaper that required clerical officers. The email address of the Company is firstname.lastname@example.org. You are interested in the job. Write one page curriculum vitae (C.V) using the e-mail address of the company
You are the Secretary of your School’s Drama club. Your club is holding its second meeting of the year to discuss the following issues:-
Imagine you are the managing directors of Alroki industries Eldoret. You manufacture padlocks and of late, there has been a lot of bad press concerning your products. Write an internal memorandum to your operations manager and sales and marketing manager. Advise them on what should be done to counter the bad press and also recapture and retain your market share.
You have finished reading the play An Enemy of the people by Henric Ibsen and you
would like to recommend it to your classmates. In about 350 words, write the book review
You are the principal of Baraka Teachers Training College and one of your graduates Mr.
Christopher Lipwoni has applied for employment as a teacher at Lirhanda boarding primary school. The head teacher of that primary school has send you an email requesting you to avail more information about Mr. Christopher Lipwoni to enable the school decide whether to employ him or not. In the space provided below, write a sample report that you intend to email to the head teacher. Remember to copy the report to the DEO Kakamega East District
Imagine that you have been put in charge of a farewell party for your classmates. Write a recipe for the meal you would prepare for the occasion.
Imagine that you are the library captain in your school. Write a memo to the class prefects asking them to ensure that students observe the library rules, especially regarding silence, prompt return of books, appropriate dressing and observing opening and closing time.
You are invited to give a speech on the role of the youth in fostering peace in your country by a friend overseas. You are unable to travel due to unforeseen circumstances. E-mail your speech to your friend to present it on your behalf.
You are revising with your friend over the April holiday. On reaching school in May, you realize that one of your books, Top Mark English is missing. Write a fax to your friend in a neighbouring school requesting for the book he had borrowed from you
You have just read a novel entitled The Modern Girl by a famous writer. You want to
recommend it to a friend who has asked you to briefly tell him why you found the text interesting. Write with appropriate sub headings, a review of the text convincing your friend to read it.
Imagine you live in Mumias, an average town in Western Kenya. The National Music
Festivals are set to be held in this town for five days. Your friend who lives in Webuye town intends to come over.Give them clear directions to Nabongo cultural centre in Mumias town. Make your instructions as precise (one page) and clear as possible – you could use landmarks, well known means of transport, show distance in kilometers e.t.c.
Imagine you are the school captain, and the CDF committee wishes to set up a project
in your school. The principal has asked you to organize with the prefects to collect students views on the most appropriate project. Write an internal memo to the concerned prefects. (20 mks)
Imagine that you have done K.C.S.E exams, qualified and done some training in a professional course. You have seen an advertisement in “Sunday mirage” Newspaper of a position you qualify for. You then decide to apply for it. Write your Own curriculum vitae (C.V)
Write a letter to the clerk of your local council complaining about the loud music in the bars where you live. Indicate how residents spend sleepless nights due to the loud music, and what you think should be done
You have been selected to deliver a speech on Parent’s day on behalf of other students. Apart from teachers, parents and students, there are several guests present as well as members of Board of Governors. You are expected to highlight the challenges facing students population in the school. Write the speech you would deliver. (20 mks)
An Italian friend who had come to visit you left for his country a few weeks ago. He writes to inform you of his safe arrival and requests you for a recipe that would help him prepare ugali for his two friends. Write him through this address; Mckay@yahoo.com
The lions football team has won the just completed world cup competition. You are the coach. Write a memo congratulating them and informing them on when/how to collect their tokens. Remember to have copies to the minister of sports. (20 mks)
You are a candidate at Happy Secondary school in Burabi district. Since there will be no tuition in your school during the April holidays ,you decide with the permission of your parents to do your studies at the TRC in your district head quarters. Write a letter through your principal requesting the District Education officer at Burabi to allow you to do so.
Imagine you are the secretary of the youth group in your community. You are required to take minutes of the proceedings of the meeting. The following information should be included in the minutes.
Imagine you are a resident of Makutano junction market centre and of late you have noted, with a lot of concern, an increased number of stray dogs and cats in the market. Write a letter to the editor of a local daily newspaper on the problem, calling upon the authorities concerned to come to your rescue and eradicate the menace once and for all. (20mks)
Imagine that you have just collected your form four national examinations results. You have passed extremely well in English. Write a thank you letter to your English teacher.
Imagine you are the teacher in charge of examinations in your school. Write an internal
Memorandum to teachers informing them about the date of submission of the raw exams for typing, the date of starting the exam, the quality expected of the exam to be set, serious and thorough invigilation, how to deal with exam malpractices by candidates, marking and preparing report forms. A copy of the internal memo should be sent to the District examination co-ordinator; Khwisero.
You are the secretary to the environmental club in your school. Your school has been experiencing frequent water shortage and huge water bills. Your club was asked to investigate how water is used and recommend ways of conserving it to solve this problem. You completed your investigations. Write the report to the principal showing the causes and your recommendations as to the solutions to this problem.
Imagine that it is your first day in a new school. Write an entry in your journal indicating the things that surprised you, those that scared you and those that made your happy.
You have completed your form four examination. You have read the following advert for a job in The Standard Newspaper, write a letter of application accompanied with a C.V that can help you land an interview for the job.
You have been invited by your best friend, who attained an aggregate mean grade of A, to a party to celebrate his/her good performance in last year’s KCSE. Your friend has also asked you to assist in preparing a one course meal for ten guests.
Last year, you read a thrilling novel. You surely wish that your friend would read it. Write a synopsis that you wish to send to your friend so that he/she may be persuaded to read it.
Imagine that you have made a trip with your friends to Mombasa for a holiday.Write three personal journal entries; one describing your journey and settlement, and another for an exciting day and the last one for a depressing day.
We can have positive or negative attitude towards something. When we like something we use pleasant language to describe it but when we dislike something we use unpleasant words to describe it. In the poem ‘ A baby is a European’ (14) the poet expresses his attitude about Europeans. He looks down on Europeans yet he does not dislike them. He accepts them but as children. This we see from the words used in the poem. We can define attitude into two:
Is the expression of the writers meaning by the use of language,
which says the direct opposite of his thought. In the book ‘Song of Lawino’ when Lawino calls Clementine Beautiful, she in fact means that she thinks Clementine is very ugly. Beautiful is therefore used ironically.
Is a bitter or wounding remark, which is often ironically worded. Sarcasm just refers to the tone of voice in which a remark has been made e.g when Lawino calls Clementine beautiful she is being sarcastic because she is bitter and contemptuous. In the poem ‘Building the Nation” (9) the whole tone of the poem is satirical. The title is ironic.
Mood and tone:
Mood is the condition someone is in and mood is usually expressed by the tone of voice one uses. If you want to see somebody in authority eg. Headmaster for a favour, you will not go to him when he is in a bad mood but you will wait until the day when he is in a good mood. But in poetry we don’t talk of bad and good mood. Instead we use words like happy, bitter, angry, violent, quiet, resigned, sad, pleasant, resentful, humorous etc.
In the poem, “The woman I married”(19) the mood is humorous and resi- gned. This can be established by the words used in the poem. He does not call her his wife but instead he calls her ‘the Woman I married’. He does not say she is a typist but says she bangs the typewriter, and now she bangs the crockery so that the house sounds like a factory. In this poem we see that he is not planning to send her away or discipline her in any way but he has just given up (resigned).
The poem, “Grass will grow; (20) is sad, even desperate. Tone is the voice used in a poem. It refer to the words in the poem.
(x) Stanza. Is a paragraph of lines in a poem.
I ask for tears
Do not send me moon hard madness
To lodge snug in my skull
I would you sent me hordes of horses
But do not break
The York of the moon on me.
Poem no.21. The Philosophers
‘Those who speak know nothing;
Those who know are silent’.
These words, as I am told,
Were spoken by Lao-Tzu.
If we were to believe that Lao-Tsu
Was himself one who knew,
How comes is that he wrote a book
Of five thousand words
What is poetry?
It is not easy to say what exactly poetry is. But poetry explores the possibility of language more vividly than prose. In poetry language is used in a powerful ways.
ODAMO: But then sir, what is poetry?
TEACHER: Why sir, it is much easier to say what it is not. We all know what light is, but it is not easy to tell what it is.
Poetry expresses language more powerfully than prose. Poetry can be compared to a palace if prose is a house. So just as a palace is more than a house, but it must be a house at least so also poetry is more than prose but it must still be language at least.
TECHNICAL DEVICES IN POETRY.
This includes: Rhythm, Rhyme, Alliteration, Assonance, Onomatopoeia, Deeper meaning and Symbolism; Imagery – metaphor – simile, Attitude – Satire, irony,
STUDYING ORAL LITERATURE.
How we can be exposed to Oral Literature.
Oral stories are told to us from a very early age. When we are old enough we start telling those stories ourselves. We attend various ceremonies where we listen to songs and experience various dances and other utterances and performances.
At funerals stories would be told to adults about spirits and the underworld.
In everyday conversation the elders use proverbs and imaginative language which qualify as Oral Literature.
Some samples of Oral Literature have been written in books which we can buy and read.
The mass media also present some programmes that are Oral Literature oriented. But sometimes we are hampered from being exposed to Oral Literature.
The occasions of performance are irregular and unsystematic. Also some people move to urban areas and grow up in a sort of vacuum as far as the African background is concerned. So they remain culturally rootless and in most cases ‘ape’ foreign cultures. So, to rediscover ourselves, we should study Oral Literature. For us to understand ourselves in the present time we should discover our roots.
Taban Lo Liyong’ says,’ just as we don’t want the Africa of our fore fathers forgotten, we also want the Africa of our grand children realized as well as living meaningfully in our times. He says that, ‘we are like a strange beast with three heads – one looks perpetually behind, one looks steadily under our feet and the other is poised to heavens dreamily.
In order to reach our rural people – who are the majority – and serve them effectively, we should have an understanding of oral literature which they still use to this day.
The study of oral literature is necessary as it is likely to expose us to some of the best creative productions of the human mind.
How to Study Oral Literature.
For a successfully study of anything one must have a direct access to it. So we should have direct contact with Oral Literature, ready to watch and listen to performances of oral literature.
Oral Literature cannot be seen as arts for arts sake. Whether narratives, song, proverbs or riddles, it relates to the culture of the people who create it; their beliefs, customs and accepted norms; their likes and dislikes.
A study of Oral Literature amounts to studying the society which creates it. This would involve field research.
Children were brought up according to the norms of their society through narratives, songs, proverbs and riddles.
Very young children (corresponding to our nursery kids today) were told.
There is a pot by the altar
That they begun to mould;
They finished the base
But the neck remains undone…
For they ran out of mud.
Who can find mud
Maybe if it were gold
Poem No. 19. The Woman I married
The woman I married
Is an out-right bone-shaker.
For a full decade
She had banged a typewriter
And now in substitution
Bangs the crockery
Until my house sounds like a factory.
The noise keeps her sane.
Poem No. 20. Grass Will Grow
If you should take my child Lord
Give my hands strength to dig his grave
Cover him with Earth
Lord send a little rain
For grass will grow.
If my house should burn down
So that the ashes sting the nostrils
Making the eyes weep
Then Lord send a little rain
For Grass will grow.
But Lord do not send me
Using the Past Continuous tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
I __________ a salad. (to make)
I was making a salad.
They ___________ to find some boots. (to try)
They were trying to find some boots.
Using the Simple Past tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verb to be. For example:
I ___ calm.
I was calm.
You ____ right.
You were right.
Using the Present Perfect tense, fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:
We ____________ the contest. (to enter)
We have entered the contest.
He ____________ the work. (to finish)
He has finished the work.
Definition of a tense and a verb
A tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
A verb is a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence or it can be said to be a doing word, such as eat, dig, walk e.t.c.
Present Continuous Tense:
Examples of the passive:
ENGLISH TENSES – OVERVIEW
FUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMINERS
Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. The word 'people' by itself is a general reference to some group of human beings. If someone says 'these people', we know which group they are talking about, and if they say 'a lot of people' we know how big the group is.
MAURICE A NYAMOTI
When not teaching, I seek for solutions
ENGLISH EXERCISES ON TENSES
ENGLISH NOTES: DETERMINERS
ENGLISH NOTES: TENSES
ENGLISH TEST ON THE PAST CONTINUOUS
ENGLISH TEST ON THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
ENGLISH TEST ON THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
ENGLISH TEST ON THE SIMPLE PAST
ENGLISH TEST ON THE SIMPLE PRESENT OF VERBS OTHER THAN THE VERB TO BE
FUNCTIONAL WRITING QUESTIONS
KCSE ENGLISH POETRY NOTES
PASSIVE AND ACTIVE VOICE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
TENSES AND VERB FORMS
THE PAST PERFECT AND THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS