LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN KENYA
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LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN KENYA
Social, Economic and Political Developments and Challenges in Africa since Independence - K.C.S.E HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT NOTES
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Social, Economic and Political Developments and Challenges in Tanzania since Independence - kcse history notes
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SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (DRC) SINCE INDEPENDENCE - KCSE HISTORY NOTES
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Factors that led to the development of multi-party democracy in Kenya after 1991
Role played by political parties in government and national building in Kenya.
Challenges of multi-party democracy in Kenya
Identify the disadvantages of multiparty system.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES:
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES;
- Lack of African technocrats who could give political direction to the country.
- Suspicion and jealousy between different communities due to the divide-and-rule tactic employed by the colonial administration for many years.
- An illiterate population, ignorant of its political obligations
Political developments in Kenya between 1963 and 1991
The post of an executive president was created to replace the post of Prime Minister. In 1966, the Limuru conference presided over replacement of the Vice-President of KANU With seven Provincial Vice Presidents and one for Nairobi Area.
On 14th April 1966, Oginga Odinga resigned from KANU and Government and formed Kenya People’s Union (KPU) where Bildad Kaggia, Achieng Oneko and Tom Odongo joined him.
In 1966, the bicameral legislature (the senate and the House of Representatives) was disbanded. A single –chamber parliament was established.
In 1966, Joseph Murumbi was appointed the country’s vice-president to replace Oginga.
He resigned in 1967to pave way for Moi’s appointment.
1969 witnessed the political assassination of the flamboyant Tom Mboya in the hands of one, Nahashon Njenga on 5th July on Nairobi’s Moi Avenue.
1n 1969, KPU was banned following riots in Kisumu.
In 1975, Josiah Mwangi Kariuki. MP for Kinangop was found brutally murdered in Ngong Forest.
In October 1975 martin Shikuku and the deputy speaker, Jean Marie Seroney, were arrested and detained for making claims in the house that KANU and parliament were dead.
In 1976, Chelagat Mutai, MP for Eldoret North was arrested and jailed for 2½ years for inciting his constituents to violence. In 1977, George Anyona, MP for Kitutu was also arrested after he accused the government of corruption.
In 1976, the change the constitution campaign was began by Kihika Kimani, Dr. Njoroge Mungai, Jackson Angaine, Paul Ngei and Njenga Karume with the objective of making sure that the then vice president, Daniel Arap Moi would not succeeded the president. On 22nd august 1978, Jomo Kenyatta died and Moi assumed presidency for 90 days and was finally elected as second president of Kenya.
In July 1980, Moi banned all tribal organizations, the Kenya Civil Servants Union and the Nairobi University Staff Union.
In June 1982, after an attempt by Anyona to form a political party, section 2A was introduced in the Kenyan constitution making it a de jure one party state.
On 2nd august 982, Kenya experienced a coup d’etat by some air force servicemen.
Charles Njonjo, the Constitutional Affairs Minister was accused of masterminding the coup.
In 1988, KANU introduced the infamous Queue voting method (mlolongo) that was open to abuse.
In February 1990, Dr, Robert Ouko, minister of foreign affairs and international cooperation was murdered.
The better part of 1991 witnessed a series of tribal clashes involving Kalenjin and Kikuyu, Kalenjin and Luhya and Luos.
Kenya’s political developments from 1991 up to 2011
The first multiparty elections were held in 1992 in December. KANU won against a disjointed opposition.
In 1994, the official leader of the opposition and MP of Bondo, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga died.
After 1997 elections, the Inter-Parliamentary Parties Group ((IPPG) passed the reforms that marked the genesis of the constitutional review process.
In 2002, several opposition parties formed a coalition that overwhelmingly defeated KANU in the general elections.
In January 2003, the National Rainbow Coalition formed the new government with Mwai Kibaki as the president.
In august 2003, Wamalwa Kijana, the vice president of the coalition government died after a short illness. Mood Awori was appointed the next Vice president.
In 2005, a new political movement, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) was formed as a campaign tool against the proposed new constitution. Raila Odinga was its leader.
The general Elections of 2007 resulted in a political crisis that provoked an unprecedented wave of political violence and killing across Kenya.
On 28th February 2008 the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan succeeded in brokering a power sharing deal between the incumbent President, Mwai Kibaki, and the opposition leader, Raila Odinga thus bringing to end the political violence.
On April 17, 2008, Raila Odinga, from Orange Democratic Movement, was sworn as Prime Minister of Kenya, after more than forty years of the abolition of office.
On 28th august 2010 Kenya promulgated a new constitution thus making it the first independent African state to depart from the independence constitution.
In 2011, the International Criminal Court seating at the Hague, begun criminal proceedings against Uhuru Kenyatta, William Ruto, former police Commissioner Hussein Ali, Henry Kosgei, the head of public service Francis Muthaura and a journalist Joshua Arap Sang over their involvement in the 2008 post-Election Violence.
In June 2011, Dr. Willy Mutunga became the first Kenya’s Chief Justice and Nancy Makokha Barasa, his deputy under the new constitution.
The Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) was also replaced with the Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission (IEBC
The constitutional changes in Kenya in the period between 1963 and 1991
The second Lancaster conference in 1962 negotiated a framework for self government.
The third and final conference in 1963 resulted in the drafting and adoption of Kenya's first independent Constitution by the British Parliament
The 1963 constitution marked the end of colonial rule and transformed the colony into a dominion.
It established a parliamentary system with executive powers vested in a cabinet headed by a Prime Minister.
The Constitution was changed in 1964 and Kenya became a republic and the executive became presidential. The senate and regions were also abolished.
In 1966, the voting majority to change the Constitution was lowered to two-thirds of the
MPs. The term ‘region’ was replaced with ‘province.’
In 1966, a constitutional amendment abolished the Bicameral Legislature and replaced it with a Unicameral Legislature, chosen directly by the electorate.
On 28th April 1966, an amendment was passed to compel MPs who defected from sponsoring party, to resign from parliament and seek re-election.
In May 1966, the Public Security Act was passed empowering the president to detain a citizen without trial on grounds of being a threat to state security.
In 1968, the president was empowered to alter provincial and district boundaries. In 1968, the procedure for presidential elections and succession in the event of his
death was laid down. The age qualification for presidential candidates was also lowered to 35 from 40 years.
In 1974, an amendment of the constitution empowered the president to pardon any election offender at his own discretion. This was done to favour Paul Ngei.
In 1975, Kiswahili was declared the national language of the national assembly.
In 1977, the Kenya court of appeal was established after the breakup of the East African Community. Voting age was lowered from 21 to 18
In 1979, both Kiswahili and English were declared languages of the national assembly. In 1982, Kenya became a de jure one party state. KANU became the only lawful party in Kenya.
In 1987, the security of tenure of the Attorney General, Chief Secretary, The Comptroller and Auditor–General was removed. Office of chief secretary was abolished.
In 1988, the security of tenure of Puisine Judges and Chairman of Public Service Commission was removed.
A parliamentary act in December 1991 repealed the one-party system provisions of the constitution and effectively established a multiparty system. Multiparty elections were held the following year in December.
Steps towards realization of a new constitution in Kenya since 1997
- In 1997, Parliament passed the Constitution of Kenya Review Act that set the pace for comprehensive constitutional reforms. The Constitution of Kenya Review Commission (CKRC) was established to provide civic education, seek public input and prepare a draft constitution).
- In 2005, after many years of struggle, the draft constitution was ultimately rejected by Kenyans at the constitutional referendum because of disagreements amongst various stakeholders.
- 28 February 2008 The National Accord and Reconciliation Act (NARA) signed by President Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga put in place arrangement for a new process to finalize the long awaited constitution of Kenya
- In 2008 the Constitution of Kenya Review Act 2008 was passed and a Committee of Experts (CoE) was established as the main technical constitutional review organ to drive the process. The CoE was chaired by Nzamba Kitonga, the deputy chair was Ms Atsango Chesoni, other members were Ms Njoki Ndung'u, Mr Otiende Amolo,Mr Abdirashid Hussein Mr Bobby Mkangi Professor Christina Murray (South Africa) Dr Chaloka Beyani (Zambia) and Dr Frederick Ssempebwav (Uganda.
- 23 February 2009 Members of the CoE were appointed by the President were later on sworn in
- On 17 November 2009 CoE released the draft to the public and invited views and comments on the draft constitution,
- By 23rd February 2010. CoE had submitted the final draft of constitution to the Parliamentary Select Committee.
- On 4th august 2010 Kenya held a Constitutional Referendum where the new constitution was overwhelmingly endorsed.
- On 28th august 2010, the new constitution was promulgated and became operational making Kenya the first independent African state to depart from the independence constitution.
Meaning and origin of African Socialism.
African socialism was born out of the desire by our leaders to create a new society, different from the colonial society and which embraced equity devoid of racism, oppression and other social injustices.
Main features that characterized African socialism in Kenya
- Political Democracy where all people are politically free and equal
- Various forms of ownership of wealth. E.g. free enterprise allowing private ownership of property, nationalization policy for key industries, partnership with private sector
- Mutual social responsibility. That the spirit of service and not greed for personal gain motivate Kenyans.
- A range of control to ensure that property is used in mutual interests of society and its members.
- Progressive taxation to ensure an equitable distribution of wealth and income.
- Diffusion of ownership to avoid concentration of economic power on a few people in the society.
Achievements of African socialism as a National Philosophy
- It has led to promotion of democratic process in governance. Multi-partism has been established in Kenya due to African socialism policies. Kenya has also witnessed the growth of the civil society.
- Since the philosophy is built on African traditions, it has promoted African cultures Kenya pursued African values consistent with her traditions.
- The philosophy has promoted national unity and coexistence among Kenyan communities.
- There has been a greater effort to achieve fairness and justice through progressive taxation and a range of other controls. The government has tried to achieve fair distribution of resources through the activities of the District Focus for Rural Development.
- The philosophy led to establishment of cooperative societies in Kenya. This has promoted social and economic development in Kenya.
- African socialism has promoted agricultural development through the land tenure system that was undertaken to ensure settlement of the landless in settlement schemes like Bura.
- Social development in education and health has been achieved. Discrimination in schools, hospitals and residential areas stopped. Uniform systems were adopted.
- The philosophy gave Africans the right to participate in their economy. This was through the policy of Africanization in which industrial enterprises hitherto owned by Asians and Europeans, changed ownership.
- African socialism has encouraged rapid development in Kenya. The policy of mutual social responsibility through self-help promotes a sense of patriotism and service to the nation as Kenyans work together to build the nation.
Problems that faced African socialism
- Progressive taxation has put an additional burden of taxation on the poor thus discouraging development.
- Political interference in public projects and wrangles among leaders retards development.
- The spirit of unity and cooperation and self-help has been discouraged by misappropriation of funds.
- Corruption leads to negative attitude from people towards contributing to national development.
Meaning and origin of Harambee philosophy
Mzee Jomo Kenyatta made it a national Motto in 1963 when he aptly advanced it as unity in all causes of national integrity and human progress.
The Harambee spirit embodies ideals of assistance, joint effort, mutual social responsibility and community self-reliance.
Harambee projects are categorized as;
- Social Projects. Educational institutions and facilities, medical centres, recreational facilities and religious institutions.
- Economic projects. Construction of rural access roads, bridges and culverts, agricultural and livestock activities.
Principles that guide the Harambee spirit.
- It is a development strategy that is aimed at mobilizing the people at local level to participate in their development
- Participation is guided by the principles of collective good as opposed to individual gain. Harambee efforts should be directed towards community projects rather than individual projects.
- The choice of project is supposed to be guided by the felt needs of the majority. Participants should be involved in decision making.
- In the implementation of projects, there should be maximum utilization of the local resources such as labour, materials and money.
Contribution of Harambee movement to the development of Kenya.
- Harambee movement has led to development of education in Kenya through Harambee fundraising to construct schools and colleges.
- Funds have been collected through Harambee to improve infrastructural facilities such as roads, rural electrification and provision of water.
- Collective participation in development programmes by people from different groups has promoted national unity.
- It has helped inculcate hard work in the people of Kenya. This has in turn encouraged various ethnic groups to develop their respective areas.
- Harambee projects especially in rural areas have attracted foreign donors especially the NGO’S
- Has led to re-distribution of resources as people with more funds have participated in the development projects in the less developed areas.
- Funds have been raised through Harambee to help the less fortunate members of the society. For example, President Moi 8th April 1989 held a Mammoth Rally where KSH 70 Million was raised to help the disabled.
- Harambee movement has promoted agricultural development e.g., through construction of cattle dips and purchase of farms through Harambee.
- Funds raised through Harambee have been used to purchase buses and Matatus to provide transport.
Ways in which the Harambee philosophy has promoted the development of education in Kenya.
- Many education institutions have been constructed using funds raised through Harambee effort. Thus enabling many children to attend school.
- Many students have been assisted to pay school fees/thus it enables the needy to go on learning.
- Physical facilities have been constructed/improved through Harambee. This enables learning in a conducive environment.
- Teaching/learning materials have been purchased/ donated to schools to improve the quality of education.
- Additional staff/workers in schools have been paid through Harambee contributions by the parents to offset inadequacy.
- Through Harambee spirit, well-wishers, thus helping the learners to exploit their talents, have supported co-curricular activities.
- School furniture has been bought through Harambee effort thus making learning /teaching comfortable.
- Parents have contributed funds to supplement the government’s school feeding programmes thus improving enrolment.
Problems that face Harambee movement in Kenya
- Misuse of Harambee funds/diverting its use and lack of commitment by leaders.
- It puts an additional burden of taxation on the poor.
- Embezzlement of public funds.
- Political interference and wrangles among leaders.
- The spirit of unity and co-operation and self-help may be killed by misappropriation of funds.
- Poor co-ordination and supervision of Harambee projects.
- Use of force or extortion of Harambee funds from the people/dictatorial tendencies.
- Corruption and negative attitude from people.
- Use of Harambee for political gains.
Meaning and origin of Nyayoism
This was a phrase coined by the former president of Kenya Daniel Arap Moi, in reference to his Endeavour to follow the footsteps of his predecessor.
Today, Nyayoism means peace, love and unity that form the pillars of the development philosophy.
It stresses the concept of being mindful of other people’s welfare.
It is closely related to the principal of mutual social responsibility as embodied in African socialism.
Sources of Nyayoism
- Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 that articulated African socialism, which is based on collective responsibility and on being mindful of other people’s welfare.
- The Biblical teaching of the Ten Commandments, summarized as Love for God, fellow man and oneself.
- Moi’s long political career inspired him to develop the philosophy when he realized that national building required love.
Pillars of Nyayoism.
- Peace: - the state of being free from war and disorder. Peace is the beginning of sustainable and cumulative progress. Peace promotes development. According to Nyayoism, peace discourages political stability.
- Love: - Love brings about trust and readiness to cooperate by working together to foster national development. Lack of love disturbs peace, creates disorder and destroys progress. Love encourages the African culture of sharing through the extended family (communalism).
- Unity: - the state of being one, being in harmony or in agreement in objectives and feelings. The diversity of Kenya’s culture, religion, races and language requires that there must be unity for nation-building.
Role played by Nyayoism in national development.
- The philosophy formed the basis for solving national development problems. The philosophy perpetuated the Harambee spirit.
- The philosophy helped in unifying different communities. The philosophy enhanced cooperation and unity of all.
- Nyayoism was used as the rallying spirit for the collective contribution and approach to national development.
- Nyayoism discouraged societal evils since it preached love, unity and peace. Corruption was discouraged through the philosophy.
- It discouraged all forms of discrimination based on religion, tribe, race, and social status.
- The philosophy created respect for public property and functions.
- It enabled the creation of a welfare state since everyone became mindful of others welfare.
- It created a sense of nationalism and patriotism necessary for national development.
Impact of National Philosophies.
Social Impact of National Philosophies
- Education has been promoted through philosophies like the Harambee that have assisted in construction of schools, laboratories and libraries.
- Medical services have been improved
- Cooperation, understanding and unity have been encouraged since the philosophies emphasized togetherness for nation-building.
- The philosophies have promoted the spiritual and social welfare of people by raising their living standards. African socialism encourages people to assist others are share with others.
- Through the Harambee spirit, the plight of persons with disabilities and other disadvantaged groups has been looked into.
- The philosophies have promoted African cultures, since they are drawn from African traditions.
- Self-reliance and The Africanization process through which the people of Kenya were able to take over from foreigners was made possible by the philosophies.
- Due to the policy of pooling together resources and the spirit of cooperation derived from African socialism, cooperative societies have been formed in agriculture and other sectors, thus contributing to the country’s development.
- Transport and communication has been improved through African socialism and Harambee spirit. Rural access roads have been constructed; Nyayo buses were bought though the scheme failed due to mismanagement.
- The agricultural sector has been boosted by the philosophies. Kenyans are encouraged to work hard to increase food production.
- The pillars of Nyayoism have created a conducive atmosphere for growth of tourism and foreign investment in the country.
- The philosophies have promoted nationalism and patriotism in the country.
- African socialism has encouraged the democratization process as it champions for political equality.
- It has promoted international cooperation and understanding
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
Aims and objectives of COMESA
- To attain sustainable growth and development of the member states by promoting a more balanced and harmonious development of its production and marketing.
- To promote cooperation in all fields of economic activity and joint adoption of macro-economic policies and programmes.
- To cooperate in the promotion of peace, security and stability among member states in order to enhance economic development in the region.
- To cooperate in the creation of an enabling environment for foreign, cross-border and domestic investment.
- To cooperate in strengthening the relations between the common market and the rest of the world.
- To contribute towards the establishment, progress and realization of the objectives of the African Economic Community.
Principles that govern the operation of COMESA
- Equality and interdependence of member states.
- Solidarity and collective self-reliance among member states.
- Inter-state cooperation, harmonization of policies and integration of programmes.
- Recognition , promotion and protection of human and peoples’ rights in accordance with the provisions of the African Charter on human and peoples’ rights.
- Accountability, economic justice and popular participation in development.
- The recognition and observance of the rule of law.
- The promotion and sustenance of a democratic system of governance in each member state.
- The maintenance of regional peace and stability through the promotion and strengthening of good neighbourliness.
- The peaceful settlement of disputes among member states and active cooperationbetween neighbouring countries
Organization of COMESA
- COMESA is made up of the following organs;
- The Authority of Heads of State and government. It is the supreme-policy making organ of COMESA. The authority meets once a year, but may hold an extraordinary meeting on request of any member of the authority.
- The Council of Ministers. It comprises the designated ministers from member states. It meets once a year. It manages the affairs of the community. It monitors and ensures the proper functioning and development of COMESA.
- The Court of Justice. It ensures proper interpretation and application of the provisions of the treaty. it was established for settling disputes arising from the community. E.g between Kenya and Egypt over export of cement in 2004
- The committee of Governors of Central Banks. Governors of banks of member states form a committee to manage COMESA clearing house and ensure implementation of the monetary and financial co-operation programmes.
- The Intergovernmental Committee. A committee of permanent secretaries from member states which develops and manages programmes and action plans in all areas of cooperation except in the financial sector.
- The Secretariat. Based in Lusaka, Zambia, it provides technical support and advisory services to the member states and coordinates the activities of COMESA. The current secretary general is Erastus Mwencha since 1997
- The Technical Committees. E.g the Committee on natural resources and Environment, the Committee on Agricultural Matters, the Committee on Trade, Customs and Immigrations Matters, the Committee on Transport and Communication, the Committee on Labour, Culture and Social Affairs.
- The consultative committee. This comprises the business community and other stakeholders. It provides a link between the business community and other COMESA stakeholders, monitors implementation of the necessary provisions of the treaty, consults and receives reports from other interested groups and Participates in the technical committees and makes recommendation.
- Specialized independent institutions. The Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank (PTA Bank) based in Nairobi, Kenya, the PTA reinsurance company, Nairobi, Kenya, The COMESA clearing house, Harare, Zimbabwe, COMESA association of Commercial Banks, Harare, Zimbabwe, COMESA leather institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Achievements of COMESA
- It provides its members a wide, harmonized and more competitive market for internal and external trading.
- It provides member states with a rational way of exploiting natural resources for their welfare.
- COMESA has established harmonized monetary, banking and financial policies in the region.
- It has improved the administration of transport and communication to ease movement of goods, services and people.
- It has ensured cooperation in the promotion of peace, security and stability among member states in order to enhance economic development in the region.
- COMESA has strengthened relations between the Common Market and the rest of the world while ensuring that the members adopt a common position in international fora.
- Through the Authority of Heads of State and Government, COMESA directs and controls the affairs of the common market.
- Customs cooperation has been achieved through a unified computerized customs network that operates across the region. The harmonization of macro-economic and monetary policies throughout the region has been achieved.
- It has provided room for greater industrial productivity and competitiveness due to its large market.
- It has encouraged member states to practice good governance, accountability and respect for human rights. Burundi and Rwanda were subjected to these demands before they were admitted to COMESA.
- It has contributed to employment of many people in the region.
- COMESA has promoted increased agricultural production and exploitation of natural resources.
- The organization has ensured a more efficient and reliable transport and communication infrastructure.
Challenges that face COMESA in its operations
- Membership to other bodies. Members of COMESA are also members of EAC and SADC. This leads to divided loyalty.
- Personality differences. For example, presidents Museveni of Uganda and El Bashir of Sudan were involved in disagreements in 2004 over rebel activities.
- Boundary conflicts. This has been witnessed between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
- Civil wars. Wars have been witnessed in DRC, Uganda, Sudan, Rwanda and Burundi.Such inevitable wars undermine the operations of the common markets.
- Constant quarrels among member states over trading rights. For example Kenya and Egypt quarreled over duty-free cement dumped in Kenya by Egypt, on which Kenya wanted to charge duty.
- Poor transport between member states. This hampers movement of goods in the region.
- Pulling out of Tanzania and Namibia. The two founder members have opted for the South African Development Cooperation (SADC). This has undermined COMESA.
- Some members undermine their neighbours. For example Uganda and Rwanda have been accused of participating in the civil wars in the DRC.
Reasons why Africa has been unable to achieve full economic integration
- The problem of poor transport and communication has impeded flow of trade. This has affected all previous and existing economic groupings.
- There is uneven distribution of resources in Africa. Some countries are endowed with strategic natural resources like oil and fertile soils while others are impoverished with no resources. This hinders integration.
- All member states of economic co-operations suffer from budgetary deficit and balance of payment problems. They therefore lack adequate foreign exchange required for international trade.
- There is constant political interference by unenlightened leaders
- There has been rivalry among member states of trading co-operations.
- Africa has had a poor share from world trade as prices on world market are dictated by industrialized countries.
- The advent of multipartism after the end of the cold war and the subsequent introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes has crippled the performance of economic integration in Africa.
- Inability of member states to interfere in the internal affairs of other states even where there is need.
- Failure by member states to contribute fully to the organizations.
- The colonial legacy. Many member states still depend heavily on the West for manufactured goods, machinery, technology, donations and ideas.
Current members include: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, the United Republic of Tanzania, and the Republic of Uganda, with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania.
Origin of the East African Community
On 9th December 1961, the East African High Commission was replaced with the East African Common Services Organization with the headquarters in Nairobi.
The treaty to establish the East African Community was signed on 6th June 1967. The organization came into force on 1st December 1967.
Objectives of the East African Community
- To maintain a common markets for the member states and promote balanced economic cooperation.
- To provide common services to the three member states especially in the areas of transport and communication.
- To promote political co-operation between the three countries and hence peace and security.
- To facilitate the movement of the people within the region to foster greater cooperation and understanding among them.
- To expand the market in a region where population and incomes are low.
Challenges that faced the East African Community up to 1977
- Suspicion over perceived dominance among members. Tanzania and Uganda accused Kenya of acquiring the lion’s share of benefits from the community. Kenyan industries for example were protected more by the common external tariffs.
- Personality differences. This was between individual leaders of the three countries, making it more difficult for them to hold meetings.
- Ideological differences. Each of the three countries pursued different economies. Kenya followed capitalism and Tanzania socialism. Uganda had a mixed economy.
- Political instability in Uganda. The coup d’état, which overthrew Milton Obote, undermined the unity that was desired for the organization. Nyerere for example refused to recognize Amin as the president of Uganda.
- National pride and interests. National interests were given more priority than the regional interests were. E.g Tanzania favoured railway transport while Kenya favoured road transport.
- Boundary closures .Tanzania closed its common border with Kenya in 1977, thereby halting the community activities. There was also boundary closure between Tanzania and Uganda during the war between the two in 1978.
- Financial constraints resulting from failure by member states to remit funds to meet the organization’s needs.
- The use of different currencies by the three nations made transaction difficult.
The Rebirth of the East African Community-2001;
Reasons that led to the rebirth of the East African Community in 1996
- There was need to maintain a common market for the member states in order to promote balanced economic cooperation.
- There was increasing need to provide common services to the three Member states especially in the areas of transport and communication as well as research.
- There was a strong desire to promote political cooperation between the three countries in a world that was becoming a global village.
- There was need to facilitate free movement of people in the region.
- A greater lesson had been learnt following the great losses and costs incurred by the East African countries following the collapse of the Community in 1977.
Milestones in the Formation of the East African Community-2001
- The full East African cooperation was started on March 14, 1996, when the Secretariat of the Permanent Tripartite Commission was launched at the headquarters of EAC in Arusha, Tanzania. Ambassador Francis Muthaura was appointed the first secretary general.
- On 19th November 1996, the agreement for the establishment of the East African Business Council was signed in Nairobi.
- On 29th April 1997, the second summit of heads of state was held in Arusha. It launched the first East African Cooperation development strategy (1997-2000).
- On 30th April 1998, the ninth meeting of the Permanent Tripartite Commission in Arusha launched the treaty for the establishment of the East African Community.
- On 24th November 1998, the first East African Ministerial meeting on the Lake Victoria hyacinth was held in Arusha. A regional strategy was developed for control of the lake hyacinth.
- On 22nd January 1999, the third summit met in Arusha and directed the Permanent Tripartite Commission to complete the treaty –making process by 30th July 1999.
- The treaty establishing the East African Community-2001 was signed on 30th November 1999 in Arusha by the three heads of state.
The structure of the New East African Community
- The Summit of Heads of State. It had the responsibility of giving direction towards realization of the goals and objectives of the community. It was the community’s supreme organ, consisting of the three heads of state with the chair being rotational.
- The Council of Ministers. The main decision–making organ of the heads of governments of the member states. It comprised the designated ministers from member states.
- The Coordinating Committee. Made up of permanent secretaries. It reports to the council of ministers. It coordinates the activities of the sectoral committees.
- The Sectoral Committees. These are committees created by the council on recommendation of the respective coordinating committee.
- The East African Legislative Assembly. It provides a democratic forum for debate. It is also a watchdog of the activities of the community. It is a 30 -member assembly whose members are drawn from the member state.
- The Secretariat. Based in Arusha, it carried out the day-to-day administrative duties of the community.
- The Court of justice of East Africa. This was the highest appellate court in the region.
- The East African Development Bank (EADB).
- Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (LVFO)
- Inter-University Council for East Africa (IUCEA)
Challenges that have faced the EAC-2001
- Suspicion still exists over perceived dominance of Kenya in the community affairs.
- Despite signing the treaty in 1999, Tanzania customs are still taxing Kenyan products.
- Increased cross-border smuggling. The freedom of movement within the region sometimes results in smuggling of illegal arms and spread of crime and insecurity. E.g. the smuggling of a vehicle belonging to Kenya’s Chief of Staff, General Joseph Kibwana to Tanzania in 2004.
- Cattle rustling across the borders. This is common on the Kenya Uganda border with the Pokot and Karamojong attacking each other
- Arrest of Kenyan fishermen on Lake Victoria by either Tanzania or Ugandan policemen/navy accusing them of fishing in their waters.
- Membership to other regional bodies e.g. COMESA, SADDC. This complicates the work of the EAC.
- The recent wrangles between Kenya and Uganda over ownership of Migingo Island. Although this problem was resolved by Uganda conceding Kenya’s ownership of the Island, it raised tension between the two countries.
- The use of different currencies by the three nations has made transaction difficult.
- Political squabbles in the individual countries slow down the progress of the community
- Individual national interests have slowed down the implementation of the activities of the community the deep-seated differences between the member states over the proposed taxes on imports from countries outside the region.
Achievements of the East African Community-2001
- It has boosted movement of citizens within the three member states of East Africa. An East African passport has been introduced.
- It has provided a forum for the East African Leaders to discuss issues harmoniously.
- It has facilitated the improvement and expansion of transport and communication networks between the three East African countries.
- Tariffs for industrial goods produced in East Africa have been reduced.
- Investment procedures have been eased to enable all citizens to invest more easily within the community.
- It has enhanced cooperation of the civil society leading to formation of the Law Society of East Africa and the Business Council of East Africa.
- The community has promoted trade among member states by encouraging citizens to conduct trade in all the countries.
THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES:
Formation of ECOWAS
The treaty establishing ECOWAS was signed in Lagos, Nigeria on 28th may 1975 by Gambia, Mali, Cape Verde, Burkina Faso, Niger, Bénin, Togo, Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Senegal, Guinea–Bissau, Nigeria and Guinea.
Objectives of ECOWAS
- To provide economic co-operation among West African states in specialized fields such as transport, communication, agriculture, trade industry etc.
- To liberalize trade between member states.
- To improve relations between the member states.
- To improve living standards of people in the member states.
- To create a customs union in the region.
- To promote industrial development among member states.
- To promote cultural interaction among the member states.
Organization of ECOWAS
- The Authority of Heads of State and government. The authority meets once a year, with the chair being rotational.
- The Council of Ministers. It comprises the designated ministers from member states. It meets twice a year. It manages the affairs of the community.
- The Tribunal. Acting as the industrial court, it was established for settling disputes arising from the community.
- The Executive Secretariat. Based in Lagos, Nigeria, it carries out the day-to-day administrative duties of the community.
- Specialized commissions and Agencies. E.g the Committee on industry, natural resources and Agricultural Matters, the Committee on Trade, Customs and Immigrations Matters, the Committee on Transport and Communication, the Committee on Culture and Social Affairs
Achievements of ECOWAS
- The defence Act adopted by ECOWAS in 1981 provided military support to any Member state attacked by outsiders. Their defence force known as ECOMOG was instrumental in quelling civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
- Economically, Member states benefit from ECOWAS. For example, Nigeria provides her oil to member states at a reduced price.
- The community has enabled regular meeting of the Heads of State to tackle problems facing the region.
- Socio-cultural exchanges within the West African region have promoted good relations among the people.
- Improvement has been realized in transport, trade, agriculture and communication.
- The organization has resolved political problems facing member states.
- ECOWAS has enabled citizens of member states to move freely from one country to another through waiver of visa requirements.
- There has been progress in education through the establishment of a Joint examination Syllabus for West African States.
Challenges that ECOWAS has faced in its operation
- Political instability in member states. Countries like Nigeria and Ghana have witnessed Military coups. Civil wars have been fought in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ivory Coast. These have been a hindrance to cooperation.
- Nationalistic issues. Most member states give priority to their own domestic issues at the expense of the organization.
- Language barrier. Countries in West Africa inherited the languages of their former colonial masters. The problem in communication has hindered the efficient operation of the organization.
- Infrastructural problems. The state of roads, railway and communication linkages are poor. This has hampered economic progress of member states.
- Ideological differences. The leaders of the member states view each other with suspicion and mistrust due to differences in ideologies.
- Lack of uniform currency. Each country has its own currency. This creates a problem of rates of exchange thus hindering trade.
- Foreign interference. The presence of Israeli and French soldiers in Cote D’Ivoire was viewed suspiciously by guinea.
- Border closures. For example between Ghana and Togo and between Burkina Faso and Mali.
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY FORM 1 NOTES
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....