United States of America
Factors influencing the industrialization of USA.
The unification of Germany took place in 1871 after which she began to emerge as an industrial power. Emergence of Germany as an industrial power was aided as by the following factors.
Factors which enabled Germany to recover after world war two.
Japan is a nation that has achieved a great deal in industrialization. In the 18th c, Japan was faced with civil wars. Later she made contacts with the west, through which her leaders realized that industrialization could strengthen Japan as a nation. Great strides towards industrialization were made during the reign of Emperor Meiji from 1896.
Factors that enabled Japan to emerge as an industrial power.
Industrialization in the third world countries.
The term ‘Third world’ refers to developing nations of Africa, Asia and South America. Most of them are former colonies of European powers and there resources were used to develop the mother countries during the colonial period.
Reasons why many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization.
The fifth largest nation in the world after Russia, Canada, USA and China, she was colonized by Portugal and attained her independence in 1882. In the last 25 years, she has been able to expand and diversify production of manufactured goods. Her industrialization has been in four main sectors namely;
Factors that have facilitated industrialization in Brazil.
Obstacles to industrialization in Brazil.
She attained majority rule in 1994 after a long struggle against the apartheid regime. The country has achieved great strides in industrialization with many industries including iron and steel industries, engineering, locomotive, chemical, textile, cement, light industries and tourism
Factors influencing industrialization in South Africa.
Challenges facing industrialization in South Africa.
Since India’s independence from Britain in 1947, the country has continued to experience extensive industrialization
Factors that facilitated India’s industrialization.
Challenges facing industrialization in India.
Science is the systematic study of the nature and behaviour of the material and physical universe based on observation. The scientific revolution refers to the history of science in the early modern period, where sudden development in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
Causes of scientific revolution.
Scientific inventions have roots in the ancient civilization in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China and India. Early inventions were witnessed in the field of medicine, astronomy, agriculture, medicine and mathematics as follows;
Impact of scientific inventions
Impact of scientific inventions on agriculture
Food production has been increased thanks to the use of farm machinery, fertilizers, pest
and control methods and scientific breeding. Hybrid seeds have been developed together with new animal breeds.
Scientific inventions have stimulated scientific research in the field of agriculture. This is done in schools, agricultural institutes and colleges.
Farming of perishable foods has been made possible due to invention of preservation methods for foods like canning and refrigeration.
Increased food production has led to increase in population. There is increased food security. There is also increased trade.
Biotechnology has contributed to diversification of agriculture leading to greater crop and animal production.
Farming has been revolutionized from small-scale subsistence farming to large –scale economic activity due to mechanization on farm
Negative impacts of scientific inventions on agriculture
Impact of scientific inventions on industry.
Negative impact of scientific inventions on industry.
Impact of scientific inventions on medicine
Factors undermining scientific revolution in third world countries.
Measures that can be undertaken to promote scientific research in third world countries.
This change, which occurred between 1750 and 1830, happened because conditions were perfect in Britain for the Industrial Revolution. The transformation was facilitated by the following factors;
Industrialization in Continental Europe
The Industrial Revolution on Continental Europe came a little later than in Great Britain.
Reasons why other European countries delayed in the industrialization process.
Factors that led to industrial development in continental Europe
Effects of the industrial revolution in Europe.
The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, and then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, Northern America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world. The industrial revolution in Europe occurred in two phases; The old phase was from 175-1850 and began in Britain and spread to other European countries like France (1825), Germany (1840), Belgium (1870) and Russia (1890). In USA, it began after the American civil war of 1861 to 1865. In Japan it began in 1900. In Kenya, it is hoped to be done by 2030.
Characteristics of industrial revolution in Europe.
Uses of Various Sources of Energy.
This is a compact black or dark brown, carbonaceous rock which is a fuel and source of coke, coal gas and coal tar. Abraham Darby invented the process by which coal was turned into coke in 1709 thus discovered that coal produced immense heat. Coke was used to smelt iron.
Uses of coal.
Petroleum.(often referred to as oil)
Iron was not really a source of energy but the industrial revolution was dependant on the availability of iron
Uses of iron.
Stainless steel, commonly used in cutlery is an alloy of Steel and Chromium.
Uses of steel.
Industry is defined as the skill of making other products from raw materials. It involves extraction and processing into finished products of raw materials
Early Sources of Energy.
Energy is the ability to do work. The following are the early sources of energy that can be identified.
Wood was developed as a source of energy after the discovery of fire. It was used as follows;
Uses of metals in Africa
The age of metals in Africa is divided into the Bronze and Iron Age. Man moved from the Stone Age to the age of metals because metals had the following advantages;
This was the first metal to be used by humankind. It was used in Meroe, Egypt, Wangara in Ghana and in Central Africa. Gold is malleable and therefore it could be easily moulded into the desired shape without smelting it. Its softness however implied that tools made from gold could bend easily. It was also heavy and could not be found everywhere.
Uses of Gold.
Though quite soft, copper as harder than Gold and could make better tools. The Egyptians were the earliest people to use copper by 3000 BC. The metal could further be hardened by mixing it with other metals to form alloys during smelting.
Uses of copper.
Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin which makes it harder than copper. It was used during the Bronze Age. In Africa Bronze was used among the Yoruba, Dahomey and Asante in Nigeria and in Benin. And also in Egypt. Benin was the centre of Bronze.
Uses of Bronze.
Two theories that explain the origin and spread of iron working in Africa are;
Ways in which the iron culture spread in Africa.
Definition of Transport
a) Traditional means of transport
Also referred to as the ship of the desert. What makes a camel ideal in desert transport?
Advantages of animal transport.
KCSE History revision papers and answers; also Mocks
History and Government Exams of 21st Century with marking schemes
Importance of space exploration to man.
What is National Integration?
Integration means unification into a whole. - The act of combining or bring together various parts in a way that makes them one. National integration refers to the process by which various components of a nation are brought together into a whole leading to national unity
Importance of National Integration
Why is National Integration a priority in Kenya?
Warning: Vicious Pictures
In the absense of integration and lack of goodwill, this is what happens
How do proponents of violence look like?
Factors that promote national unity in Kenya
Factors that undermine national unity in Kenya
Impunity creates undisputed war mongers
Steps have been taken by the Kenyan government to promote national integration since independence
Levels of conflicts found in Kenya
The factors that cause conflict
Peaceful methods of conflict resolution
a) Diplomacy/negotiation. This is a dialogue between two warring parties in order to reach an agreement over a dispute. The following steps are followed in negotiation;
Steps followed in mediation;
e) Legislation – where the parliament passes laws to control conflict.
f) Workshops – this is where conflicting parties talk in the presence of facilitators and tries to work out a resolution to the problem.
g) Arms inspection – the government in order to build confidence and prevent misunderstanding between warring parties carries it out.
Negative methods of conflict resolution
a. Subjugation (use of war)
b. Avoiding responsibility and refusing to accept defeat
Under what circumstances violent method may be used in resolving conflict?
a. When law and order is broken and the alternative is the use of force
b. In case of serious social unrest
c. Striking students or workers, street mobs and bandits
What is citizenship?
This refers to the legal right of a person to belong to a particular country. A Kenyan citizen is a person who has the legal right to belong, live and do freely all that has to do with their life in Kenya.
Becoming a Kenyan Citizen
Ways in which Kenyan citizenship can be acquired.
The following are the Ways through which citizenship by birth is acquired in Kenya.
Conditions for qualification to apply for Citizenship by registration are as follows:
Revocation of citizenship
The revocation of citizenship by registration may happen under the following circumstances.
The concept of “Dual citizenship”.
A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country.
Rights and responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.
Human rights refers to the accepted principles of fairness and justice- or the universal moral rights that belong equally to all people in their capacity as human beings.
Components of human rights.
Every human right must fulfill these three fundamental conditions;
Human rights and fundamental freedoms are recognized and protected in the constitution because they preserve the dignity of individuals and communities, and promote social justice
The rights and freedoms protected in the Bill of Rights.
1. Right to life.
Limitations of the right to life
Every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment. It is our duty to ensure that the environment is protected for the benefit of present and future generations. The following are the obligations set by the government in order to achieve a clean and healthy environment.
14. Freedom of conscience, religion, belief and opinion.
16. Freedom of media.
23. Access to justice.
An arrested person has;
Every person has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved through a court hearing be resolved in such a manner that will accord him or her fair and public hearing. An accused person has the following rights;
26. Rights of persons detained, held in custody or imprisoned.
Fundamental rights that might not be limited;
Rights enjoyed by Children in Kenya
Rights enjoyed by Persons with disabilities in Kenya
Rights of the Youth in Kenya
Rights of Minorities and marginalized groups in Kenya
Rights of older members of society in Kenya
Circumstances, which may force the Kenya government to limit the freedoms and rights of an individual
Other responsibilities of a citizen
Values of good citizenship -
- Local trade refers to the exchange of goods among members of a community. Regional trade involves exchange of goods between a community and her neigbouring communities.
- Long distance trade was the exchange of trade goods between communities over long distance, for example between the east African interior and the east African coast.
The organization of long distance trade
- The communities that participated in the long distance trade were the Akamba, Swahili, Arabs, Yao, nyamwezi, Mijikenda and Baganda.
- The trade developed because of the demand for ivory in Europe and the United States of America, slaves for plantation agriculture at the coast and in Mauritius and reunion sugar plantations
- Ivory and slaves from the interior were exchanged for cloth. Utensils, ironware, zinc and beads at the coast.The system of trade were barter.
- The middlemen included the Mijikenda and the Akamba who obtained slaves and ivory from the interior. The Akamba adopted the long distance trade after the outbreak of famine in 1836 and due to the central location of their country.
- The Akamba organized caravans that left for the coast on weekly basis to sell ivory, gum copra, honey, bees wax, rhinoceros horns and skins. They had prosperous traders like chief Kivoi who is remembered for organizing the trade.
- They set up markets and routes in the interior.
- The source of slaves and ivory extended as far as Mt. Kenya region, Baringo and the shores of Lake Victoria.
- The trade led to the development of Mombasa and Lamu as important market points.
- The Waswahili and Mijikenda traders were also used in the trading caravans to the interior.
- By 1860s, Arabs and Swahili traders started penetrating to the interior of Kenya as far as Uganda.
- In Kenya, the main trading centres were taveta, Mbooni hills, elureko in Wanga and Miazini near Ngong and along Lake Baringo.
- By 1870, the Akamba dominance in the trade declined as a result of competition from the Arab and Waswahili traders who began penetrating into the interior to get goods from the source.
- Movement between the interior and the coast was carried out in caravans along well defined routes.
- The trade routes became insecure due to the Oromo and Maasai raids.
- The abolition of slave trade also affected the long distance trade.
- In Tanganyika, the Yao, nyamwezi, Arabs and Waswahili were great traders. The Yao exchanged tobacco, hoes, and animal skins at Kilwa with imported goods like cloth and beads. They were also the principal suppliers of ivory and slaves to Kilwa. The Yao were the most active long distance traders in east Africa.
- The Arabs and Waswahili traders organized caravans into the interior and set up markets and trade routes. They were given security by Seyyid said who signed treaties with Chief Fundikira of the Nyamwezi to allow the Arab traders to pass through his territory.
- They established interior Arab settlements at Tabora which became the centre of Arab culture.
- The nyamwezi organized trading expeditions under their chiefs upto the coast with ivory, copper, slaves, wax hoes, salt and copra. They returned with cloths, beads and mirrors. They established trade routes such as the route from Ujiji via Tabora to Bagamoyo. They travelled to Katanga in DRC for iron, salt and copper. By 1850 nyamwezi merchants such as Msiri, and leaders like Nyungu ya Mawe and Mirambo played a key role in the trade development.
- When the Arab and Waswahili traders arrived in Buganda, the kabaka welcomed them because he needed their goods such as beads, cloths, guns etc. He also wanted assistance in aiding his neighbours. E.g the invasion of Busoga in 1848 was assisted by the Arab traders. From the raids to Bunyoro, Toro, and ankole and Buvuma and Ukerewe islands, the Baganda acquired cattle, ivory, slaves and grains which the sold to the Arabs.
- The Khartoumers also practiced long distance trade. They raided the northern part of Uganda for ivory and slaves.
- Arab and Waswahili traders ventured into the Bunyoro kingdom by 1877 for ivory.
- There were three main trade routes that linked east African coast and the interior;
- a)From Mombasa through the Mijikenda area onto Taita-taveta then branching into two. One leading to Kilimanjaro onto the Lake Victoria region the diversion was to evade the hostile Maasai. . The other branch proceeded northwards from taveta across Galana River into Ukambani then to mt Kenya region and further west. Taveta became an important point on these routes.
- b) The route from Kilwa to Yao then branching southwards to Cewa in Zimbabwe.
- c) From Bagamoyo to Tabora where it branched northwards to Buganda and another branch to Ujiji then to Zaire.
Effects of the Long distance trade on the people of East Africa
- a) The trade led to Development of towns e.g. Mombasa, Lamu, Kilwa, Pemba and Zanzibar.
- b) It increased the volume of local and regional trade as varieties of new goods were introduced.
- c) There was the Emergence of a class of wealthy Africans along the coast and the interior as Arab, African and Waswahili merchants acquired a lot of wealth. E.g. Kivoi of Ukambani, Ngonyo of Mijikenda, Tippu tip, Msiri, Nyungu ya mawe of nyamwezi, Mwakikonga of the Digo etc.
- d) There was Introduction of foreign goods such as beads, cloth and plates to the peoples of East Africa.
- e) The trade led to Introduction of new crops to the coast e.g. bananas, rice sugarcane and mangoes.
- f) Arab and Waswahili traders introduced Islam to the East African Coast. They also introduced Islamic culture along the coast.
- g) Development of plantation agriculture in Malindi and Mombasa due increased slave trade.
- h) It led to the development of trade routes and market centres in the region. Such routes later became important highways during the colonial rule and upto today.
- i) Traders gave reports about the coast, its strategic and commercial stability leading to the colonization of East Africa.
- j) It led to the development of a money economy that replaced barter trade
- k) The trade facilitated the colonization of east Africa as the interior was exposed to the outside world.
Development and organization of international trade.
Factors that facilitated the development of international trade
- a) The existing earlier trade links between east Africa and the Far East before this period.
- b) The existence of regional trade which became a means through which goods such as ivory were acquired from the interior to be used in the international trade.
- c) The role played by Seyyid said through encouraging the foreign traders to come to the coast. He even signed treaties with them. He also gave letters of introduction to the Arab caravans leading into the interior.
- d) The improvement of the monetary system by Seyyid said facilitated the trade. He introduced the small copper coins from India to supplement the silver currency (Maria Theresa dollars and the Spanish Crown). He also employed the services of the Indian Banyans or Baluchis (Money Lenders) who organized credit facilities for the caravans going into the interior.
- e) There was a high demand for goods from the coast and the international community. Trade goods on demand were also readily available. E.g Gold ivory slaves cloths, beads, and guns.
- f) The existence of deep natural harbours and the attractive beaches lured many foreigners to the region.
- g) The existence of a class of wealthy merchants facilitated the trade.
- h) The establishment of specific trade routes and markets such as Zanzibar, Kilwa and Mombasa facilitated the movement and exchange of goods.
- i) The sultan’s identification of Britain as the sole trading agents in the interior overcame any rivalries which could have led to competition and decline of regional trade which would have in turn affected the international trade.
- j) The development of a sound trading policy by Seyyid said to ensure international market for his grains, coconuts and ivory. He developed trade links with Europe and America by signing treaties with USA in 1833 that opened a consulate in Zanzibar in 1837. He signed a similar treaty with Britain in 1839 that opened a consulate in Zanzibar in 1941. With France in 1844 and Germany in 1871.
- The arrival of IBEACo with William McKinnon further strengthened international trade links and increased the volume trade.
Consequences of international trade
- a) Through the trade, the east African coast was exposed to the outside world.
- b) Some of the European traders later spread their faith thus leading o the spread of Christianity in east Africa.
- c) The international trade fostered good relations between the east African coast and European nations and USA.
- d) The contacts between the coast and European powers later contributed to the colonization o east Africa by Britain and Germany.
- e) New trade goods and crops were introduced to the coast.
- f) Participants in the trade grew richer and exhibited high standards of living.
- g) The slave trade led to sufferings, killings and increased warfare.
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....