CAUSES OF THE SCRAMBLE FOR EAST AFRICA.
Factors that contributed to the scramble and partition of East Africa.
The process of Partition.
The Berlin conference failed to fully resolve the rivalry between the Germans and the British in East Africa. The activities of Karl Peters and Harry Johnstone for the Germans and the British respectively in the Mount Kilimanjaro region depicted intense rivalry which almost led to war. The two signed treaties with local chiefs as a way of legalizing their arbitrary declaration of their spheres of influence. Karl peters even declared german protectorate over Ungulu, Uzigua, Usagara and Ukami. These activities together with those of Sir William Mackinnon of the Imperial British East Africa Company became the immediate cause of the partition of east Africa.
The partition of East Africa was sealed through the following two treaties.
Terms of the Heligoland Treaty of 1890.
BRITISH OCCUPATION OF KENYA
Methods used by the British to occupy Kenya.
The Imperial British East Africa Company of Sir William Mackinnon was given the royal charter in 1888 and thus had the following new powers;
Achievements of the IBEAC.
Reasons why Britain used the IBEA Company to administer her possession.
Achievements of the IBEAC.
Why company rule had failed by 1895.
Factors facilitated the establishment of the British control over Kenya during the 19th century
KENYA PEOPLES’ RESPONSES BRITISH INVASION OF KENYA
The Nandi Resistance (1895-1906)
Reasons why the Nandi resisted British occupation of their land.
Course of the Nandi rebellion.
Why the Nandi offered the longest and strongest ever resistance to the British intrusion in Kenya.
Why the Nandi were defeated in the hands of the British.
Results of the Nandi resistance.
A Bantu speaking group inhabiting the coastal region, their reaction to the British invasion was motivated by the reaction of the Mazrui Arabs and the Swahili who rose up against the British in 1895. The Agiriama reaction began as an offer of support to the Mazrui Arabs, with whom they had long trading links, during their conflict with the British over succession to the Takaungu Sheikhdom. The Agiriama was also hitting back against the Busaidi Arabs who were encroaching on their territory. The British had supported the Al Busaidi collaborators throughout succession conflict. The British reacted by bombarding Rashid’s Headquarters at Mweli forcing the Agiriama and the Mazrui to resort to guerilla warfare. While the Mazrui Arabs later surrendered, the Agiriama now resorted to full scale résistance against the British encroachment in 1914.
Causes of the Agiriama resistance.
Course of the resistance.
The Agiriama resistance was inspired by a Giriama prophetess, Mekatilili wa Menza. She was joined by an Elder, Wanje wa Madorika in mobilizing people to a mass resistance against the British rule. The immediate course of their reaction was the forced military recruitment into the KAR. To provoke the British to war, they barred their young men from moving outside their villages to work. Mekatilili and Wanje called on the people to return to their ancestral shrine at Kaya Fungo and offer sacrifices and denounced all appointed puppet rulers in favour of the traditional council of elders. The two administered traditional oaths to unite and inspire the people to war. I.e. the Mukushekushe oath for women and the Fisi oat for men. When a state of emergency was declared by the British over the Agiriama, they resorted to Hit-and-run warfare. They attacked the homes of loyalists, Europeans and collaborators forcing the missionaries to seeker refuge at Rabai. The British countered the hit-and-run warfare with burning villages and crops and driving away livestock. The resistance only subsided when Mekatilili and Wanje were arrested and deported to Kisii. The Arabs, under Fadhili bin Omari, mediated between the Agiriama and the British, marking the end of the war under the following terms;
Role of Mekatilili in the Agiriama resistance.
Results of the Agiriama resistance to the British
Reasons why the Bukusu resisted the British rule.
Course of the resistance.
The Bukusu resistance began with the ambush of a trade caravan heading to Ravine through Bukusuland. The Bukusu stole all the rifles. When they were commanded to surrender all the guns in 1894 and declined, the British sent a punitive expedition which however was defeated. The British administrator at Elureko, Charles Hobley sought for reinforcement from Major William Grant of the Ugandan protectorate. In 1895, at the battles of Lumboka and Chetambe, the Bukusu were summarily defeated.
Methods used by the Bukusu to resist the British.
Effects of the Bukusu resistance.
The Somali resistance.
The Somali resistance was a reaction to the British declaration that Jubaland was a British protectorate. They were led by their leader Ahmad bin Murgan.
Causes of Somali resistance.
Course of the resistance.
The British initially reacted minimally to the Somali aggression on their Kisimayu neighbourhood in 1898 due to the following reasons;
Results of the Somali resistance.
In Kenya, the Maasai, Wanga and a section of the Agikuyu, Akamba, and Luo collaborated.
The Maasai collaboration.
In the 19th century, the Maasai community changed from a once feared community to one marred by succession disputes and natural calamities. The Disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo over succession of Mbatian after he died weakened the Maasai community to the level of merely collaborating with the British intruders. Sendeyo moved with his followers to northern Tanzania leaving behind Lenana’s group who chose the path of collaboration.
Reasons for the Maasai collaboration with the British.
The process of Maasai collaboration.
The attempt by Lenana to secure assistance against Sendeyo was the beginning of his collaboration with the British. The Kedong massacre incident (Maasai warriors attacked a caravan of Swahili and Agikuyu traders travelling from Ravine) and the resultant death of 100 Maasai at the hands of three white men (Andrew Dick and two French companions) made the Maasai the immediately seek for collaboration with the British. They cooperated with the British in establishment of colonial administration. The provided mercenaries in the British punitive expedition against the Nandi, Kipsigis and Kikuyu. Maasai were rewarded with cattle acquired from uncooperative peoples e.g. The Nandi and Agikuyu They exchanged gifts and used British manufactured goods. Lenana was made a paramount chief. Between 1904 and 1923, a fair proportion of the Maasai agreed to be moved from one grazing land to another to pave way for British settlement. They signed the first Maasai agreement in 1904 by which they moved into two reserves, one to the south of Ngong and the railway and the other up on the Laikipia plateau. A corridor of five kilometres was set aside in Kinangop for the Eunoto ceremony that accompanied circumcision. The second Maasai agreement of 1911 implied the Maasai abandon the Laikipia plateau to rejoin others in the enlarged southern reserve.
Results of the Maasai collaboration.
Nabongo Mumia, the Wanga leader from 1880, was an ambitious and shrewd leader who had the desire to expand his Kingdom through collaboration with British intruders and soliciting their military assistance.
Reasons for Wanga Collaboration.
Process of Wanga Collaboration.
Mumia’s contact with the outside world began when he befriended the Swahili and Arab caravan traders and later the IBEA Company merchants when they visited Wangaland. They built a fort and a trading station at Elureko, his capital, which was to remain the headquarters of the British administration in western Kenya until 1920.
Ways in which Nabongo of Wanga collaborate with the British.
Results of the Wanga collaboration with the British.
The communities that exhibited mixed reaction were the Akamba, Agikuyu and Luo.
The Akamba Reaction.
The arrival of the British traders threatened to destabilize the prominence enjoyed by the Akamba as middlemen during the long distance trade. The British even tried to stop the Akamba from organizing raids on their Oromo, Agikuyu and Maasai neighbours.
Why the Akamba decided to resist British administration?
Course of the Akamba resistance.
Why a section of the Akamba collaborated with the British.
Reasons for the Akamba defeat.
Consequences of the Akamba reaction.
The Agikuyu reaction.
The Agikuyu was also a highly segmented nature lacking in territorial unity. This explains why they had mixed reaction against the British.
Explain the causes of Agikuyu resistance.
Reasons why some Agikuyu collaborated.
Organization of the Agikuyu reaction.
When captain Lugard established a fort at Dagoretti in 1890, he began relating with Waiyaki wa Hinga who was in charge of the area. Wayaki’s people supplied Lugard’s men with food. However, when Wilson took over from Lugard who had left for Uganda, his soldiers began looting food and livestock from the Agikuyu.
The Agikuyu reacted by setting the Dagoretti fort on fire. Waiyaki was arrested by the forces sent by Sub-commissioner Ainsworth, and died enroute to Mombasa. It is alleged that he was buried alive at Kibwezi after provoking his captors. Kinyanjui wa Gathirimu, a collaborator, succeeded Waiyaki at Dagoretti. In 1899, Fort Dagoretti was closed down due to a series of raids. Francis Hall opened another Fort at Murang’a (renamed Fort Hall after his death in 1901) after the locals were subdued and forced to accept the British Colonial rule. British trader John Boyes forged an alliance with Karuri wa Gakure, the Agikuyu leader at Fort Hall, which enabled him to subdue the resisting Agikuyu groups. He also made contacts with Wang’ombe of Gaki (Nyeri) who together with Gakure supplied the British with mercenaries in exchange for confiscated loots from resisting groups. Meinertzhagen, who succeeded Francis Hall in 1902, subdued the Muruku and Tetu section (led by Chief Gakere) of the Agikuyu. Chief Gakere was murdered and his associates deported to the coast after they wiped out the entire Asian caravan on the slopes of the Aberdares. The Agikuyu of Iriani (Nyeri) were defeated in 1904 and their Aembu and Ameru allies sought for peace in 1906, having seen the effects of resisting. By 1910, British rule had been established in the entire Mount Kenya region. With the Agikuyu settling peacefully in the reserves upto 1920s when they began to agitate again.
Results of the Agikuyu mixed reaction.
The Luo reaction.
The resisters were the Luo of Sakwa, seme, Uyoma, Ugenya and Kisumu. The collaborators were the Luo of Gem and Asembo, led by Chief (Ruoth) Odera Akang’o.
Reasons for the resistance against the British by the Luo of Ugenya.
Course of the Luo resistance.
The Luo of Ugenya set off the resistance by attacking the Wanga in an attempt to expand. They vandalized British key installations like the telegraph wires and administrative stations. In 1896, the British sent an expedition against them and 200 people were killed. When the British attacked the Seme Luo for cattle and Grains, they were provoked into revolting. They attacked the Asembo Luo who had collaborated with the British. The British invaded them in 1898 with devastating effects in terms of property and life loss. The Luo of Kisumu rose up in 1898 attacking a British Canoe party on Winam Gulf for taking their fish without paying. They were however overcome. The Gem and Asembo Luos led by Ruoth Odera Akang’o supported the British throughout all these confrontations.
Results of the Luo reaction.
International Relations refers to the cooperation or interaction between individuals or groups of nations of the world
Benefits of international relations
Ways in which nations relate internationally.
There are two types of international organizations;
Role played by International Governmental Organizations.
THE UNITED NATIONS
The UN was founded after world war Two as an organization of independent states with the following objectives;
Formation of the United Nations
The signing of the Allied declaration in London on 12th June 1941 marked the first step in the formation of the UN. On 14th August 1941, Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA and Winston Churchill of Britain, meeting in USA, proposed a set of principles for international collaboration in maintaining peace and security. This was the Atlantic Charter. The charter pledged respect for human Freedom, Allowed all nations the freedom to choose the form of government they preferred and provided that no territory should change hands after war without consent of its people.
On 1st January 1942, representatives of Allied nations meeting in Washington signed the
‘Declaration by United Nations’ and proclaimed support for the Atlantic Charter This marked the first official use of the term ‘United Nations’ as suggested by President Roosevelt in reference to the 26 nations
The first Blueprint of the UN was prepared at a conference held at Dumbarton Oaks Estate, Washington from 21st September to 7th October 1944. Representatives of USSR, USA, UK and China agreed on the aims, structure and functions of a world organization. On 11th February 1945, the Yalta Conference held by US president Roosevelt, UK PM Churchill and Russian PM Stalin declared the resolve to establish an international organization to maintain peace and security.
On 25th April 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, USA attended by delegates from 50 nations. It drew a 111-Article Charter which was adopted on 25th June 1945.
The UN began its official functions on 24th October 1945 after ratification of the charter by USSR, USA, Britain, China and France.
Organization of the UNO
Membership to the UN is open to all peace-loving nations that accept the obligations of the charter. By 1945, only 51 states had signed the charter. Kenya Joined on 16th December 1963. By April 2003 membership had grown to 191 states.
To achieve its aims, the UN spelt out in its charter the following principles;
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
This is the main deliberative organ of the UNO, but which cannot enforce action on members. It comprises all member states.
Functions of the UN General Assembly
To help in its operation, the general assembly has the following committees;
The political and security committee, the special political committee, the economic and financial committee, the committee on social ,humanitarian and cultural issues, the trusteeship committee , the administration/budget committee and the legal affairs committee.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
It has 15 members from 15 countries. Ten of these are non-permanent. It also has five permanent members namely china, France, USA, Russia and UK.
Its main function is to maintain world peace and security.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Its membership is 54. 18 are elected each year for a term of three years.
Its function is to coordinate the economic and social work of UN and its specialized agencies. E.g. in trade, status of women, Population, science and technology
It inherited the work of the Mandates Commission of the former League of Nations. It had responsibility over the territories under colonial rule-. - To promote social, economic, political and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories.
Consists of five permanent members and six additional ones appointed by the General Assembly
The head of the secretariat is the secretary general. It has its headquarters in New York. Its staff members come from 139 countries. Its work covers all areas outlined in the UN Charter.
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
It has its headquarters at Hague. It is the principal judicial body of the UN. It gives advisory opinions on legal questions. It has 15 judges.
These are separate specialized agencies which are autonomous organizations related to the UN by special agreements. (REF TO PAGE 49 OF EVOLVING WORLD)
Past Secretary Generals of the United Nations Organization since its inception
Achievements of the United Nations Organization
Problems facing the United Nations Organization in its operation
Pre-historic sites in Kenya
Stages trough which man evolved
- Dryopithecus africanas (proconsul)
- Kenyapithecus (ramapithecus)
- Homo habilis
- Homo erectus
- Homo sapiens
- Homo sapiens sapiens
- He was an ape like skull found in the faiyum depression in Egypt
- He means an Egyptian shape
- The teeth was closer to that of a herbivore
- He was small about 4 kgs
- He lived in the forest and looked like a monkey
- Had stereoscopic vision (sharp)
- He had enclosed eye sockets
- He had 32 teeth
- Had a tail
- Walked on four limbs
- Used his hand to swing from one tree to the other
Drypithecus africunus (proconsul)
- The skull was found at Rusinga Island in Lake Victoria
- He lived in the east African forests
- He lived between 20-25 million years ago
- He moved on all four limbs
- He was small in size and looked like a chimpanzee
- He had long teeth
- He had a smooth forehead
Ramapithecus / kenyapithecus / woodland ape
- The skull was discovered at fort tenan near kericho by Louis Leakey in 1961
- He lived between 12-14 million years ago
- He lived in open savannah
- He had 32 teeth and he had smaller canines than earlier apes
- He had a brain size of 400cc
- He had massive jaws
- He weighed between 18-36 kgs
- He occasionally walked one two legs
Australopithecus / zinjanthropus / southern ape
- He lived between 1-7 million years ago
- The skull was first discovered at taung in Botswana in 1924
- Dr Louis and Mary Leakey discovered similar fossils at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and Lake Turkana in 1959
- Similar fossils were found in omo valley and hadar in Ethiopia
Types of austropithecus
- This is the latest fossil found at kanapoi and allia bay of Lake Turkana by dr meave Leakey
- Lived between 4-3 million ago It was found at afarensis afar depression (hence it name)
- It was found at koobi fora and taungi makapansgat bterkfontaini in South Africa
- Found in South Africa
- East Africa at olduvai gorge in Tanzania and was called the bosei.
- Also called zinjantropus
- Walked on two legs
- He was hairy, short and strong
- He has a low forehead and deep-set eyes
- His brain capacity was 450-550cc
- They had sharp vision
- They had massive jaws with large molars and smaller canines
- They did not make tools
- Homo means man habilis means ability. It means man with ability
- He was the first species of man
- His remains were discovered by Jonathan Leakey at Olduvai Gorge in 1964
- He developed elementary speech
- His brain capacity was between 500-800cc
- He was a tool maker (oldowan)
- He developed the thumb
- He was about 1.8 m in height
- His skull was shaped like modern man
- His teeth were in the same position on the jaws as ours
- The word means upright man
- His remain were found at afar triangle, hadar valley in Ethiopia and Lake Victoria region
- They walked in an upright posture
- They had a more advanced speech than his predecessors
- He was 5 feet tall
- He had a brain capacity of between 775-1250cc
- They were the first people to use fire
- They were omnivorous
- He made more advanced tools (Acheulian)
- It means thinking man or intelligent man
- His remains were found near Lake Turkana, kanjera, omo valley and Lake Victoria
Types of Homo sapiens
- Was discovered in modern Zambia hence the name Rhodesian man
- Was found in the neander valley in German in 1856
- He was heavily built, with a thick skull, broad shoulders and eyebrows like an ape
- He was a nomad gathering and hunting deer, wild pigs and wild sheep
- Other remains were found in Asia and other parts of Europe e.g. France, Belgium, gilbraitar, Italy and former Yugoslavia
- He cooked with fire and made improved tools
- He was hunter-gatherer, painter and lived in caves
- He was about six feet tall
- He had long straight legs for swift movement
- He had small teeth with a steep was round four head
- He was a fisherman
- He was a religious
- He made tools that were refined (microliths)
- Modern man
- He lived from 10000 years ago
- He is curious. Intelligent and plans ahead
- He made boats
- He developed agriculture
- He has a brain capacity of about 1400
- He lived in settlements
- He has invented which have made life more
The culture of early man and economic practices
This periods includes:
- Old Stone Age
- Middle Stone Age
- New Stone Age
Old Stone Age/ early / lower Paleolithic tools and weapons
- Stone Age refers to a period in time when man widely used stone as materials to make tools, weapons and artifacts
- These tools are found at Olduvai Gorge, koobi fora, omo valley in Uganda and kariandusi in Kenya
- The tools are associated with Homo habilis and austalopithecus. They are referred to as oldwan or peeble tools
- They represent the first phase of Old Stone Age
- Other tools were at acheul valley in France and are known as Acheulian tools
- Fist hatchet
- Hand axes
- Spear heads
- Arrow heads
- Cutting meat and vegetables
- Grinding tough vegetables
- Skinning animals
- Digging roots
- Scrapping skins
- Defense and hunting
- They sheltered in stone caves during the day and at night they slept on trees to avoid animal attacks
- They ate raw meat, fruits, vegetables, eggs, insects and roots
- The climate is coldest than it is now
- Man had hairy body and didn’t wear clothes
- They lived in small groups of about 20-30 people. They had small families
- Man used gestures growling and whistling to communicate
- There was division of labour as women were involved in gathering and men hunted animals
- Chasing and throwing stone and spears at the animals
- Digging large on the paths through which animals went to drink water and covering the pit with delicate stones and grass
- Chasing animals over steep cliffs and forcing them to fall over and break their limbs
- Driving the animals in the swampy areas where they stuck
- Waiting for animals near watering points
- Man killed animals that were injured by others
Middle Stone Age period / middle paleolithic
- The period is associated with Homo erectus who continued to use smaller, thinner, lighter and sharper tools known as Acheulian
- He used wood together with stone and this reduced the weight and size of tools
- Some of these tools were named sango bay of Lake Victoria and were named sangoan
- It become warmer leading to heavier rainfall
- They ate meat. He also ate vegetables, fruits, insects, eggs and fish
- He cooked his food
- Man started wearing animal skin, necklaces and he his body with red ochre and oil
- He made waist belts using skins
- Man started living in cares and rock even at night
- The entrance of the cave was covered to keep out wind and rain
- At night they kept fire burning at the entrance of the care to scare away wilds
- They lived in groups of 50 people had a leader
- They helped each other in times of hardship
- They moved in groups for security reasons
- They developed a language of communication which strengthened their social bonds
- They used clicks and grants
- Man painting pictures of the animals he with arrow piercing them would their hunting expectations great rules
- Cave painting also shows a keen observation of life
- They painted to decorate their caves
- Cave painting helped to develop mans writing skills
- Man preserved his cultural heritage through painting
Invention of fire
- Man learnt to make and use fire
- Warming himself during the cold nights
- The flames of fire gave him light
- Fire provided man with protection by keeping away dangerous animals at night
- He used fire to cook and soften his food
- Fire was used to harden the tips of his tools
- He used fire to hunt by scaring wild animals towards muddy or swampy areas at night
- He used fire to preserve his food e.g. meat and fish by drying it
- Fire was used as means of communication
- Fire made it possible for man to move out of the warm savannah to other cold parts of the world
New Stone Age – upper PALEOLITHIC
- They are associated with Homo sapiens
- The types of tools were known as microliths. They were very small.
- The tools were found in qadan site in the Nile valley and gamble caves in Kenya
- Fishing harpoons
- Saw blades
- Arrow heads
- Bone needles
- Bows and arrows
- He lived in rock shelters
- He built hut using sticks, mud, grass and trees branches
- People lived in groups of up to 1000 members
- Man developed speech or spoken language
- Man wore clothes made from animal skins, fibres and barks of trees
- He decorated his body using red ochre and beads
- Man continued painting animal and hunting scenes and other designs
- Man learnt to make rough baskets and pots
- Man started performing rites and ceremonies to influence natural forces e.g. rain drought and death
- He started burying the dead with some of their tools and possessions showing man believed in life after death
- Man developed a way of maintaining law and order where he lived and this was the beginning of government
- Man started growing crops and keeping animals
- With development of agriculture there was surplus food which man exchanged with what he lacked leading to development of trade
HISTORY & GOVERNMENT TOPICS
- The meaning of History
- The meaning of Government
- Sources of information on History and Government
- Importance of studying History and Government
- Origin of man
- Evolution of man
- Cultural and economic practices of Early Man.
- Development of early agriculture
- Early agriculture in:
- a) Egypt
- b) Mesopotamia
- The Agrarian Revolution in:
- a) Britain
- b) U.S.A
- The food situation in Africa and the rest of the Third World
- Remedies of food shortages
- Origin, migration and settlement of the people of Kenya
- a) Bantu
- i. Western Bantu
- ii. Eastern Bantu
- b) Nilotes
- i. River-Lake Nilotes
- ii. Plains Nilotes
- iii. Highland Nilotes
- c) Cushites
- i. Eastern Cushites
- ii. Southern Cushites
- a) Bantu
- Results of the migration and settlement of the people of Kenya.
- a) Agikuyu
- b) Ameru
- c) Akamba
- d) Abagusii
- e) Mijikenda
- a) Luo
- b) Nandi
- c) Maasai
- a) Borana
- Early visitors to the East African Coast up to 1500.
- Trade between the East African Coast and the outside World.
- a) Development of the trade
- b) Organization of the trade
- c) Impact of the trade on the peoples of East Africa
- The corning of the Portuguese
- a) Reasons for their coming to East Africa
- b) Their conquest and rule
- c) The decline of Portuguese power
- d) Impact of Portuguese rule
- Establishment and impact of Omani rule:
- a) Seyyid Said and the development of plantation agriculture
- b) Development, organisation and consequences of:
- i) Long distance trade
- ii) International trade
- The spread of Christianity:
- a) Reasons for the coming of Christian missionaries
- b) Missionary activities and challenges
- c) Effects of missionary activities
- Kenyan citizenship
- Rights of a citizen
- Responsibilities of a citizen
- Elements of good citizenship
- National Integration
- National Unity
- Factors promoting national unity
- Factors limiting national unity
- Conflict Resolution
- Meaning of the term ‘conflict’
- Methods of resolving conflicts
- Process of resolving conflicts
MEANING OF HISTORY
- It is the study of all human experiences and record of events in relation to the environment.
- Is a branch of knowledge which deals with the past events of human beings and their response to their environment over the years.
- Is a science concerned with past human actions.
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the meaning of the term ‘History’
b) explain the meaning of the term ‘Government’
c) identify the sources of information on History and Government
d) explain the importance of studying History and Government
- The meaning of History
- The meaning of Government
- Sources of information on History and Government
- Importance of studying History and Government
Two periods of history
Branches of history
- It is the study of government and leaders. It analyses of political thinkers and their styles of leadership
- It is the study of the way of earning a living. It deals with economic activities in a different environment e.g. agriculture, industry, trade, transport and communication, hunting and gathering etc
- It is the study of the way of the people lived together, their way of building, dressing, eating, religion, medicine and education
Meaning of government
- It is the method of ruling or exercising power or authority over a country or a state or a city and its people.
- It can also mean the management of nation, country or state (i.e. those people who oversee the running of the nation, country or state)
Types of governments
- It requires the rulers to regularly seek public mandate through popular vote. The elected officials represent the wishes of the people.
- It is a form of government in which a group from the highest social class in the society rules over the others.
- Power is passed from parent to children. King or queen is the head of state
- It’s system of government where the ruler has the total power over the subjects
- It is a state of lawlessness or absence of government. People do whatever they want
Characteristics of government
- These are rules that govern members to ensure that life run smoothly for the benefit of all
- This led us to the supreme authority of the government to exercise power within its boundaries
- A government should be acceptable to the people over whom it power
- This is the geographical area within which the government exercises power and enforces law and rules
- The government is able to take action against those who broke the law
Importance of studying history
- We learn about the economic, social and political organization of different people.
- Help us to appreciate the value of others and their contribution to civilization.
- Enables people to appreciate and understanding their past way of life.
- History trains us to develop the capacity for critical analysis of historical data.
- It creates a sense of patriotism and national pride is developed.
- It also fosters empathy –the ability to understand how people think and feel and their positions and roles in society
- Is also a way of preparing the community or society for life.
- Provides intellectual fulfillment and interest in further learning
- It is also an integral study that accounts and records social and physical happenings in the time and space for the confirmation of man
- Can also lead the learner to respected professionals such as law, business management, teaching, administration etc
Importance of studying government
- It enables us to understand how laws are made and implemented.
- It helps us to understand the structures of government and reasons why we need a government.
- Help us to understand our rights and responsibilities as citizens.
- Help us to understand duties of our leaders in government.
- It enables us to compare our government of the world.
- It helps the learner to appreciate the constitution and constitution making process.
- By studying the system of the government of other countries, political leaders can choose the best system principles.
- One understands how the three arms of government operate.
Sources of information on history and government
- Unwritten sources
- Written sources
- Electronic sources
1. Unwritten sources
- Oral traditions
a. Oral traditions
Forms of oral traditions:
- Fork tales
- It is important in the study of pre-history.
- They integrate the study of history with other social studies.
- It is cheap as it doesn’t require experts or special equipment.
- It complements other sources of history
- The stories may be exaggerated. It’s hard to tell what is real and what is imagined.
- Some information may be forgotten or omitted since human memory is not precise.
- The stories may be changed for various reasons.
- It does not provide dates or sequence of events.
- It is expensive as one has to pay for transport, lunch and accommodation of informant.
- It is time consuming interviewing people, takes a lot of time.
- Gave information about the movement of people and their relationships
- Help us to understand communities, better as people with common language may have common origin.
- Helps those using oral tradition to gather information from various sources.
- Has enabled historical linguistics to discover links between different people which were previously unknown.
- It is useful in dating of the migration of people.
- It may take a longer period to learn a particular language and therefore delay the acquisition of information
- When translating the language the historians may omit some words.
- Different languages may have similar words with different meanings.
- There has also been borrowing of words from other languages and this has interfered with or corrupted the parent language
- A linguist may find some of the words from different groups difficult to understand.
- Some languages have become archaic or extinct and are therefore difficult to translate.
Concerns itself with present day social organizations in relation to customs, cultural values, institutions, forms of government, and systems of marriage, inheritance descent and religious practices.
It gives deeper understanding of a particular of a peopled culture.
- It can help to reveal similarities in the institution of different communities and possible interactions.
- It complements other sources of information in gathering historical data.
- It gives a deeper understanding of a particular aspect of people’s culture.
- It can identify a particular community with a certain material culture e.g. name
- Information is easily obtained from the surrounding.
- It is expensive as it involves a lot of travelling
- It is time consuming living for long in the community under study
- Anthropologists risks losing their culture and adopting a foreign culture
- The anthropologist may it difficult to adapt fully to the new community.
- Stone tools
- metal objects
- Wooden implements
- Remains of plants and animals
- Carbonized seeds
- Remains of charcoals
- The beads
Methods used to locate an archaeological site
- Radio carbon 14 dating
- Potassium argon dating
- Geological dating
It is a measure of the amount of carbon remaining in a fossil or artifact.
It is a measure of potassium remaining in a fossil or artifact due to volcanic eruption.
It studies the layers of successive deposits of rocks
Fission track dating
Studies the age of artifact from the amount of uranium remaining in the track of rock
The age of objects is determined through association of events with names
Advantages of archaeology
- Gives detailed information on material culture.
- It complements other sources of information.
- It gives a sense of time as artifacts can be dated.
- It is useful in providing information about man in the pre-historical times
- It makes history real through seeing and touching objects
- It earns the country money as people come to view remains and historical sites.
- It’s expensive to hire laborers to excavate and analyze the artifacts
- It’s sometimes difficult to locate a site
- Its time consuming to excavate and analyze the data
- Some remains are fragile and can disintegrate during excavation
- The information may not be accurate as it is based conclusions and reconstruction
- The dates may not be accurate as they exact as they are only estimates
- It’s difficult to differentiate between the bones of an animals and human beings
- Climate may affect the remains and some may decay
- There are very few archaeological experts and facilities for interpreting archaeological remains in Kenya.
- It’s hard to identify exactly who the people were and the language they spoke.
- Where there is large-scale excavation it may environmental destruction.
- arrival reports
- Are more accurate than oral sources
- Methods of analysis used with written records are cheaper as is the case with oral information.
- Can be easily translated to many convectional languages
- Information may be stored for future reference.
- They are reliable as they can be easily changed
- It relies on oral traditions and archaeology to construct history to construct history for the period when writing had not delivered.
- Authors may omit essential information for one reason or another rendering if unreliable.
- It may be understood or misinterpreted by leaders either to disc red it the authors or suits one’s seed
- They are only limited to literate
- Authors write from their particular point of view and may be biased
- The cost of newspapers and books are high
- Reading written records is time consuming
- Written information may become obsolete because life is dynamic and many changes occur over the years
- Some written sources are inaccessible as government and other organization restrict it access.
e. Written sources
Refers to the scientific study of passing on of characteristics from parent to offspring
- Information is accurate as real materials and remains are analyzed.
- Information can be obtained for millions of years ago
- Enables historians to trace the origin of domestication and spread of crops and animals
- Compliments other sources of history
- It is expensive as it involves laboratory analysis of specimens
- It is time consuming to obtain results
- It can only be used by experts
2. Printed sources
3. Electronic sources
- data banks and data bases
- They capture information as it happened.
- Films and videos give better understanding of some aspects of social history of a given people.
- They make past come alive today.
- Documentaries give facts about events
- Electronic data bases which are stored in a computer facilitate easy and fast retrieval of information
- Most records contains foreign materials which carries the bias
- They may be in accurate
- Electronic gadgets are expensive
- Some films are unrealistic and therefore contain exaggerated information
- Some are addictive and may make those are watching passive and lazy
LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN KENYA
- describe types of local authorities in Kenya
- discuss the functions of local authorities
- analyse the relationship between local authorities and the Central Government
- discuss the challenges facing local authorities in Kenya.
- Types of local authorities
- Functions of local authorities
- Relationship between local authorities and the central government
- Challenges facing local authorities
Social, Economic and Political Developments and Challenges in Africa since Independence - K.C.S.E HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT NOTES
- Analyse the political, social and economic challenges in Africa since independence.
- Political challenges that have faced African countries since independence
- Economic challenges facing independent African states today
- Social challenges that have faced African states since independence
Social, Economic and Political Developments and Challenges in Tanzania since Independence - kcse history notes
- discuss the political, social and economic developments in Tanzania since independence
- Political Developments in Tanzania since Independence
- Social Developments in Tanzania since Independence.
- Economic Developments in Tanzania since Independence
- Political Challenges That Tanzania Has Faced Since Independence.
- Social Problems, Which Tanzania Faced Since Independence
SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (DRC) SINCE INDEPENDENCE - KCSE HISTORY NOTES
- Discuss the political, social and economic developments in The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since independence
- Political Developments in Democratic Republic Of Congo since Independence
- Economic Developments in DRC since Independence
- Social Developments and Challenges in DRC since Independence.
- Political Challenges That the Democratic Republic Of Congo Has Faced Since Independence.
- Economic Challenges That Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C) Faced In 1970’s.
- Discuss the political developments in Kenya since independence
- Discuss the social and economic developments in Kenya since independence
- Analyse the political, social and economic challenges in Kenya since Independence.
- Functions of the National Land Commission.
- Development in Agriculture since Independence
- Challenges Facing Kenya’s Agricultural Sector.
- Industrial Developments in Kenya since Independence
- Factors That Facilitated Industrial Development in Kenya since the Colonial Era
- Measures Taken By the Kenyan Government to Promote Industrial Development since Independence
- Factors That Have Hindered Industrial Development in Kenya
- Social Development and Challenges since Independence.
- Education Commissions.
- Main Developments in Education in Kenya since Independence
- Measures Taken To Improve the Health Sector in Postcolonial Kenya
- Major Challenges Facing The Health Sector In Kenya.
- Ways through Which the Government Has Encouraged the Preservation of African Culture since Independence.
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....