POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS AND MOVEMENTS AFTER 1945.
Factors that hastened political development in Kenya after 1945.
When Eliud Mathu was nominated to the Legco on 10th October 1944, a number of well educated Africans led by Francis Khamisi agreed to form Kenya African Union (KAU) with the following objectives;
Two weeks after its formation, the governor ordered its officials to change its name to the Kenya African Study Union as it was meant to help Mathu in studying African problems.
In January 1945, James Gichuru became the president of KASU after Harry Thuku resigned, being unable to cope with radicalism in the union.
Under Gichuru, KASU published a newspaper - Sauti ya Mwafrika that concentrated on African grievances and the proposed East African Federation which they opposed.
The organization rejected proposals to give more powers to European members in the Executive council. They refused to accept a European dominated government of the East African Federation.
Later in 1946 on KASU changed its name to KAU feeling that the former name was inappropriate.
Kenya African Union
Formed in February 1946, the main demands of KAU were;
Kenyatta travelled widely in Kenya where he urged people to join KAU. After 1947 KAU began to face the problem of a standoff between Radicals like Fred Kubai and Paul Ngei who wanted to use force to acquire independence, and moderates like Kenyatta himself. Radicals who included Bildad Kaggia took over the Nairobi branch of KAU. When the national delegates’ conference was held in 1951, Jomo Kenyatta retained presidency, J.D. Otiende became secretary General, PAUL Ngei –assistant SG and Ole Nangurai –Treasurer.
Between 1948 and 1950, KAU faced serious financial problems even failing to pay rent for its offices at the IBEA building.
Other problems that faced KAU
In 1952, KAU rallies were banned outside Nairobi after a political meeting in Nyeri, attended by the leader of Mau Mau, Dedan Kimathi, which attracted over 25,000 people thus startling the government.
When a state of emergency was declared in 1952, KAU leaders were arrested for being behind Mau Mau. Walter Odede became the acting president, Joseph Murumbi acting secretary and W.W.W.Awori-acting treasurer.
The acting official presented a 24-point memoranda to Oliver Lyttelton , secretary of state for colonies when he came to kenya during the emergency period, demanding the release of the Kapenguria six (Jomo Kenyatta, Paul Ngei, Kung’u Karumba, Bildad Kaggia, Achieng’ Oneko and Fred Kubai)
Walter Odede, the acting president was late arrested on 9th march 1953 while Murumbi escaped to Bombay, India as KAU was banned on 8th June 1953.
Achievements if KAU.
THE MAU-MAU REBELLION 1951 - 60
Mau-Mau is an abbreviation which stands for “Mzungu Arudi Ulaya, Mwafirika Apate Uhuru” (meaning let the white man go back to Europe and the Africans regain Independence).
Sometimes the movement was referred to as the ‘Land and Freedom Army’ and the Anake-a-Forty.
Sometime in the late 1940s the General Council of the banned Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) began to make preparations for a campaign of civil disobedience involving all of the Kikuyu in order to protest the land issue. The members of this initiative were bound together through oath. The rituals obliged the oath taker to fight and defend themselves from Europeans.
In These oath rituals, There were rumors about cannibalism, ritual zoophilia with goats, sexual orgies, ritual places decorated with intestines and goat eyes, and that oaths included promises to kill, dismember and burn settlers.
The oaths were a cultural symbol of the solidarity that bound Kikuyu men, women and children in loyalty together in their opposition to the colonial government. It also instilled courage and unity among people,
Nonetheless, the British were scared by the oath, made taking the Mau Mau oath a capital offence. The British also screened Mau Mau suspects and forced them to take a 'cleansing oath', a strange instance of colonialism 'gone native'.
CAUSES OF THE MAU-MAU REBELLION
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Problems caused by presence of women in forests during mau mau wars.
CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES LEADING TO INDEPENDENCE.
The Lyttelton Constitution.
- A multi- racial Council of Ministers to replace the executive council, which would include one African (B.A. Ohanga, minister for community development and African affairs), two Asians and three Europeans. For the first time, Africans were represented with members with executive powers.
- Lifting the ban on African political Associations. This was done in 1955 though only Africans were allowed to form local (district –based) political organizations. Tom Mboya formed the Nairobi People’s convention Party while D. Mwanyumba formed the Taita African Democratic Union. John Kebaso formed the Abagusii Association, Argwings Kodhek formed the Kenya National Congress and John Keen the Maasai Front.
- Africans were able to take part in elections of 1957. /it proposed multi-racial elections. However, other than race-pegged rules for participation in the 1956/57 elections, Voting qualification for Africans were based on income, property and education
- Proposed direct representation of Africans in the LEGCO. In march 1957, the African elections to the Legco were held and Tom Mboya(Nairobi), Masinde Muliro( Northern Nyanza), Oginga Odinga(Central Nyanza), Lawrence Ogunda(south Nyanza), Ronald Ngala( Coast ), Daniel Arap Moi( Rift Valley), James Miumi(Ukambani) and Bernard Mate (central) were elected.
Demands of AEMO after formation.
- They contested the fewer African positions in the LegCo by condemning the Lyttelton constitution. While elected members were 29, nominated members were 30, majority of who were Europeans.
- They protested the rigid voter qualification requirements imposed on Africans and demanded that every African of 21 years and above be allowed to vote, regardless of education or income.
- They demanded that registration of voters be done on a common roll.
- They called for the end of a State of Emergency.
Role played by AEMO in the struggle for independence up to 1963.
- They formed pressure groups to demand for greater political rights for Africans. e.g., formation of AEMO.
- They formed the core team, which pressurized for independence.
- They made known the grievances of Africans in International Fora.
- They networked with other African nationalists elsewhere e.g. in Ghana and Nigeria to hasten achievement of independence in Kenya.
- They fought for the release of detained nationalists e.g. Kenyatta.
- They formed he national political parties e.g. KANU and KADU, which led the country to independence.
- They educated and created awareness among the masses about the nationalists struggle.
- They took part in the formulation of the independence constitution.
The Lennox-Boyd Constitution.
- An increase by six LegCo Seats for Africans to bring their total representation to 14 seats.
- A special membership in the LegCo, with four members from each race, who were to elected by other members of the LegCo.
- An increase of the number of African ministers to two.
Acted of Betrayal became evident among Africans when Musa Amalemba and Wanyutu Waweru accepted the special seats appointment and even Amalemba went ahead to appointed the second African Minister for Housing in 1958.
Other developments in 1959 included;
- The White moderates led by Michael Blundell (who resigned as minister of agriculture) formed the New Party of Kenya (NPK). He was backed by 46 non-African members of the LegCo for his ideas of multi-racialism.
- The white extremists led by Captain Briggs formed the United Party (UP) demanding for the abolishing of the LegCo and replacing it with regional assemblies. This was aimed at preserving the white highlands as one regional assembly for European benefits.
- Increased divisions on AEMO between radicals and moderates .Ngala, Moi, Mate, Towett and Nyagah resigned from AEMO to form the Kenya National Party (KNP) advocating multi-racialism. This party was interestingly joined by all Arab and Asian members.
- The radicals led by Mboya, Odinga and Gikonyo Kiano formed the Kenya Independent Movement (KIM) that was exclusively for African membership. They demanded convening of a full constitutional conference to discuss Kenya’s future and release of Jomo Kenyatta.
The Lancaster House Conferences.
The First Lancaster House Conference (1960)
The conference came up with the following compromise decisions;
- The 12 elective seats In the LegCo would remain intact.
- There were to 33 open seats in the LegCo, which were to be vied for on a common roll.
- Another 20 seats would be reserved – 10 of these for Europeans, 8 for Asians and 2 for Arabs.
- The composition of the Council of Ministers was to be altered to incorporate 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and 1 Asian.
- The conference authorized the formation of countrywide political parties for Africans. KANU and KANU were formed.
- Ronald Ngala- Minister for Labour, Social Security and Adult Education.
- Julius Gikonyo Kiano- Minister for Commerce and Industry.
- Musa Amalemba- Minister for Housing, Common Services, Probation and Approved Schools.
- James Nzaui Miumi- Minister for Health and Welfare.
- The Kalenjin Political Alliance of Taita Towett.
- The Coast African Political Union of Ronald Ngala.
- The Kenya African People’s Party of Masinde Muliro.
When Kenyatta came on 21st August 1961, Kariuki Njiiri offered his Murang’a seat to Kenyatta to enable him join LegCo.
The second Lancaster conference (1962)
KANU delegation was led by Jomo Kenyatta while Ngala led the KADU group. KANU conceded many KADU grounds to enable success of the negotiations.
Main provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya.
- The independence constitution provided for a regional/majimbo government with each region having a regional assembly and president
- It also provided for a bicameral parliament consisting of the senate and the house of representatives/upper house and lower house.
- The constitution stipulated that the Prime Minister was to be head of Government and Queen the Head of State, represented by the Governor General.
- The constitution recommended a multiparty system of government and the party with the majority of seats forming the government.
- It contained the Bill of Rights, which protected the individual’s rights.
On 12 December, Kenya attained full independence. On 12th December 1964, Kenya became a republic with Kenyatta becoming an executive president.
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT FORM 1 TOPICS
HISTORY FORM 1 NOTES
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....