THE CAUCASIAN CHALK CIRCLE - BY BERTOLT BRECHT KCSE 2015 English Mocks Extracts
1. THE CAUCASIAN CHALK CIRCLE. BY BERTOLT BRECHT
Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
AZDAK: (sitting down): I accept. (Sighing, the inkeeper hands him some money). Good. Now the formalities are disposed of. This is a case of rape?
INKEEPER : Your Honour, I caught the fellow in the act. Ludovica was in the straw on the stable floor.
AZDAK : Quite right , the stable. Lovely horses! Especially liked the little roan.
INKEEPER : The first thing I did, of course , was to question Ludovica. On my son’s behalf.
AZDAK : ( seriously ): I said I especially liked the little roan.
INKEEPER : ( Coldly ) : Really ? Ludovica confessed the stableman took her against her will.
AZDAK : Take your veil off, Ludovica. (she does so) Ludovica, you please the court. Tell us how it happened.
1. What happens before this excerpt (3marks)
2. ‘I accept’ Explain what is implied by this statement (2 marks)
3. “Your honour, I caught the fellow in the act.” Identify and explain one theme that can be deduced from the statement. (3 marks)
4. “Ludovica you please the court – Tell us how it happened.” In note form, explain Ludovica’s defense.(4 marks)
5. Using the excerpt, state and explain two character traits of Azdak and two of Ludovica. (4 marks)
6. Why do you think Azdak asks Ludovica to remove her veil in this excerpt. (2 marks)
7. “(Sighing, the inkeeper hands him some money). Good. Now the formalities are disposed of.” What turns out to be ironic about this statement? (3 marks)
8. “I caught the fellow in the act.” Explain what this statement alludes to in the Bible (2 marks)
9. Give the meaning of the following words as used in the excerpt. i) Roan ii) Stable (2 marks)
ii) Stable (2 marks)
1. A case is presented to court whereby an innkeeper is accusing his stableman of raping his daughter – in – law (the innkeepers ) Ludovica. (3 marks)
2. These are words used by Azdak as a way of soliciting for a bribe. It implies that he is ready and willing to be bribed. (2 marks)
3. The theme of moral decadence. The stable man was caught having sex with Ludovica despite the fact that Ludovica is another man’s wife.
4. She entered the stable to see the new foal /the stable man observed that it was hot that day. The stable man laid his hand on her left breast / she resisted by telling him not to do that / The stableman continued handling her indecently / That provoked her anger / Before she realized his sinful intensions he got closer / it was all over when her father – in – law came and accidentally trod on her / (Any 4 points 1 mark each).
5. Azdak (i) Corrupt- He openly accept brides in court “I accept” (ii) Persistent – he repeats the particularly liked the little roan. / persistently asks to be bribed with the little roan (iii) Immoral – Tells Ludovica to remove her veil possibly to assess how beautiful she is.
LUDOVICA (i) Immoral / unfaithful – she sleeps with the stable man despite having a husband. (ii) Opportunistic – she takes advantages of the absence of her husband to have an affair with the stable man. (iii) Obedient – she complies when she is told to remove her veil by the judge. (Identification 1 mark illustration 1 mark each)
6. Azdak wants to asses how beautiful Ludovica is possibly to justify her having tempted the stableman. (2 marks)
7. The statement is ironical because as it turns out Azdak rules in favour of the stableman and fines Ludovica to hand over the little roan to the court. This is despite the fact that he has already received a bribe from the inkeeper. One would have accepted him to rule in favour of Ludovica (3 marks)
8. The statement alludes to the story of the woman who was caught by the Pharisees, committing adultery which was against the laws of Moses and she was presented to Jesus to pass judgement on her. (2 marks)
9. (i) Roan – a horse with a mixture of two colours101/1,101/2,101/3 English Top grade predictor publishers Page | 9
(ii) Stables – building in which horses are kept. (2 marks)
2. Read the excerpt below and respond to the questions that follow.
GUESTS (loudly): - Have you heard? The grand Duke is back! But the princes are against him. - They say the Shah of Persia has lent him a great army to restore order in Grusinia. - But how is that possible? The Shah of Persia is the enemy…. - The enemy of Grusinia, you donkey, not the enemy of the Grand Duke! - In any case, the war’s over, so our soldiers are coming back.
GRUSHA (drops a cake pan. GUESTS help her pick up the cake).
AN OLD WOMAN (to GRUSHA): Are you feeling bad? It’s just excitement about dear Jussup. Sit down and rest a while, my dear (GRUSHA staggers.)
GUESTS: Now everything will be the way it was. Only the taxes will go up because now we” ll have to pay for the war.
GRUSHA (weakly): Did someone say the soldiers are back?
FIRST MAN (to a woman): Show her the shawl. We bought it from a soldier. It’s from Persia.
GRUSHA (looking at the shawl): They are here. (She gets up, takes a step, kneels down in prayer, takes the silver cross and chain out her blouse, and kisses it.
MOTHER –IN –LAW (while the guests silently watch GRUSHA): What‘s the matter with you? Aren’t you going to look after our guests? What’s all this city nonsense got to do with us?
GUESTS (resuming conversation while GRUSHA remain in prayer): - you can buy Persian saddles from the soldiers too. Though many want crutches in exchange for them. - The leaders on one side can win a war, the soldiers on both sides lose it. - Anyway, the war’s over. It’s something they can’t draft you anymore. The dying man sits bolt upright in bed. He listens. - What we need is two weeks of good weather. - Our pear trees are hardly bearing a thing this year.
MOTHER –IN –LAW (offering cakes): Have some more cakes and welcome! There are more!
(a) Describe the events leading to this extract. (4 marks)
(b) Explain what the guests mean by the statement “The grand Duke is back” (2 marks)
(c) Why does the mother-in-law welcome the guests to eat cakes? (1 mark)
(d) Identify and explain three ironic situations in this extract. (6 marks)
(e) Identify and explain two themes in this extract (4 marks)
(f) What happens immediately after this extract? (3 marks)
(g) What makes the dying man sit bolt upright? (1 mark)
(h) “Did someone say the soldiers are back? GRUSHA asked.
(Rewrite the sentence in reported speech). (2 marks)
(i) “The mother-in-law’s action was an effort in futility.” Do you agree with this assertion? Justify your response (2 marks)
(1) Describe the events leading to this extract. (4 marks)
− Grusha arrives at her brother, Lavrenti’s house, seeking shelter but is received coldly by her sister-in-law, who mistreats her.
− The brother suggests an arranged marriage to Jussup, a “dying” man.
− Grusha accepts the deal in order to get her son an identity and a roof over his head. (shelter)
− They arrive at the mother-in-law home where a ceremony is conducted by a cheap monk, invited by the mother-in-law. Grusha takes the vow as the mother-in-law responds on behalf of the “dying” man.( 1mrk each = 4mrks)
(2) Explain what the guests mean by the statement “The grand Duke is back” (2 marks)
− The Grand Duke, the ruler of Grusinia , had earlier been overthrown by the princes who had led a revolt against him.√ The Grand Duke went into hiding for two years, and was able to fight back to power with the help of the king of Persia.√
(3) Why does the mother-in-law welcome the guests to eat cakes? (1 mark)
− To celebrate the wedding of Grusha and her son Jussup.
(4) Identify and explain three ironic situations in this extract. (6 marks)
− The shah of Persia is supposed to be the enemy of Grusinia yet he lends an army to the Grand Duke that restored him to power.
− The old woman thinks Grusha’s reaction is about Jussup yet she is excited by the possibility of meeting her “dear” Simon.
− It is ironic that the guests are concerned that taxes will go up instead of appreciating the prospects of peace after the war.
22 − Many of the soldiers are coming back from Persia with saddles yet they need crutches since they have lost their legs.
(5) Identify and explain two themes in this extract (4 marks) (i) The effects of war
− Taxation would go up
− Disability through loss of limbs
− Loss through negligence of farming activities.
− Break up of families/ relationships.
(ii) Love and affection
− Grusha is excited at the prospects of Simon’s return.
− She is overwhelmed at the sight of a Persian product-evidence that war is over. She even kneels down in prayer.
− takes the silver cross and chain out her blouse, and kisses it.
− Grusha kneels down in prayer.
( Any other relevant theme. 1 mrk – id; 1 mrk ill) 6. What happens immediately after this extract? (3 marks)
− Jussup reprimands his mother for wasting his money on cakes.
− Jussup demands to see the wife he has been saddled with.
− The mother-in-law is shocked as Jussup climbs out of bed and staggers into the other room. The guests are also amazed to see him walk.
− He sends them out of the house and for the first time, he sarcastically speaks to Grusha
(any three pts, 1 mk each= 3)
7. What makes the dying man sit bolt upright? (2 mark)
− He learns about the end of war hence, the “dying man” Jussup becomes excited because he had evaded serving in the military
8. “Did someone say the soldiers are back? GRUSHA asked. (Rewrite the sentence in reported speech. (1 mark) Grusha asked whether someone had said (that) the soldiers were back.
9. “The mother-in-law’s action was an effort in futility.” Do you agree with this assertion? Justify your response. (2 marks) Yes (1 mark) Grusha is already engaged to simon and they get re-united after the war.(1 mark)
3 . Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow:
GRUSHA : Simon!
SIMON : Is that Grusha Vashnadze?
GRUSHA : Simon!
SIMON: (formally) A good morning to the young lady. I hope she is well.
GRUSHA: (getting up and bowing low) A good morning to the soldier. God be thanked he has returned in good health.
SIMON : They found better fish, so they didn’t eat me said the haddock GRUSHA : Courage, said the kitchen boy. Good luck, said the hero
SIMON : How are things here? Was the winter bearable? The neighbor considerate?
GRUSHA : The winter was a trifle rough, the neighbor as usual Simon.
SIMON : May one ask if a certain person still dips her toes in the water when rinsing the linen?
GRUSHA : The answer is no. Because of the eyes in the bushes.
SIMON : The young lady is speaking of soldiers. Here stands the paymaster.
GRUSHA : A job worth twenty piasters?
SIMON : And lodgings?
GRUSHA: (with tears in her eyes) Behind the barracks under the date trees SIMON : Yes there. A certain person has kept her eyes open.
GRUSHA : She has, Simon.
SIMON : And has not forgotten?
(GRUSHA shakes her head) So the door is still on its hinges as they say?
GRUSHA: (looks at him in silence and shakes her head again) What’s this? Is anything not as it should be?
GRUSHA : Simon Shashava, I can never return to Nuka. Something has happened.
SIMON : What can have happened?
GRUSHA : For one thing, I knocked an Ironshirt down.
GRUSHA : Simon Shashava, I am no longer called what I used to be called.
SIMON: (after a pause) I do not understand.
GRUSHA : When do women change their names, Simon? Let me explain. Nothing stands between us. Everything is just as it was. You must believe that.
SIMON : Nothing stands between us and yet there is something?
GRUSHA : How can I explain it so fast and with the stream between us? Couldn’t you cross the bridge there?
SIMON : Maybe it’s no longer necessary.
GRUSHA : It is very necessary. Come over on this side, Simon. Quick!
SIMON : Does the young lady wish to say someone has come too late?
a) Place this excerpt in its immediate context (4mks)
b) Where is this scene taking place (1mk)
c) Discuss the relationship between Grusha and Simon in this excerpt (4mks)
d) “May one ask if a certain person still dips her toes in the water when rinsing the linen?” In which other scene does Simon use the very words to Grusha? Explain what was happening in that scene (3mks)
e) Grusha says she cannot go to Nuka because something has happened. Explain. (3mks)
f) Describe the character trait of Simon as brought out in this excerpt (4mks)
g) Explain the meaning of the following saying and word as used in the excerpt.
i) They found better fish, so they didn’t eat me, said the haddock (2mks)
ii) Gaily (1mk)
h) Identity and illustrate the major theme present in this excerpt (3mks)
(a) Before: Grusha washes linen by the stream accompanied by Michael. She advises him to go and play with the other children. As the children play, they re-enact the beheading of the Governor, Michael’s father. However, instead of playing the Governor, Michael insists that he be allowed to behead the fat boy. Unexpectedly, Simon appears and he seems prepared to marry Grusha.
After: Grusha looks up at Simon in despair in tears. Simon stares before him, picks up a piece of wood and enquires if there is a little one already, to which Grusha admits but says the child is not hers (4mks)
(b) By a stream, Grusha is washing linen (1mk)
(c) Strained Relationship - Simon learns that all is not well and the relationship may be headed to the rocks. Grusha is reluctant to reveal fully what has happened, but Simon can tell there is a problem. He says: “Nothing stands between us and yet there is something?” (4mks)
(d) At the gateway of the church square. Simon (a palace guard) is flirting with Grusha (a kitchen maid). Simon reveals that he often hides behind a bush and watches over Grusha as she washes linen in the river so that he can see her dip her legs. After learning this, Grusha feels embarrassed and runs off enraged (3mks)
(e) Because she is already married to Jussup (the dying man). She had to get married to protect Michael. In addition, she needed to leave her brother’s house because of the inquisitive sister in-law. The laws do not allow one to have a child out of wedlock and similarly it does not allow one to leave the husband, thus Grusha is stuck up in the Northern Mountains (3mks)
(f) Faithful: - He comes back for Grusha just like he had promised. He is now prepared to marry her. This shows his commitment. Humorous - he is lively and jocular. He tells Grusha, he wasn’t eaten because they found better fish. He also asks if a certain lady still dips her feet in water. This eases the tension between him and Grusha in this excerpt (4mks)
(g) (i) Other soldiers died in the war but Simon survived. He returned to the
Mountains safely. (2mks) (ii) Happily (1mk) h) Love - Simon comes back to look for Grusha - Grusha assures Simon that everything is just as it was Betrayal - Simon feels betrayed when Grusha indicates that she is no longer called what she used to be called.
4. Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow:
SIMON: I thank you, Grusha Vashnadze. And good-bye! He bows low before her. She does the same before him. Then she runs quickly off without looking round. Enter the ADJUTANT from the gateway.
ADJUTANT: (harshly) Harness’ the horses to the carriage! Don’t stand there doing nothing, scum!
SIMION SHASHAVA stands to attention and goes off. Two SERVANTS crowd from the gateway, bent low under huge trunks. Behind them, supported by her women, stumbles NATELLA ABASHWILI she is followed by a WOMAN carrying her CHILD.
GOVERNOR’S WIFE: I hardly know if my head’s still on. Where is Michael? Don’t hold him so clumsily. Pile the trunks onto the carriage. No news from the city, Shalva?
ADJUTANT: None. All’s quiet so far, but there’s not a minute to lose. No room for all those trunks in the carriage. Pick out what you need. (Exit quickly.)
GOVERNORS WIFE: only essentials! Quick, open the trunks! I’ll tell you what I need (The trunks are lowered and opened. She points at some brocade dresses.) The green one! And of course, the one with the fur trimming. Where are Niko Mikadze and Mika Loladze? I have suddenly got the most terrible migraine again. It always starts in the temples. (Enter GRUSHA.) Taking your time, eh? Go and get the hot water bottles this minute!( GRUSHA runs off, returns later with hot water bottles; the GOVERNOR’S WIFE ordered her about by signs.) Don’t tear the sleeves.
A YOUNG WOMAN: Pardon, madam, no harm has come to the dress.
GOVERNOR’S WIFE: Because I stopped you. I’ve been watching you for a long time. Nothing in your head but making eyes at Shalva Tzereteli I ‘ll kill you, you bitch! (She beats the YOUNG WOMAN)
ADJUTANT: (appearing in the gateway) Please make haste, Natella Abashwili. Firing has broken out in the city. (Exit)
GOVERNOR’S WIFE :( Letting go off the YOUNG WOMAN) Oh dear, do you think they‘ll lay hands on us? Why should they? (She herself begins to rummage in the trunks.) How’s Michael? Asleep? WOMAN WITH THE CHILD: Yes madam.
GOVERNOR’S WIFE: Then put him down a moment and get my little saffron-coloured boots from the bedroom. I need them for the green dress. (The WOMAN puts down the CHILD and goes off.) Just look how these things have been packed! No love! No understanding! If you don’t give them every order yourself............At such that moments you realize what kind of servants you have! They gorge themselves at your expense, and never a word of gratitude! I’ll remember this.
ADJUTANT: (entering, very excited) Natella, you must leave at once! GOVERNOR’S WIFE: Why? I’ve got to take this silver dress- it cost a thousand piasters. And that one there, where’s the wine-coloured one?
a) Why does Simon thank Grusha? (2marks)
b) Explain the sense of urgency displayed by the Adjutant. (2marks)
c) Describe what happened immediately after this excerpt ? (3marks)
d) Identify and illustrate a character traits of each: (4 marks)
(i) Natella Abashwil
(ii) Shalva Tzereteli
e) Identify the main theme in this excerpt. (3 marks)
f) I hardly know if my head’s still on. Where is Michael? (Rewrite this in reported speech) (2 marks)
g) Describe the mood of the excerpt. (3marks)
h) What is Natella’s attitude towards the servants? (3marks)
i) Identify one stylistic device used in this excerpt and comment on its effect (3marks)
a) He has just seen Grusha who has promised to wait for him√ and marry him.√ (2 marks)
b) A coup has just been staged against the Governor who has been assassinated.√The Adjutant wants to take Natella out of the city to a safe place. √ (2 marks)
c) Natella rummages through the trunks for some time looking for her wine-coloured dress√ , and when they finally leave they forget Michael behind. √The baby is handed to Grusha by Maro. √(3marks)
d) (i) Natella:
Materialistic√– she is preoccupied with her dresses that she would take with her instead of worrying about her child. √ (2marks) (accept any relevant trait from the ones given below)
Indecisive – she does not exactly know what she wants or what is good for her. She says she is not sure if her head is still on. Foolish/unwise – she tells the servant to put Michael down so she can help her select the dresses she will take along.
Abusive – she abuses her servants both physically and verbally. For example, she calls one of them a bitch, and then hits her.
(ii) Shalva Tzereteli:
Loyal.√– he remains loyal to the late Governor. √ (2 marks
Concerned/responsible – he wants to escort Natella out of danger. He keeps reminding Natella that they have to leave urgently because it is dangerous to stay at the palace any longer. He even advises Natella that it would not be possible to carry the heavy trunks on the carriage.
e) Materialism√ –Natella is concerned with her clothes and personal comfort instead of worrying about her son. √ ...”the one with fur trimmings.....” √ (3 marks)
The keen/obsessive attention Natella gives her clothes is contrasted with the almost zero concern she shows her son, which helps to bring out the themes of materialism and negligence.
Loyalty – this theme is highlighted by the Adjutant who remains loyal to the late Governor and even risks his own life by escorting Natella out of the city.”... Natella you must leave at once”
f) Natella said that she hardly knew if her head was still on and wondered where Michael was. √ √(2marks)
g) Tense mood/anxious mood.√ War has broken out, there is panic and fear.√ “.....Oh dear, do you think they’ll lay hands on us?”.√
h) Natella’s attitude towards the servants is spiteful/contemptuous.
√ She calls one of them a bitch.
√ She even comments that “At such moments you realize what kind of servants you have! They gorge themselves at your expense, and never a word of gratitude!”She has low regard for them/ and does not appreciate their efforts/she harasses them and mistreats them. √ (3marks).
i) Metaphor “I hardly know if my head is still on” captures the confusion “ there is nothing in your head “ to show the contempt/ the girl is not keen she concentrates on her attraction on Shalva.
5. Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow: (25mks)
INKEEPER: Your worship, it’s a question of the family honour. I wish to bring an action on behalf of my son, who’s away on business on the other side of the mountain. This is the offending stable man, and here is my daughter in law. (Enter the Daughter in law, a voluptuous wench. She is veiled)
AZDAK: (Sitting down): I accept (sighing, the Inkeeper hands him some money). Good. Now the formalities are disposed of. This is a case of rape?
INKEEPER: Your honour, I caught the fellow in the act. Ludovica was in the straw on the stable floor.
AZDAK: Quite right, the stable. Lovely horses! I especially liked the little roan.
INKEEPER: The first thing I did, of course, was to question Ludovica. On my son’s behalf.
AZDAK: (Seriously) I said I specially liked the little roan.
INKEEPER: (Coldly): Really? Ludovica confessed the stableman took her against her will.
AZDAK: Take your veil off: Ludovica (she does) Ludovica, you please tell the court. Tell us what happened.
LUDOVICA: (Well schooled). When I entered the stable to see the new foal the stableman said to me on his own accord, “It’s hot today!” and laid his hand on my left breast. I said to him, “Don’t do that!” But he continued to handle me indecently, which provoked my anger. Before I realized his sinful intentions, he got much closer. It was all over when my father-in-law entered and accidentally trod on me.
INKEEPER: (explaining) On my son’s behalf.
AZDAK: (to the stableman). You admit you started it?
AZDAK: Ludovica, you like to eat sweet things?
LUDOVICA: Yes, sunflower seeds.
AZDAK: You like to lie a long time in the bathtub?
LUDOVICA: Half an hour or so.
(a) Explain what happens before this excerpt. (3mks)
(b) “I accept.” Explain what is implied by this statement. (2mks)
(c) “Your honour, I caught the fellow in the act.” Identify and explain one theme that can be deduced from the statement. (3mks)
(d) “(Sighing, the innkeeper hands him some money.) Good now the formalities are disposed of.” What turns out to be ironic about this statement? (3mks)
(e) Who is the public prosecutor in this case? (1mk)
(f) Why do you think Azdak asks Ludovica to remove her veil? (2mks)
(g) Describe any other three cases adjudicated by Azdak. (3mks)
(h) Basing your answer on the excerpt, identify and illustrate any two character traits of Ludovica. (2mks)
(i) Identify an instance of humour used in the except. (2mks)
(j) Give the meaning of the following words as used in the excerpt. (2mks)
(a) A case is presented to court whereby an innkeeper is accusing his stableman of raping his daughter-in-law. (3mks)
(b) The words are used by Azdak as a way of soliciting for a bribe. It implies that he is ready and willing to be bribed. (2mks)
(c) The theme of moral decadence. The stableman was caught having sex with Ludovica in the stable despite the fact that Ludovica is another man’s wife. (2mks)
(d) The statement is ironical because as it turns out Azdak rules in favour of the stableman and fines Ludovica to hand over the little roan to the court. This is despite the fact he has already received a bribe from the Innkeeper. One would have expected him to rule in favour of Ludovica. (3mks)
(e) Shauwa. (1mk)
(f) Azdak wants to assess how beautiful Ludovica is possibly to justify her having tempted the stableman. (2mks)
(g) Irakli, the bandit versus the old lady.
- The blackmailer and the doctor / invalid. - Natella Abashwili versus Grusha Vashnadze. (3mks)
(h) Immoral / unfaithful
She sleeps with the stable man despite having a husband. Hypocritical She offered just token resistance against the stableman. She should have avoided being alone in the stable with the stable man. Opportunist She takes advantage of the absence of her husband to have an affair with the stable man.
(i) Humour – you like to eat sweet things – yes sunflower seeds.
(i) Roan – a horse with a mixture of two colours.
(ii) Stables – Buildings in which horses are kept.
Blossoms of the Savannah excerpts
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