Definition of Christian ethics
The word ethics comes from a Greek term ‘Ethikos’ which means custom, or conduct. Ethics are moral principles, which influence a person’s behaviour. Ethics are defined as the systematic study of human actions and behaviour. We use ethics to judge, determine and assess the right and wrong of human behaviour. Morals refer to human character, which is the inclination to behave in one- way or another. Ethics is the study of morals and they determine and influence personal and societal behaviour. Christian ethics is the study of human conduct or behaviour from a Christian point of view.
Background of Nehemiah
Background of prophet Jeremiah
a) Political background
Unity of believers refers to the oneness of those who have faith in Jesus Christ. The early Christians lived in unity which was demonstrated in the following ways.
The concept of the unity of believers as illustrated in the New Testament
CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN THE AFRICAN UNDERSTANDING OF VARIOUS ISSUES
Old age and the aged
Widows and orphans
Dowry or bride price
Factors that have negatively influenced the role of the religious specialist
Factors that have undermined the status of elders in African Communities today
DEATH in many african communities
traditional African communities believed that death is the last rite of passage.
causes of death in traditional african communities
in many African communities, it is said to be caused by:
DEATH RITES IN AFRICAN TRADITIONAL SOCIETY (A.T.S)
ROLE OF DEATH IN CREATING MORAL VALUES
Reasons why death is feared in Traditional African Communities
Give reasons why Traditional African Communities feared death (kcse 2016 cre paper 1 q.6c)
Practices in T.A.C that show their belief in life after death
Ways in which initiation rites have changed today
ROLE OF INITIATION IN INCULCATING MORAL VALUES
COMMON RITUALS PERFORMED DURING INITIATION
Washing and shaving was done so as to:
SIGNIFICANCE OF INITIATION RITES
METHODS USED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF CHILDLESSNESS IN T.A.C [TRADITIONAL AFRICAN COMMUNITIES]
Role of birth in naming and inculcating moral values (virtues)
NAMING IN T.A.S [TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETY]
The significance of naming includes:
How names are given to children in T.A.S [Traditional African Society]
CHANGING ATTITUDE TO BIRTH AND NAMING
Rituals observed after childbirth
RITES OF PASSAGE
Are important events in a person’s life beginning from conception until after death. They are marked by celebrations.
Most of the ceremonies are religious and have the following common characteristics;
Rites of passage are:
(i) The meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional African society
(ii). The African concept of community and kinship system
(a) Meaning of a community
(b) African concept of Kinship
Importance of kinship ties to TAS
KCSE Topical Question
KCSE Past Papers
KCPE past Papers
Questions to expect in examinations
VENERATING AND COMMUNICATING WITH SPIRITS AND ANCESTORS
Veneration refers to the way in which respect and honour is accorded to the ancestors and spirits.
Ways in which traditional African communities demonstrated their respect to ancestors and spirits
TRADITIONAL AFRICAN WAYS OF WORSHIPING GOD
Places where worship is conducted in African traditional society
God is worshipped through the following ways;
Why sacrifices are made to God, spirits and ancestors
Occasions when sacrifices where offered
3. Singing and dancing in worship
Short formal prayers e.g. “Help me, O God!” or “O Great God”.
Blessings by an elder constitute acts of prayer. It is believed that the person blessing is doing so on behalf of God.
e.g. “Dear God”.
RESPONSIBILITY OF THE LIVING TOWARDS GOD, SPIRITS AND ANCESTORS
THE ROLES OF GOD, SPIRITS AND ANCESTORS
a. Roles of God
Refers to the functions/ roles of God which He plays in the world and peoples’ lives. They include;
B. The role of Spirits
Although spirits are invisible, they are believed to play an important role in the lives of the living. Generally people fear spirits; they are viewed as total strangers to the living. When they appear to humans, people feel disturbed. The roles of spirits include;
C. Roles of ancestors
A. Hierarchy of beings
The Africans understand the universe to consist of two parts.
This ordering is what is referred to as the hierarchy of beings.
It can be divided into seven categories as follows;
Inter-relationship of all things, living and non-living
(i) Human Beings and God
Many African myths of creation point to the fact that human beings are dependent on God e.g.
(ii) Human Beings and animals
Africans believe God gave human beings animals for their use and should handle them responsibly.
The following are the uses of animals to human beings;
(iii) Human beings and plants
Human beings depend on plants in various ways e.g.
Construction of buildings.
Some trees are used as sacred places of worship.
Pasture for their animals.
Provision of shelter.
(iv) Human beings and non-living things
Qualities of Prophet Elijah that a Christian leader should posses
THE RELEVANCE OF ELIJAH’S PROPHETIC MISSION TO CHRISTIANS TODAY
I KINGS18:19-21, 19:1-21, 21:1-26
Prophet Elijah’s mission was to fight false religion and moral decay in Israel. This put him in great danger and hostility with Ahab and his family in the following ways:
Problems Elijah faced in Israel
Ways of fighting against corruption in the country today