Explain four factors which led to the decline of the coastal settlements between 1500 and 1700.
Rivalry for the control of the Indian Ocean trade weakened the coastal settlements. Each one of them wanted to dominate the trade.
Wars of conquest by the Portuguese against the coastal settlements.Destroyed and wakened many of them.
Establishment of Portuguese rule at the coast led to disruption of the Indian Ocean trade – the main economic base of the towns. The Portuguese also diverted trade to Portugal leaving them with little revenue.
Invasion of the settlements by the Zimba a warrior community from the Zambezi valley – they caused widespread destruction.
Occasional unfavourable climatic conditions which characterized the period let to inadequate rainfall and shortage of water in some coastal settlements. For example Gedi which subsequently declined.
Conflicts / wars between Oman Arabs and the Portuguese over the control of the coastal settlements affected economic activitities in the area.
Some Africa middlemen diverted trade goods to Northern routes by – passing the towns that were under Portuguese control.