Explain why the use of indirect rule in Southern Nigeria was unsuccessful.
Southern Nigeria did not have centralized indigenous system of government that was necessary for the application of indirect rule.
Lack of homogeneity in the South as there were many ethnic groups, languages & customs to be understood.
The British introduced new ideas such as forced labour and direct taxes which infuriated the people.
The failure of the British administrators to fully understand how the socio, economic and political system of Southern Nigeria (based on the Office of the Oba). Operated made them five up easily.
Opposition from the educated elite who felt out of the administration of their country / leadership.
The educated people in Southern Nigeria resented the chiefs appointed by the British because they were illiterate.
The Obas of southern Nigeria had defined powers such as mediation, so when they were given wide ranging powers, people became discounted.
Communication barriers between the British supervisors, the warrant chiefs and the people often led to misinterpretation and misunderstanding.
Misuse of power by the warrant chiefs who raised taxes for their own benefits. They also harassed women sexually.
Use of excessive force to suppress any form of resistance provoked resentment e.g. the shooting women during a demonstration against British administration.