In flowering plants, the flower is the reproductive organ which is a specialised shoot consisting of a modified stem and leaves. The stem-like part is the pedicel and receptacle, while modified leaves form corolla and calyx.
Concept of reproduction
The process by which mature individuals produce offspring is called reproduction. Reproduction is a characteristic of all living organisms and prevents extinction of a species.
Ecology Practical Activities
The term disease denotes any condition or disorder that disrupts the steady state of wellbeing of the body.
Health is a state of physical, mental and emotional wellbeing in the internal environment of the body.
Some of the causes of diseases are due to entry of pathogens and parasites. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi.
Parasites are organisms which live on or in the body of another organisms.
Vectors are animals that carry the pathogen from one person to another. Most are ectoparasites that transmit the disease as they feed.
Energy Flow in an Ecosystem, Population Estimation Methods, aDAPTATIONS AND EFFECTS OF POLLUTION - K.C.S.E BIOLOGY NOTES
Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
Most of the energy used in an ecosystem is derived from the sun. Solar energy is trapped by photosynthetic plants.
It flows through different trophic levels and at each level energy is lost as heat to space and also through respiration.
Besides animals lose energy through excretion and defecation, the amount of energy passed on as food from one trophic level to another decreases progressively.
The energy in the organisms is recycled back to plants through the various nutrient or material cycles.
Abiotic factors (environmental factors)
According to biology dictionary, abiotic factors are non-living factors in the ecosystem. These factors do affect the living things in it, but they are not living themselves. In this context, we will focus mainly on light, temperature, atmospheric pressure, salinity, humidity, pH and wind.
wHAT IS ECOLOGY?
Ecology, also called ‘bioecology’, ‘bionomics’, or ‘environmental biology’ is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
"The word ecology was coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who applied the term oekologie to the “relation of the animal both to its organic as well as its inorganic environment.” The word comes from the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” “home,” or “place to live.”" Thus, ecology deals with the organism and its environment. [Source: britannica.com]