Barriers to Effective Communication
Communication is said to be complete only when the recipient gets the message the way the sender intends it to be. When information is not received the way it was intended then it has been distorted. Distortion of a message is brought about by some communication barriers which may exists in the path of the message between the sender and the recipient. Some of these barriers are;
Service That Facilitate Communication
Services that facilitate communication include;
This refers to handling of letters and parcels. They are offered by organizations such as postal corporation of Kenya (P.C.K) Securicor courier and Document handling Limited (D.H.L)
Some of the services offered by the postal corporation include;
a) Ordinary Mail
These include surface mail and air mail.
An express mail is/must be presented at the post office counter by the sender and the envelope clearly addressed and a label with the word “express” affixed. Normal postage plus an extra fee (commission) is charged
The mail is delivered to the receivers nearest post office from where the post office makes arrangements to deliver the mail to the receiver within the shortest time possible.
NOTE: For speed post special arrangements to deliver the mail start at the sender’s post office whereas express mail, the arrangements start at the addressers post office.
c) Poste Restante;
This is a service offered by the post office to travelers who may wish to receive correspondence right away from their post office box. The addressee has to inform those who may wish to correspond with him/her of the nearest post office he is likely to use at a particular time
Under this arrangement when addressing the letter, the words poste Restante must be written on the envelope clearly. The addressee must identify himself/herself when collecting the correspondence from the post office.
There is no additional charge made apart from normal postage charges. This service can only be offered for three months in the same town.
a) Registered Mail;
This service is offered by the post office for sending articles of value for which security handling is required. A registration fee and a commission is paid. The commission depends on the weight of the article and the nature of registration. The sender is required to draw a horizontal and a vertical line across the faces of the envelope.
A certificate of registration is given to the sender. In case of loss, the sender may be paid compensation on production of the certificate of registration.
A green card is sent to the recipient. The card bears his name and the post office at which the mail was registered. The recipient will be required to identify himself before being allowed to possess the mail.
Items that may be registered include jewels, certificate, land title deeds etc.
b) Business Reply Service;
This is a service offered by the post office to business firms on request. The firm pays some amount to the post office and an account is then opened from which posted charges are deducted.
The service is useful/more common with firms which would like to encourage their customers to reply their letters. Customers are issued with reply card envelopes (or envelopes marked ‘postage paid’)
They can send letters to the business by using these envelopes/the card. The customers then place the card/envelope in the post box and the firm’s post office branch will deduct postage charges from the lump sum amount.
a) Courier Services
These are services where a service provider receives transports and delivers parcels or important documents to destinations specified by customers in return for payment of fees or charges.
Examples; Akamba bus service, Securicor courier services etc.
ii) Telephone services
Telkom Kenya, through the post office, provides telephone services which offer direct contact between people who are far apart. It makes conversation between people at any distance possible, as long as there are transmission facilities between them. Urgent matters can be discussed and consultations can take place so that instant decision or actions are taken. The telephone assists organizations to establish a fast and convenient machinery for its internal and external communication network.
ii) Cellular(mobile)phone services
These are hand held telephones with digital links that use radio waves. They are sometimes called cell-phones since they use power stored in a dry cell
In Kenya mobile phone services are provided by safaricom Ltd.(a subsidiary of Telkom Kenya)and Airtel communications Ltd(formally Kencel Communication Ltd)which is a joint venture between a French company and a Kenyan company, yu mobile services and Orange mobile services . This sector therefore greatly benefits from foreign investment to improve services.
The use of this service is popular. Apart from the provision of telecommunication service, cell phones have different attractive features or services such as short messages service (sms) whereby a caller can send a written message. Recent models of mobile phones enable the user to access the internet and send e-mail messages
Advantages of mobile phones
Disadvantages of cellular phones
iii) Broadcasting services
Communication commission of Kenya is a regulatory body that receives applications and issues licenses for radio and television broadcasting stations.
a) Radio stations
Radio broadcasting is a very important mode of giving news and information to people in the whole world.
The liberalization of the communications sector in Kenya in 1999, Kenya has witnessed a mushrooming of FM Stations which are owned by private sector operators e.g. Kiss Radio, Easy FM, Classic FM, Family FM, Kameme etc.
They have helped to spread news and information countrywide. Before liberalization, Kenya Broadcasting cooperation (KBC) radio was operating as a state owned monopoly.
b) Television Stations
Television broadcasting (telecasting) does not reach as wide an audience as radio broadcasting in Kenya. It however serves the same purpose of relaying news and information to Kenyans. Both radio and television stations are widely used for advertising purposes.
The T.V subsector has been liberalized since 1999 and a number of privately owned stations have emerged e.g. Kenya Television Network (KTN) Nation Television, Family T.V etc. Prior to that time KBC television was in operation as a state owned monopoly.
Other services that facilitate communication
Current trends and Emerging issues in communication
With the advancement of information technology (I.T) there has been a lot of revolution in communication.
The following are some of the current trends and emerging issues in communication;
Telephone Bureaux (Bureaus)
These are privately owned kiosks where telephone services are sold. The owner of the kiosk must get authority from the service provider in order to run the bureau. The individual wishing to use the services of the bureau makes payments to the owner of the service. Other services offered by the bureau include selling of scratch cards for mobile telephones and credit cards for landline telephone services.
i) Mobile phones (cell phones)
These are hand held telephones with digital links that use radio waves. They have become an important business and social tool. This is because most people and traders want some flexibility to be able to communicate whenever they are.
Other reasons that have led to the popularity of cell phones include:
This is a service provided through the internet for sending messages.
It is similar to sending a letter through the postal system only that it is done electronically.
Messages can be sent to anyone on the network, anywhere in the world. For this to take place, computers have to be connected to each other to form a network.
To communicate, one is required to have an email address e.g. raeform2@ yahoo.com. Messages arrive at the e – mail address immediately they are sent.
It is only the addressee of the message who can retrieve the message since a password is required to access the mailbox.
E – Mail can also be used to send documents and photographs like certificates by scanning and attaching.
More and more businesses are using e- Mail to communicate with other businesses, their customers and suppliers.
The internet links computers all over the world. Written and oral information is transmitted on the internet through the use of telephone wires, fibre- optic cables and wireless devices.
The internet has changed the way people communicate in the following ways;
The future office will rely largely on computers. Most of the communication will be done through computers. This may result in less use of paper, hence the use of the term “the paperless office”.
Vi) Decline in the use of postal services
Decline in the use of postal services is a result of the impact of the internet. E-mail has become a popular and preferred mode of communication since it is fast and cheap. However, ordinary mail/ use of postal services may not be completely phased out since the government, businesses and people do not regard an e-mail as a binding or formal communication.
Vii) Transformation of language
The language used to pass and receive messages has evolved through time. e.g. the youth have adopted the use of “sheng” in exchanging messages. Such language is largely understood by its youthful users. There is also the use of cell phones to send short text messages; which are highly abbreviated and may use slang whose meaning is only known to the users.
Communication Revision Questions
1. Define the term communication
Communication is the process by which information is passed from one person or place to another.
2. Outline the role played by communication in any given organization
(a) Vertical communication
Involves the flow of information either downwards or upwards, for example, from a senior employee to a junior employee
(b) Horizontal communication
Is also referred to as lateral communication which is passing of information between people of the same rank or status, for example from one departmental manager to another departmental manager
(c) Diagonal communication
This is communication of different people in different levels of management or departments for example a receptionist communicating to a production manager.
4. Distinguish between formal and informal communication
Formal communication is official and documented and follows certain rules for example a worker writing an official letter to an organization’s seniors. Informal communication does not conform to any time, for example communicating to friends and relatives.
5. State the essential elements in communication.
COMMUNICATION TOPIC OBJECTIVES.
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
Meaning of communication
Effective communication is vital/important for business in that it serves the following purposes.
Importance of communication (purposes)
Communication is a process that involves interchange of information and ideas between two or more people. Communication therefore is a circular process i.e. communication may lead to some reaction which in turn may generate further communications or feedback. This flow can be illustrated as below;
Lines of communication
Communication can be classified according to either the levels of the communicating parties or according to the nature of the message.
A. According to levels
This can either be:
This is where messages are passed between a senior and her/his juniors in the same organizations
Vertical communication can be divided into two parts:-
This is a communication process which starts from the top manager to her/his juniors. This can be informed of:
This is a communication process that starts from the juniors to the seniors and maybe in the form of:
Horizontal communication (lateral communication)
This is communication between people of the same level (rank) in the same organization e.g. departmental heads in an organization may communicate to achieve the following:
This is communication between people of different levels in different departments or different organizations e.g. an accounts clerk may communicate with a sales manager of the same organization or of different organizations. Diagonal communication enhances team work.
b) According to nature of message
This can either be;
This is the passing of messages or information using the approved and recognized way in an organization such as official meetings, memos and letters. This means that messages are passed to the right people following the right channels and in the right form.
Formal communication is also known as official communication as it is the passing of information meant for office purposes.
Formal systems of communication are consciously and deliberately established.
This is communication without following either the right channels or in the right form i.e. takes place when information is passed unofficially. It is usually used when passing information between friends and relatives hence it lacks the formality.
Informal communication may also take the form of gossips and rumor-mongering.
Informal communication usually supplements formal communication as is based on social relations within the organization.
Note: Both formal and informal communication is necessary for effective communication in an organization.
Essentials of Effective communication
For communication to be effective it must be originated produced transmitted received understood and acted upon. The following are the main essentials to effective communications.
Forms and Means of Communication
Forms; these are channels or ways of passing on messages. The four main forms are;
This is where information is conveyed by talking (word of mouth)
It is also known as verbal communication
Means of communication
i) Face-to-face conversation
This involves two or more people talking to each other. The parties are usually near each other as much as possible to ensure effective communication.
It is suitable where subject matter of discussion require convincing persuasion and immediate feed-back.
It may be used during meetings, interviews, seminars, private discussions, classrooms e.t.c
It is the most common means of oral communication
Advantages of face-to-face communication
Disadvantages of face-to-face communication
This form of communication is commonly used in offices and homes. It is useful in sending messages quickly over short and long distances.
It is however not suitable for sending;
Installation is done on application by the subscriber (applicant).He/she pays the installation fee in addition; the subscriber is sent a monthly bill with the charges for all the calls made during the month.
The charges for calls depend on the time spent time of the day of the week and distance of the recipient from the caller e.g. it is cheaper to call at night than during the day. It is also cheap to make calls during public holidays and weekends than on weekdays.
There are also mobile phones which have no physical line connection to exchange and may be fixed to a vehicle or carried in pockets. In Kenya these services are provided by safaricom, Airtel, orange and Yu mobile communications.
Advantages of Telephones
Disadvantages of Telephone
Reasons why mobile phones have become popular
iii) Radio calls
This involves transmitting information by use of radio waves i.e. without connecting wires between the sender and the receiver
The device used is called a radio telephone. It is commonly used in remote areas where normal telephone services are lacking or where telephone services are available but cannot be conveniently used e.g. policemen on patrol in different parts of a town
Radio transmission is a one way communication system i.e. only one person can speak at a time. It is therefore necessary for the speaker to say ‘over’ to signal the recipient that the communication is through so that the recipient can start talking. To end the conversation, the speaker says ‘over and out’
The radio calls are commonly used by the police, game rangers, researchers, foresters, ship owners and hotels situated in remote areas. They are also used for sending urgent messages such as calling for an ambulance and fire brigade
Note; Radio calls are not confidential since they use sound frequencies that can be tapped by any radio equipment that is tuned to that frequency
Advantages of Radio calls
Disadvantages of Radio calls
This is a means of communication used to locate staff or employers who are scattered in an organization or who are outside and need to be located urgently
When within the organization portable receivers, lighted signals, bells, loudspeakers etc. are used
When outside the organization employees are contacted using portable receivers (pocket-size) used to send messages through sms (short message services)
The paying system can only be used within a certain radius. When using a portable receiver, the caller will contact the subscriber by calling the post office which will then activate the pager.
The subscriber is then informed to contact the originator of the message.
Paging is mostly used in emerging cases
Usually messages intended for a wide audience can be transmitted through a radio more quickly and economically than by using other forms of communication.
Radio is used for different reasons apart from advertising e.g. for formal notices, and venue for activities
Advantages of oral/verbal communication
Disadvantages of oral/verbal communication
vi) Written Communication
This involves transmission of messages through writing. It is the most formal way of communication because the information is in recorded form and can be used for reference
Means of written communication
Letters are the most commonly used means of communication.
There are two categories of letters;
Business letters are written to pass messages and information from businessmen to customers and vice versa e.g. letters of inquiry and acknowledgement notes.
It can also be used between employees and employers in an organization e.g. a complimentary note.
Official letters are letters between people in authority and others that touch on the activities of the organization e.g. an application letter for an advertised vacancy in an organization.
Formal letters have a salutation clause which usually starts with “Dear Madam “or “Dear Sir”. It also bears the addresses of both the sender and the recipient, a subject heading and a complimentary clause ending with “Yours faithfully”.
b) Informal Letters; these are letters between friends and relatives
They are also known as Personal letters
This is a means of communication provided by the post office. The sender obtains the telegram form from the post office and fills the message on it in capital letters and hand it over to the post office employees at the counter. Alternatively the sender may use a telephone to read the message to the post office. The post office then transmits the message to the recipient post office.
The charges of a telegram are based on the number of words used, the more the words used the higher the charges. However there is a standing charge.
Telegrams are used for sending urgent messages.
Note; Due to changing technology telegrams have lost popularity. Short messages can now be sent by cell phones (mobile phones) using the short messages services (sms)
This is a means of communication used to send short or detailed messages quickly by use of a teleprinter. The service is provided by the post office on application.
A message is sent by use of two teleprinters one on the senders end and another on the recipients end. When sending information through a teleprinter which is a form of electric typewriter producing different electric signals, its keys are pressed and automatically the message is printed at the recipient’s machine.
Telex saves time for both the sender and recipient as the messages are brief precise and received immediately. However it’s an expensive means of communication
iv) Facsimile (Fax)
This involves transmission of information through a fax machine. Both the sender and the receiver must have a fax machine. These machines are connected using telephone lines
Fax is used to transmit printed messages such as letters, maps, diagrams and photographs. To send the information, one dials a fax number of the required destination and then the document is fed into the sender’s machine. The receiving machine reproduces the document immediately. It is used for long distance photocopying service.
v) Memorandum (Memo)
This is printed information for internal messages within an organisation. It is normally used to pass information between departments or offices in an organization.
Memoranda have no salutation or complimentary clause. They are suitable for informing the officers within an organization of matters related to the firm.
A memo is pinned on the notice board of an organization if it is meant for everybody otherwise passed to the relevant staff.
This is a written communication used to inform a group or the public about past current or future events. It is usually brief and to the point. It can be placed on walls, in public places, on trees, in newspapers or on notice boards.
These are statements/within records of findings recommendations and conclusion of an investigation/research. A report is usually sent to someone who has asked for it for a specific purpose.
These are many copies of a single letter addressed to very many people when the message intended for each is the same.
This is an outline of the items to be discussed in a meeting. It is usually contained in a notice to a meeting sent in advance to all the participants of the meeting. The notice of the meeting contains;
These are records of the proceedings of a meeting. Keeping minutes of certain meetings is a legal requirements e.g. companies
Keeping minutes for other meetings are for management purposes to ensure that decisions made at the meetings are implemented
Advantages of written communication
Disadvantages of written communication
3) Visual Communication
This is the process of passing information by use of diagrams, drawings pictures, signs, and gestures etc.
A photograph is an image (visual representation of an object as it appeared at the time when the photograph was taken
Photographs are self-explanatory and may not be accompanied by any narration or explanation. The recipient is able to get the message at a glance.
Refer to marks, symbols, drawings or gestures whose purpose is to inform the public about such things as directions, distances, dangers and ideas.
Examples; road signs, traffic lights and danger signs on electricity poles
This means of communication can only be effective if the meaning of the sign used is understood.
Graphs; these are used to show and illustrate statistical information
Charts; these are diagrams which show or illustrate the flow of an idea e.g. an organization chart illustrates the whole organization structure indicating the chain of command
Advantages of visual communication
Disadvantages of visual communication
4) Audio-Visual communication
This is a form of communication in which messages are sent through sounds and signs.
This form of communication ensures that the receiver gets the message instantly.
It is suitable where both the sender and the receiver know the meaning of specific sounds and signs.
Means of Audio-visual communication
Advantages of Audio-visual communication
Disadvantages of Audio-visual communication
5) Audio Communication
This is when the message is transmitted through sounds. Examples include
Advantages of Audio communication
Disadvantages of Audio communication
communication questions and answers
1. 1996 P1
Outline four reasons why a business person may prefer written communication to verbal communication. (5 marks)
2. 1997 P1
State five services offered by the post office. (5 marks)
3. 1998 P1
State four advantages of verbal communication. (4 marks)
4. 1999 P1
Highlight four advantages of using telex as a means of communication. (4 marks)
5. 1999 P2
Discuss the factors that a firm may consider in choosing a method of communication within the firm
6. 2000 P1
State four features of effective communication. (4 marks)
7. 2001 P1
State four reasons why the post office is still popular as a means of sending letters. (4 marks)
8. 2001 P2
State reasons for use of letters in business communication.
9. 2002 P1
Give four reasons why a person would send a message by mail rather than by telephone. (4 marks)
10. 2003 P1
Highlight four factors that may limit the use of telephone as a means of communication in Kenya. (4 marks)
11. 2004 P1
State four problems that may interfere with the effectiveness of face to face communication. (4 marks)
12. 2006 Q15 P1
Give four reasons why one would prefer a letter to a telephone to send a message. (4 marks)
13. 2007 Q2 P1
The following terms relate to communication: vertical, horizontal, formal and informal. Write the appropriate term of communication associated with each of the following statements.
14. 2007 Q1b P2
b) Explain four advantages of transaction business through e-commerce. (8 marks)
15. 2008 Q5 P1
Outline four benefits that may accrue to a business person who uses e-mail to communicate. (4 marks)
16. 2009 Q12 P1
Outline four circumstances under which face to face communication may be ineffective.
17. 2012 Q5 P1
Outline one circumstance under which each of the following telecommunication services may be used:
(b) Explain five elements of effective communication. (10 marks)
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
GUIDELINES ON TOPICS
MEANING OF TRANSPORT
Transport is the physical movement of people and goods from one place to another. It helps bridge the gap between producers and consumers hence creating place utility.
Importance of Transport to Business
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF TRANSPORT
In order for a transport system to function efficiently it should have certain basic elements, these elements are:
A. Unit(S) of carriage
This refers to anything i.e. vessel that is used to transport goods and people from one place to another. Units of carriage include: ships, trains, airplanes, motor vehicles, bicycles and carts. Units of carriage are also referred to as means of transport.
b. Methods of propulsion
This is the driving force (source of power) that makes a unit of carriage to move. The power for most vessels may be petroleum products, electricity, human force or animal power.
It refers to either the route or path passes by the vessel. The route can be on land, on water or through air. Examples of ways are roads, railways, paths, canals, seaways and airways. The ways can be classified into either natural ways or man made ways.
d. Terminals (terminuses)
The vessel used to carry goods and people starts from one destination and ends up at another. At these destinations the loading and off-loading take place respectively. The loading and off-loading places are referred to as terminals or terminus. Examples of terminuses are bus stations, airports and seaports.
MODES OF TRANSPORT
Mode refers to the manner in which transport is carried out. There are three modes of transport namely:
This mode of transport involves movement of goods and people using units of carriage that move on dry land. The various means under this mode includes:
This involves human beings carrying goods on their heads, shoulders or backs. Human Porterage as a means of transport is the oldest kind of transport and is still very common in our society. The means is suitable for transporting light luggage over short distances. It is also appropriate where other means of transport are not available or convenient.
Advantages of Human Porterage
Disadvantages of human Porterage
Carts are open vessels usually on two or four wheels that are pushed or pulled by either human being or animals such as oxen and donkeys. The carts pushed or pulled by human beings are referred to as hand carts or mikokoteni. The ones pulled by animals, on the other hand, are called animal driven carts. Carts are used to carry relatively large quantities compared to human Porterage. Like human Porterage, they are not suitable for long distances. Types of goods that are transported using this means include, agricultural produce, water and animal feeds.
Advantages of carts
Disadvantages of carts
These are means (units of carriage) of transport that ferry goods and people on roads. Vehicles are the most commonly used means of transport.
Vehicles are either passenger or goods carriers. Passenger carriers may be buses, matatus, taxis and private cars while goods are transported using Lorries, pick-ups, tankers and trailers. Vehicles are expensive to acquire and maintain. The convenience of vehicles may depend on the nature of the road on which they travel.
Some roads are impassible especially when it rains while others are usable throughout the year (all weather roads).Of special concern in road transport is the matatus. These are privately owned passenger vehicles which were introduced to supplement the existing mainstream transport companies that were inadequate at independence. They got their name from the amount of fare they used to charge originally that is, mapeni matatu. The operators have to obtain the relevant documents such as insurance cover in order to be allowed to operate. Their owners may form associations which take care of their interests along given routes or in certain areas.
Advantages of matatus
Disadvantages of matatus
Advantages of vehicles
Disadvantages of vehicles
Trains are vessels that transport goods and people on rails hence the term railways.
The terminuses of trains are the railways stations. Therefore; the goods to be transported by trains have to be taken to the railway station. Railway transport is suitable for heavy and bulky goods as well as passengers. There are two types of trains: cargo and passenger train.
Advantages of Trains
Disadvantages of Trains
This is the movement of liquids and gases from one place to another through a pipe. Products transported through pipes include water, gases, petrol and diesel. Solids that cannot be dissolved or damaged by water may also be transported through pipes as suspension. Examples coffee berries from machines to drying places. The pipeline is both a vessel and a way.
Products flow by the force of gravity or pressure from an original station. If the original terminal is at a higher level than the receiving terminal, the force of gravity is adequate to move the product. But if the receiving terminal is at a higher level than the original than the originating terminal, then power is required to pump the product uphill. For example, petroleum from Mombasa which is at sea level needs pressure to pump it to all the receiving stations.
Advantages of pipeline Transport
Disadvantages of pipeline Transport
It is a mode of transport where the units of carriage transport goods and people on water. Water in this case includes; navigable rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. The means of transport which are the units of carriage or vessels using this mode include; ships, dhows, boats, steamers and ferries. Water transport can be divided into inland waterways and sea transport.
This is transport carried out on lakes, rivers and inland canals. The Lake Victoria facilitates transport among the three east African countries i.e. Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Ferries also connect the mainland to islands such as Rusinga Islands, found in Lake Victoria.
Water hyacinth has however been a threat to transport on the lake. Most rivers in Kenya are not navigable due to reasons such as:
This is where goods and people are transported in seas and oceans. All types of water vessels may be used in sea transport. Sea transport is important as it connects continents of the world thereby facilitating international trade. Kilindini in Mombasa provides a good natural harbor facilitating sea transport between Kenya and other countries of the world. Ferries also connect the island of Mombasa and the mainland.
Types of Water vessels
A ship is a large vessel that transports people or goods through water. Their sizes however vary depending on quantity of goods and passengers they carry. Ships help in connecting countries or places which borders the sea. They load and offload in terminals referred to as harbors found at sea ports. For example, the Kilindini harbor is found in the port of Mombasa.
Ships that transport people are referred to as passenger ship while those that transport goods are referred to as cargo ships. Cargo ships are c are convenient for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
Ships may also be classified as either liners or tramps.
These are ships that are owned and operated by shipping companies called conferences. Each conference is responsible for specifying the route on which each liner would operate the rates to be charged and setting the rules and regulations to be followed by the members.
Characteristics of liners
These are ships that do not follow a regular route or time table. Their routes therefore depend on demand. During times when demand is high, they charge higher rates and when demand is low they lower their rates. Tramps can therefore be likened to matatus. Tramps may be owned by either individuals or firms.
Characteristics of tramps
When a trader hires an entire ship to transport goods to a given destination, he/she and the ship owner signs a document called a charter party. This document shows the terms and conditions under which the goods would be transported.
Other information included in the agreement are destination, nature of the goods and freight charges. When the ship is hired to carry goods for a given journey the document signed is referred to as voyage charter. On the other hand, if the ship is hired to transport goods for a given period of time, the document signed is called time charter.
Ships may be specially built to carry special commodities. These may include tankers specially built to transport petroleum products and other liquids. Refrigerated ships may also be available to transport perishable commodities such as meat, fish and fruits.
Boats and Ferries
These are water vessels used in transporting goods and people over short distances. They are therefore found in both inland water transport and also the sea transport, e.g. the Likoni ferry in Mombasa carries people from and to the island of Mombasa and the main land.
Advantages of water transport
Disadvantages of water transport
This refers to the movement of goods, people and documents by aircrafts. Aircrafts/ aeroplanes are the units of carriage and air the way. The terminals include airports and airstrips.
Aeroplanes are fast compared to other means of transport i.e. they are the fastest means of transport. They are therefore suitable for transporting urgently required goods like drugs and perishable goods Such as flowers over long distances.
Aircrafts may be classified as either passenger planes or cargo planes. Passenger planes transport people from one place to another. On the other hand, cargo planes transport light cargo to the required destinations. Aeroplanes may be fitted with special facilities for handling special goods. Aeroplanes are expensive to acquire and to maintain. Their operations may also be affected by weather conditions.
Advantages of Air Transport
Disadvantages of Air Transport
This is a recent development in transport. It refers to the packaging of goods in standardized ‘box like’ containers designed for use in transporting cargo. The containers are mainly made of metal though a few are made of wood. They can either be hired or bought from firms that provide them. The hired containers are returnable to the owner after the goods have been transported.
Containers are designed in a way appropriate to transport goods by ships, train, lorry or by air. To safeguard the goods against risks such as theft and unfavorable weather conditions the containers are sealed immediately after goods have been packed. The sealed containers are then transported up to the final destination where they are off-loaded. The consignee can then break the seal.
Goods can be transported in containers as Full Container Load (F.C.L) or as Less Container Load (L.C.L).Full container load applies where the container is filled with goods belonging to one person. In FCL, goods are delivered to the consignee intact. On the other hand, less than container load applies where a container is filled with goods belonging to several consignors. This may be the case where a single consigner does not have enough goods to fill a container. When such a container reaches the destination, it is opened and the various consignees take their goods.
There are special handling facilities for loading and offloading containers onto and from the units of carriage.
Apart from the container depot at Mombasa, Kenya Ports Authority (K.P.A) has established inland container depots referred dry ports. An example of a dry port is found at Embakasi in Nairobi. The establishment of dry ports aims at relieving congestion at the sea port. It also aims at making handling of cargo easier and efficient for inland importers and exporters.
When containers are off loaded from ships at Mombasa, they are loaded into special container trains called railtainer which transports them by railway to the inland container depot at Embakasi. Containers can also be transported by specially designed trucks between the ports or from the port to consumer’s destination.
Advantages of containerization
Disadvantages of containerization
Factors that influence the choice of appropriate means of transport
TRENDS IN TRANSPORT
TRANSPORT kcse questions
1. 1995 P1
Give three disadvantages of railway transport in Kenya. (4 marks)
2. 1995 P1
Give three disadvantages of railway transport in Kenya (3 marks)
3. 1995 P2
Explain five reasons that may account for continued use of handcarts as a mode of transport in Kenya. (12 marks)
4. 1996 P1
State four circumstances under which a businessman would choose to transport goods by air? (4 marks)
5. 1996 P2
The oil pipeline has recently been extended from Nairobi to western Kenya. Explain five benefits that may be accounted to the country from the extension. (10 marks)
6. 1997 P1
Outline four reasons why a school in Kisumu may prefer to transport its sixty students to a music festival in Nairobi by train rather than by bus. (4 marks)
7. 1998 P1
List four disadvantages of using containers to transport goods. (4 marks)
8. 1998 P2
Discuss five factors that have hindered the expansion of railway transport in Kenya.
9. 1999 P1
Give five reasons why a manufacturing firm would be located in an area well served by good road network. (4 marks)
10. 1999 P1
Outline four limitations of containerization. (4 marks)
11. 1999 P2
Explain five features of an efficient transport system (8 marks)
12. 2000 P1
State four reasons why road transport is popular in Kenya. (4 marks)
13. 2000 P2
Explain the advantages of pipeline as a mode of transporting oil products. (12 marks)
14. 2001 P1
State four ways in which the nature of goods would influence the choice of transport. (4 marks)
15. 2002 P1
Outline four reasons why a transporter of goods from Mombasa to Nairobi may prefer rail transport to road transport. (4 marks)
16. 2002 P2
Outline five factors that should be considered when choosing a means of transport. (10 marks)
17. 2003 P1
State the unit of carriage for each of the following modes of transport. (5marks)
18. 2003 P2
Explain six advantages of containerization as a mode of transport. (10 marks)
19. 2004 P1
List four ways in which transport promotes growth of trade. (4 marks)
20. 2004 P2
Discuss six factors that may discourage the use of pipeline as a means of transporting petroleum products in a country. (12 marks)
21. 2005 P2
Discuss five circumstances under which a trader may choose to transport goods by rail. (10 marks)
22. 2006 Q5a P2
a) Outline five factors that may limit the use of containers as a method of transporting goods in a developing country. (10 marks)
23. 2007 Q11 P1
State four circumstances under which air transport may be used to ferry goods (4 marks)
24. 2008 Q14 P1
Outline four factors that a trader would consider in choosing a mode of transport. (4 marks)
25. 2009 Q11 P1
Outline four factors that should be considered in the choice of a means for transporting perishable goods (4 marks)
26. 2009 Q2a P2
(a)Explain five demerits that may be associated with water transport. (10 marks)
27. 2010 Q18 P1
State four reasons why flower exporters would transport their produce by air rather than by sea. (4 marks)
GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS;
It can be cashed at any post office
Can only be cashed at a specific post office
Are in fixed denominations
Varies according to the needs of the remitter
Does not require any application form to make a remittance
Requires the filling of an application form in making remittance
Can be cashed by the bearer
Can only be cashed by the payee
Value can be increased by affixing revenue stamps
Value cannot be increased by affixing revenue stamps
Bill of Exchange
Drawn and signed by the debtor
Drawn and signed by the creditor
It does not need to be accepted
It must be accepted by the debtor for it to be valid
The drawer and drawee are one person
The drawer is the creditor and the drawee is the debtor
The pro-forma invoice
It is issued after goods and services have been delivered
It is issued before goods and services have been delivered
It shows the total value of the goods or services on credit
Shows the total value of goods and services to be bought
It is used to demand payment for products sold on credit
It is used to demand for payment in advance for products to be bought
Used as a basis for making payment for products already bought
Used as a basis for preparing payment for products not yet bought
Serves as a notice of payment for products bought on credit
Serves as a Quotation for products to be bought.
Issued to correct an undercharge on the invoice.
Issued to correct an overcharge on the invoice.
Written on blue or black.
Usually written in red
Issued when containers have not been returned
Issued when containers have been returned.
Document sent by buyer
Document sent by seller
Letter of inquiry
Goods received note
Goods returned note
Pro forma invoice
Statement of account
Owner is free to stock whatever he/she wishes
Dealership can be withdrawn if operators stock competing products
Owned by individual or a group of people
The owner is normally the manufacturer
Sells products from different manufacturers
Sells products from a single manufacturer
Design of shop according to owners wish
Shops usually have the same design
Prices of goods determined by shop owner or different manufactures
Prices of goods set by the manufacturer
Operators not trained by manufacturers
Operators are usually trained by manufacturer
BUSINESS STUDIES FORM 3 NOTES
BUSINESS STUDIES NOTES
CHAIN OF DISTRIBUTION
DOCUMENTS USED IN HOME TRADE
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING
FORM 3 BUSINESS STUDIES NOTES
FORMS OF BUSINESS UNITS
Introduction To Business Studies
Means Of Payments
MONEY & BANKING
SATISFACTION OF HUMAN WANTS
Terms Of Payments
THE LEDGER AND THE CASHBOOK
THEORY OF THE FIRM
P.O Box 1189 - 40200 Kisii
Tel: 0728 450 424
Tel: 0738 619 279
Tel: 0763 450 425
E-mail - firstname.lastname@example.org