United States of America
Factors influencing the industrialization of USA.
The unification of Germany took place in 1871 after which she began to emerge as an industrial power. Emergence of Germany as an industrial power was aided as by the following factors.
Factors which enabled Germany to recover after world war two.
Japan is a nation that has achieved a great deal in industrialization. In the 18th c, Japan was faced with civil wars. Later she made contacts with the west, through which her leaders realized that industrialization could strengthen Japan as a nation. Great strides towards industrialization were made during the reign of Emperor Meiji from 1896.
Factors that enabled Japan to emerge as an industrial power.
Industrialization in the third world countries.
The term ‘Third world’ refers to developing nations of Africa, Asia and South America. Most of them are former colonies of European powers and there resources were used to develop the mother countries during the colonial period.
Reasons why many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization.
The fifth largest nation in the world after Russia, Canada, USA and China, she was colonized by Portugal and attained her independence in 1882. In the last 25 years, she has been able to expand and diversify production of manufactured goods. Her industrialization has been in four main sectors namely;
Factors that have facilitated industrialization in Brazil.
Obstacles to industrialization in Brazil.
She attained majority rule in 1994 after a long struggle against the apartheid regime. The country has achieved great strides in industrialization with many industries including iron and steel industries, engineering, locomotive, chemical, textile, cement, light industries and tourism
Factors influencing industrialization in South Africa.
Challenges facing industrialization in South Africa.
Since India’s independence from Britain in 1947, the country has continued to experience extensive industrialization
Factors that facilitated India’s industrialization.
Challenges facing industrialization in India.
Science is the systematic study of the nature and behaviour of the material and physical universe based on observation. The scientific revolution refers to the history of science in the early modern period, where sudden development in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
Causes of scientific revolution.
Scientific inventions have roots in the ancient civilization in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China and India. Early inventions were witnessed in the field of medicine, astronomy, agriculture, medicine and mathematics as follows;
Impact of scientific inventions
Impact of scientific inventions on agriculture
Food production has been increased thanks to the use of farm machinery, fertilizers, pest
and control methods and scientific breeding. Hybrid seeds have been developed together with new animal breeds.
Scientific inventions have stimulated scientific research in the field of agriculture. This is done in schools, agricultural institutes and colleges.
Farming of perishable foods has been made possible due to invention of preservation methods for foods like canning and refrigeration.
Increased food production has led to increase in population. There is increased food security. There is also increased trade.
Biotechnology has contributed to diversification of agriculture leading to greater crop and animal production.
Farming has been revolutionized from small-scale subsistence farming to large –scale economic activity due to mechanization on farm
Negative impacts of scientific inventions on agriculture
Impact of scientific inventions on industry.
Negative impact of scientific inventions on industry.
Impact of scientific inventions on medicine
Factors undermining scientific revolution in third world countries.
Measures that can be undertaken to promote scientific research in third world countries.
This change, which occurred between 1750 and 1830, happened because conditions were perfect in Britain for the Industrial Revolution. The transformation was facilitated by the following factors;
Industrialization in Continental Europe
The Industrial Revolution on Continental Europe came a little later than in Great Britain.
Reasons why other European countries delayed in the industrialization process.
Factors that led to industrial development in continental Europe
Effects of the industrial revolution in Europe.
The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, and then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, Northern America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world. The industrial revolution in Europe occurred in two phases; The old phase was from 175-1850 and began in Britain and spread to other European countries like France (1825), Germany (1840), Belgium (1870) and Russia (1890). In USA, it began after the American civil war of 1861 to 1865. In Japan it began in 1900. In Kenya, it is hoped to be done by 2030.
Characteristics of industrial revolution in Europe.
Uses of Various Sources of Energy.
This is a compact black or dark brown, carbonaceous rock which is a fuel and source of coke, coal gas and coal tar. Abraham Darby invented the process by which coal was turned into coke in 1709 thus discovered that coal produced immense heat. Coke was used to smelt iron.
Uses of coal.
Petroleum.(often referred to as oil)
Iron was not really a source of energy but the industrial revolution was dependant on the availability of iron
Uses of iron.
Stainless steel, commonly used in cutlery is an alloy of Steel and Chromium.
Uses of steel.
Industry is defined as the skill of making other products from raw materials. It involves extraction and processing into finished products of raw materials
Early Sources of Energy.
Energy is the ability to do work. The following are the early sources of energy that can be identified.
Wood was developed as a source of energy after the discovery of fire. It was used as follows;
Uses of metals in Africa
The age of metals in Africa is divided into the Bronze and Iron Age. Man moved from the Stone Age to the age of metals because metals had the following advantages;
This was the first metal to be used by humankind. It was used in Meroe, Egypt, Wangara in Ghana and in Central Africa. Gold is malleable and therefore it could be easily moulded into the desired shape without smelting it. Its softness however implied that tools made from gold could bend easily. It was also heavy and could not be found everywhere.
Uses of Gold.
Though quite soft, copper as harder than Gold and could make better tools. The Egyptians were the earliest people to use copper by 3000 BC. The metal could further be hardened by mixing it with other metals to form alloys during smelting.
Uses of copper.
Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin which makes it harder than copper. It was used during the Bronze Age. In Africa Bronze was used among the Yoruba, Dahomey and Asante in Nigeria and in Benin. And also in Egypt. Benin was the centre of Bronze.
Uses of Bronze.
Two theories that explain the origin and spread of iron working in Africa are;
Ways in which the iron culture spread in Africa.
Definition of Transport
a) Traditional means of transport
Also referred to as the ship of the desert. What makes a camel ideal in desert transport?
Advantages of animal transport.
KCSE History revision papers and answers; also Mocks
History and Government Exams of 21st Century with marking schemes
Importance of space exploration to man.
What is National Integration?
Integration means unification into a whole. - The act of combining or bring together various parts in a way that makes them one. National integration refers to the process by which various components of a nation are brought together into a whole leading to national unity
Importance of National Integration
Why is National Integration a priority in Kenya?
Warning: Vicious Pictures
In the absense of integration and lack of goodwill, this is what happens
How do proponents of violence look like?
Factors that promote national unity in Kenya
Factors that undermine national unity in Kenya
Impunity creates undisputed war mongers
Steps have been taken by the Kenyan government to promote national integration since independence
Levels of conflicts found in Kenya
The factors that cause conflict
Peaceful methods of conflict resolution
a) Diplomacy/negotiation. This is a dialogue between two warring parties in order to reach an agreement over a dispute. The following steps are followed in negotiation;
Steps followed in mediation;
e) Legislation – where the parliament passes laws to control conflict.
f) Workshops – this is where conflicting parties talk in the presence of facilitators and tries to work out a resolution to the problem.
g) Arms inspection – the government in order to build confidence and prevent misunderstanding between warring parties carries it out.
Negative methods of conflict resolution
a. Subjugation (use of war)
b. Avoiding responsibility and refusing to accept defeat
Under what circumstances violent method may be used in resolving conflict?
a. When law and order is broken and the alternative is the use of force
b. In case of serious social unrest
c. Striking students or workers, street mobs and bandits
What is citizenship?
This refers to the legal right of a person to belong to a particular country. A Kenyan citizen is a person who has the legal right to belong, live and do freely all that has to do with their life in Kenya.
Becoming a Kenyan Citizen
Ways in which Kenyan citizenship can be acquired.
The following are the Ways through which citizenship by birth is acquired in Kenya.
Conditions for qualification to apply for Citizenship by registration are as follows:
Revocation of citizenship
The revocation of citizenship by registration may happen under the following circumstances.
The concept of “Dual citizenship”.
A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country.
Rights and responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.
Human rights refers to the accepted principles of fairness and justice- or the universal moral rights that belong equally to all people in their capacity as human beings.
Components of human rights.
Every human right must fulfill these three fundamental conditions;
Human rights and fundamental freedoms are recognized and protected in the constitution because they preserve the dignity of individuals and communities, and promote social justice
The rights and freedoms protected in the Bill of Rights.
1. Right to life.
Limitations of the right to life
Every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment. It is our duty to ensure that the environment is protected for the benefit of present and future generations. The following are the obligations set by the government in order to achieve a clean and healthy environment.
14. Freedom of conscience, religion, belief and opinion.
16. Freedom of media.
23. Access to justice.
An arrested person has;
Every person has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved through a court hearing be resolved in such a manner that will accord him or her fair and public hearing. An accused person has the following rights;
26. Rights of persons detained, held in custody or imprisoned.
Fundamental rights that might not be limited;
Rights enjoyed by Children in Kenya
Rights enjoyed by Persons with disabilities in Kenya
Rights of the Youth in Kenya
Rights of Minorities and marginalized groups in Kenya
Rights of older members of society in Kenya
Circumstances, which may force the Kenya government to limit the freedoms and rights of an individual
Other responsibilities of a citizen
Values of good citizenship -
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....
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