United States of America
Factors influencing the industrialization of USA.
The unification of Germany took place in 1871 after which she began to emerge as an industrial power. Emergence of Germany as an industrial power was aided as by the following factors.
Factors which enabled Germany to recover after world war two.
Japan is a nation that has achieved a great deal in industrialization. In the 18th c, Japan was faced with civil wars. Later she made contacts with the west, through which her leaders realized that industrialization could strengthen Japan as a nation. Great strides towards industrialization were made during the reign of Emperor Meiji from 1896.
Factors that enabled Japan to emerge as an industrial power.
Industrialization in the third world countries.
The term ‘Third world’ refers to developing nations of Africa, Asia and South America. Most of them are former colonies of European powers and there resources were used to develop the mother countries during the colonial period.
Reasons why many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization.
The fifth largest nation in the world after Russia, Canada, USA and China, she was colonized by Portugal and attained her independence in 1882. In the last 25 years, she has been able to expand and diversify production of manufactured goods. Her industrialization has been in four main sectors namely;
Factors that have facilitated industrialization in Brazil.
Obstacles to industrialization in Brazil.
She attained majority rule in 1994 after a long struggle against the apartheid regime. The country has achieved great strides in industrialization with many industries including iron and steel industries, engineering, locomotive, chemical, textile, cement, light industries and tourism
Factors influencing industrialization in South Africa.
Challenges facing industrialization in South Africa.
Since India’s independence from Britain in 1947, the country has continued to experience extensive industrialization
Factors that facilitated India’s industrialization.
Challenges facing industrialization in India.
Science is the systematic study of the nature and behaviour of the material and physical universe based on observation. The scientific revolution refers to the history of science in the early modern period, where sudden development in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
Causes of scientific revolution.
Scientific inventions have roots in the ancient civilization in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China and India. Early inventions were witnessed in the field of medicine, astronomy, agriculture, medicine and mathematics as follows;
Impact of scientific inventions
Impact of scientific inventions on agriculture
Food production has been increased thanks to the use of farm machinery, fertilizers, pest
and control methods and scientific breeding. Hybrid seeds have been developed together with new animal breeds.
Scientific inventions have stimulated scientific research in the field of agriculture. This is done in schools, agricultural institutes and colleges.
Farming of perishable foods has been made possible due to invention of preservation methods for foods like canning and refrigeration.
Increased food production has led to increase in population. There is increased food security. There is also increased trade.
Biotechnology has contributed to diversification of agriculture leading to greater crop and animal production.
Farming has been revolutionized from small-scale subsistence farming to large –scale economic activity due to mechanization on farm
Negative impacts of scientific inventions on agriculture
Impact of scientific inventions on industry.
Negative impact of scientific inventions on industry.
Impact of scientific inventions on medicine
Factors undermining scientific revolution in third world countries.
Measures that can be undertaken to promote scientific research in third world countries.
This change, which occurred between 1750 and 1830, happened because conditions were perfect in Britain for the Industrial Revolution. The transformation was facilitated by the following factors;
Industrialization in Continental Europe
The Industrial Revolution on Continental Europe came a little later than in Great Britain.
Reasons why other European countries delayed in the industrialization process.
Factors that led to industrial development in continental Europe
Effects of the industrial revolution in Europe.
The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, and then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, Northern America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world. The industrial revolution in Europe occurred in two phases; The old phase was from 175-1850 and began in Britain and spread to other European countries like France (1825), Germany (1840), Belgium (1870) and Russia (1890). In USA, it began after the American civil war of 1861 to 1865. In Japan it began in 1900. In Kenya, it is hoped to be done by 2030.
Characteristics of industrial revolution in Europe.
Uses of Various Sources of Energy.
This is a compact black or dark brown, carbonaceous rock which is a fuel and source of coke, coal gas and coal tar. Abraham Darby invented the process by which coal was turned into coke in 1709 thus discovered that coal produced immense heat. Coke was used to smelt iron.
Uses of coal.
Petroleum.(often referred to as oil)
Iron was not really a source of energy but the industrial revolution was dependant on the availability of iron
Uses of iron.
Stainless steel, commonly used in cutlery is an alloy of Steel and Chromium.
Uses of steel.
Definition of Transport
a) Traditional means of transport
Also referred to as the ship of the desert. What makes a camel ideal in desert transport?
Advantages of animal transport.
KCSE History revision papers and answers; also Mocks
History and Government Exams of 21st Century with marking schemes
Importance of space exploration to man.
What is National Integration?
Integration means unification into a whole. - The act of combining or bring together various parts in a way that makes them one. National integration refers to the process by which various components of a nation are brought together into a whole leading to national unity
Importance of National Integration
Why is National Integration a priority in Kenya?
Warning: Vicious Pictures
In the absense of integration and lack of goodwill, this is what happens
How do proponents of violence look like?
Factors that promote national unity in Kenya
Factors that undermine national unity in Kenya
Impunity creates undisputed war mongers
Steps have been taken by the Kenyan government to promote national integration since independence
Levels of conflicts found in Kenya
The factors that cause conflict
Peaceful methods of conflict resolution
a) Diplomacy/negotiation. This is a dialogue between two warring parties in order to reach an agreement over a dispute. The following steps are followed in negotiation;
Steps followed in mediation;
e) Legislation – where the parliament passes laws to control conflict.
f) Workshops – this is where conflicting parties talk in the presence of facilitators and tries to work out a resolution to the problem.
g) Arms inspection – the government in order to build confidence and prevent misunderstanding between warring parties carries it out.
Negative methods of conflict resolution
a. Subjugation (use of war)
b. Avoiding responsibility and refusing to accept defeat
Under what circumstances violent method may be used in resolving conflict?
a. When law and order is broken and the alternative is the use of force
b. In case of serious social unrest
c. Striking students or workers, street mobs and bandits
What is citizenship?
This refers to the legal right of a person to belong to a particular country. A Kenyan citizen is a person who has the legal right to belong, live and do freely all that has to do with their life in Kenya.
Becoming a Kenyan Citizen
Ways in which Kenyan citizenship can be acquired.
The following are the Ways through which citizenship by birth is acquired in Kenya.
Conditions for qualification to apply for Citizenship by registration are as follows:
Revocation of citizenship
The revocation of citizenship by registration may happen under the following circumstances.
The concept of “Dual citizenship”.
A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country.
Rights and responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.
Human rights refers to the accepted principles of fairness and justice- or the universal moral rights that belong equally to all people in their capacity as human beings.
Components of human rights.
Every human right must fulfill these three fundamental conditions;
Human rights and fundamental freedoms are recognized and protected in the constitution because they preserve the dignity of individuals and communities, and promote social justice
The rights and freedoms protected in the Bill of Rights.
1. Right to life.
Limitations of the right to life
Every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment. It is our duty to ensure that the environment is protected for the benefit of present and future generations. The following are the obligations set by the government in order to achieve a clean and healthy environment.
14. Freedom of conscience, religion, belief and opinion.
16. Freedom of media.
23. Access to justice.
An arrested person has;
Every person has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved through a court hearing be resolved in such a manner that will accord him or her fair and public hearing. An accused person has the following rights;
26. Rights of persons detained, held in custody or imprisoned.
Fundamental rights that might not be limited;
Rights enjoyed by Children in Kenya
Rights enjoyed by Persons with disabilities in Kenya
Rights of the Youth in Kenya
Rights of Minorities and marginalized groups in Kenya
Rights of older members of society in Kenya
Circumstances, which may force the Kenya government to limit the freedoms and rights of an individual
Other responsibilities of a citizen
Values of good citizenship -
- Local trade refers to the exchange of goods among members of a community. Regional trade involves exchange of goods between a community and her neigbouring communities.
- Long distance trade was the exchange of trade goods between communities over long distance, for example between the east African interior and the east African coast.
The organization of long distance trade
- The communities that participated in the long distance trade were the Akamba, Swahili, Arabs, Yao, nyamwezi, Mijikenda and Baganda.
- The trade developed because of the demand for ivory in Europe and the United States of America, slaves for plantation agriculture at the coast and in Mauritius and reunion sugar plantations
- Ivory and slaves from the interior were exchanged for cloth. Utensils, ironware, zinc and beads at the coast.The system of trade were barter.
- The middlemen included the Mijikenda and the Akamba who obtained slaves and ivory from the interior. The Akamba adopted the long distance trade after the outbreak of famine in 1836 and due to the central location of their country.
- The Akamba organized caravans that left for the coast on weekly basis to sell ivory, gum copra, honey, bees wax, rhinoceros horns and skins. They had prosperous traders like chief Kivoi who is remembered for organizing the trade.
- They set up markets and routes in the interior.
- The source of slaves and ivory extended as far as Mt. Kenya region, Baringo and the shores of Lake Victoria.
- The trade led to the development of Mombasa and Lamu as important market points.
- The Waswahili and Mijikenda traders were also used in the trading caravans to the interior.
- By 1860s, Arabs and Swahili traders started penetrating to the interior of Kenya as far as Uganda.
- In Kenya, the main trading centres were taveta, Mbooni hills, elureko in Wanga and Miazini near Ngong and along Lake Baringo.
- By 1870, the Akamba dominance in the trade declined as a result of competition from the Arab and Waswahili traders who began penetrating into the interior to get goods from the source.
- Movement between the interior and the coast was carried out in caravans along well defined routes.
- The trade routes became insecure due to the Oromo and Maasai raids.
- The abolition of slave trade also affected the long distance trade.
- In Tanganyika, the Yao, nyamwezi, Arabs and Waswahili were great traders. The Yao exchanged tobacco, hoes, and animal skins at Kilwa with imported goods like cloth and beads. They were also the principal suppliers of ivory and slaves to Kilwa. The Yao were the most active long distance traders in east Africa.
- The Arabs and Waswahili traders organized caravans into the interior and set up markets and trade routes. They were given security by Seyyid said who signed treaties with Chief Fundikira of the Nyamwezi to allow the Arab traders to pass through his territory.
- They established interior Arab settlements at Tabora which became the centre of Arab culture.
- The nyamwezi organized trading expeditions under their chiefs upto the coast with ivory, copper, slaves, wax hoes, salt and copra. They returned with cloths, beads and mirrors. They established trade routes such as the route from Ujiji via Tabora to Bagamoyo. They travelled to Katanga in DRC for iron, salt and copper. By 1850 nyamwezi merchants such as Msiri, and leaders like Nyungu ya Mawe and Mirambo played a key role in the trade development.
- When the Arab and Waswahili traders arrived in Buganda, the kabaka welcomed them because he needed their goods such as beads, cloths, guns etc. He also wanted assistance in aiding his neighbours. E.g the invasion of Busoga in 1848 was assisted by the Arab traders. From the raids to Bunyoro, Toro, and ankole and Buvuma and Ukerewe islands, the Baganda acquired cattle, ivory, slaves and grains which the sold to the Arabs.
- The Khartoumers also practiced long distance trade. They raided the northern part of Uganda for ivory and slaves.
- Arab and Waswahili traders ventured into the Bunyoro kingdom by 1877 for ivory.
- There were three main trade routes that linked east African coast and the interior;
- a)From Mombasa through the Mijikenda area onto Taita-taveta then branching into two. One leading to Kilimanjaro onto the Lake Victoria region the diversion was to evade the hostile Maasai. . The other branch proceeded northwards from taveta across Galana River into Ukambani then to mt Kenya region and further west. Taveta became an important point on these routes.
- b) The route from Kilwa to Yao then branching southwards to Cewa in Zimbabwe.
- c) From Bagamoyo to Tabora where it branched northwards to Buganda and another branch to Ujiji then to Zaire.
Effects of the Long distance trade on the people of East Africa
- a) The trade led to Development of towns e.g. Mombasa, Lamu, Kilwa, Pemba and Zanzibar.
- b) It increased the volume of local and regional trade as varieties of new goods were introduced.
- c) There was the Emergence of a class of wealthy Africans along the coast and the interior as Arab, African and Waswahili merchants acquired a lot of wealth. E.g. Kivoi of Ukambani, Ngonyo of Mijikenda, Tippu tip, Msiri, Nyungu ya mawe of nyamwezi, Mwakikonga of the Digo etc.
- d) There was Introduction of foreign goods such as beads, cloth and plates to the peoples of East Africa.
- e) The trade led to Introduction of new crops to the coast e.g. bananas, rice sugarcane and mangoes.
- f) Arab and Waswahili traders introduced Islam to the East African Coast. They also introduced Islamic culture along the coast.
- g) Development of plantation agriculture in Malindi and Mombasa due increased slave trade.
- h) It led to the development of trade routes and market centres in the region. Such routes later became important highways during the colonial rule and upto today.
- i) Traders gave reports about the coast, its strategic and commercial stability leading to the colonization of East Africa.
- j) It led to the development of a money economy that replaced barter trade
- k) The trade facilitated the colonization of east Africa as the interior was exposed to the outside world.
Development and organization of international trade.
Factors that facilitated the development of international trade
- a) The existing earlier trade links between east Africa and the Far East before this period.
- b) The existence of regional trade which became a means through which goods such as ivory were acquired from the interior to be used in the international trade.
- c) The role played by Seyyid said through encouraging the foreign traders to come to the coast. He even signed treaties with them. He also gave letters of introduction to the Arab caravans leading into the interior.
- d) The improvement of the monetary system by Seyyid said facilitated the trade. He introduced the small copper coins from India to supplement the silver currency (Maria Theresa dollars and the Spanish Crown). He also employed the services of the Indian Banyans or Baluchis (Money Lenders) who organized credit facilities for the caravans going into the interior.
- e) There was a high demand for goods from the coast and the international community. Trade goods on demand were also readily available. E.g Gold ivory slaves cloths, beads, and guns.
- f) The existence of deep natural harbours and the attractive beaches lured many foreigners to the region.
- g) The existence of a class of wealthy merchants facilitated the trade.
- h) The establishment of specific trade routes and markets such as Zanzibar, Kilwa and Mombasa facilitated the movement and exchange of goods.
- i) The sultan’s identification of Britain as the sole trading agents in the interior overcame any rivalries which could have led to competition and decline of regional trade which would have in turn affected the international trade.
- j) The development of a sound trading policy by Seyyid said to ensure international market for his grains, coconuts and ivory. He developed trade links with Europe and America by signing treaties with USA in 1833 that opened a consulate in Zanzibar in 1837. He signed a similar treaty with Britain in 1839 that opened a consulate in Zanzibar in 1941. With France in 1844 and Germany in 1871.
- The arrival of IBEACo with William McKinnon further strengthened international trade links and increased the volume trade.
Consequences of international trade
- a) Through the trade, the east African coast was exposed to the outside world.
- b) Some of the European traders later spread their faith thus leading o the spread of Christianity in east Africa.
- c) The international trade fostered good relations between the east African coast and European nations and USA.
- d) The contacts between the coast and European powers later contributed to the colonization o east Africa by Britain and Germany.
- e) New trade goods and crops were introduced to the coast.
- f) Participants in the trade grew richer and exhibited high standards of living.
- g) The slave trade led to sufferings, killings and increased warfare.
Slavery: The state of being enslaved: It’s a system where by some people are owned by others and are forced to work for others without being paid for the work they have done.
- It involves capturing, transporting of human beings who become the ‘property’ of the buyer.
- The slave trade was one of the worst crimes against humanity.
- The trade was started by Arabs who wanted labour for domestic use and for their plantations. However, they were later joined by Europeans..
Reasons for the rise of slave trade
- During the second half of the 18th century, France opened up larger sugar plantations on the islands of Reunion, Mauritius and in the Indian Ocean. African slaves were thus recruited from East Africa to go and work in those plantations.
- Africans were considered physically fit to work in harsh climatic conditions compared to the native red Indians and Europeans. This greatly increased the demand for the indigenous people (slaves).
- The increased demand for sugar and cotton in Europe led to their increase in price and therefore more labour (slaves) was needed in the British colonies of West Indies and America.
- Strong desire for European goods by African chiefs like Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe forced them to acquire slaves in exchange for manufactured goods such as brass, metal ware, cotton cloth, beads, spirits such as whisky, guns and gun powder.
- The existence and recognition of slavery in East Africa societies. Domestic and child slavery already existed therefore Africans were willing to exchange slaves for European goods.
- The huge profits enjoyed by middlemen like Arab Swahili traders encouraged the traders to get deeply involved in the trade.
- The suitable winds and currents (monsoon winds) which eased transportation for slave traders greatly contributed to the rise of slave trade.
- The Legalization of slave trade in 1802 by Napoleon 1 of France increased the demand for slaves in all French Colonies.
- The increased number of criminals, war captives, destitute forced African chiefs to sell them off as slaves.
- The Oman Arabs contributed to the rise in the demand for slaves. This is because they acted as middlemen between the African Swahili people, the Portuguese and French traders. They therefore worked very hard to get slaves in order to obtain revenue from them.
- The invention of Spanish mines in West indices increased slave demands to work in the mines.
- The exodus of slaves from East Africa to Northeast Africa, Arabia and Persia contributed to the increase in the demand for slaves. It led to an enormous number of slaves obtained from East Africa being transported to other countries.
- The movement of Seyyid Said’s capital to Zanzibar led to an increase in slave trade. This is because when Seyyid said settled in Zanzibar in 1840, he embarked on strong plans to open up slave trade routes to the interior of East Africa. This boosted slave trade, whereby the number of slaves being sold at the slave market in Zanzibar annually by that time, reached between 40000 and 45000 thousand slaves.
- The outbreak of diseases like Nagana led to an increase in slave trade. This is because the beasts of burden (i.e. camels, donkeys, etc) could not be taken on many of the caravan routes. It therefore necessitated people themselves to be involved in the transportation of the trade goods and ivory. Such people included porters who were regarded as slaves, or free Africans who could sell their services in return for cloth and other trade goods.
- Development of long distance trade that needed slaves to transport goods from the interior of East Africa.
- Plantation farming increased in some areas, especially the clove plantations were slaves worked.
Organization of slave trade in E. Africa
- Arab Swahili traders
- African chiefs
Ways of obtaining slaves
- Selling of domestic slaves in exchange for goods like beads, guns, glass etc
- Selling of criminals, debtors and social misfits in society by the local chiefs to the Arab slave traders.
- Prisoners of war could be sold off.
- Porters were sometimes kidnapped, transported and sold off to the Arab traders.
- Raiding villages, this would begin at night with gun shoots and people would scatter consequently leading to their capture.
- Through inter tribal wars many Africans become destitutes and these would be captured by the slave traders.
- Tax offenders were sold off by the African chiefs.
- They were also captured through ambushes during hunting, travelling and gardening.
- Slaves would be acquired from the main slave trade market in Zanzibar.
- Other Africans are also said to have gone voluntarily in anticipation of great wonders and benefits from the Arab Swahili traders.
Slave journey: -
- Slaves' journey was a difficult one. They moved long distances on foot.
- Chained, whipped and sometimes killed on the way.
- Had little food and water and experienced extreme suffering.
- This is illustrated by a Quotation from Dr. David Livingstone’s Last Journal. London 1878: “We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead …we saw others tied up in a similar manner, and one lying in the path shot or stabbed for she was in a pool of blood. The explanation we got invariably was that the Arab who owned these victims was enraged at losing the money by the slaves becoming unable to march.”
- The main slave market where slaves were auctioned was at Zanzibar.
- The journey across the India Ocean was horrible.
- Crowded in ships with hardly any space to breath. Ships carried anything from 250 to 600 slaves. They were very overcrowded and packed like spoons with no room even to turn.
- Whenever they saw anti-slave trade people, slaves would be thrown in the ocean
- As a result many died in the process.
Effects/Impact of slave trade on people of E. Africa.
- a) New foods were introduced through trade routes like maize, pawpaws, rice, groundnuts both at the coast and in the interior.
- b) Plantation farming increased in some areas, especially the clove plantations were slaves worked.
- c) The interior was opened to the outside world this later encouraged the coming of European missionaries. Many European Christian missionaries came to East Africa to preach against slave trade and to campaign for its abolition.
- d) The trade routes became permanent routes and inland roads which led to growth of communication networks.
- e) Swahili was introduced in land and is now being widely spoken in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Eastern Congo.
- f) Islam as a religion was introduced by Arabs and it spread, especially in Yao land and in Buganda land.
- g) A new race called Swahili was formed through intermarriages between Arabs and some Africans.
- h) There was growth of Arab towns such as Tabora and Ujiji inland.
- i) There was emergence of dynamic leaders such as Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
- j) Slave trade strengthened the large and powerful states, which could easily get access to guns at the expense of small ones.
- k) Slave trade led to a situation whereby power became centralized and no longer with the small, local authority (segimentary societies) mainly to enable African chiefs directly control slave trade.
- l) Slave trade encouraged large-scale trade whereby contact was established between the trade masters and indigenous/local population.
- m) Africans were dispersed to other parts of the world e.g Arabia, America and West Indies. In Africa, Sierra-Leone and Liberia were founded to accommodate former slaves from Europe and America.
- a) African population was reduced; people who would have been great leaders and empire builders were killed. It is estimated that over 15 to 30 million people were sold in to slavery while other millions died in the process being transported.
- b) Slave trade brought misery, suffering and lowered the quality of people in East Africa this is because they were reduced to ‘commodities’ which could be bought and sold on land.
- c) Villages and families were destroyed and broken up by slave raiders and never to be reunited this later resulted in to loss of identity.
- d) Diseases broke out among the overcrowded slaves for example the Spaniards introduced Syphilis and soon it spread to other traders.
- e) Slave trade led to displacement of people and many became homeless and destitute many and stayed in Europe with no identity.
- f) Economic activities such as farming were disrupted. This is because the young and able craftsmen, traders and farmers were carried off, causing economic stagnation as the economic workforce depleted.
- g) Progress slowed down, which resulted in famine, poverty and destitution and helplessness.
- h) There was a decline in production of traditional goods such as coffee, beans, bark cloth and iron which greatly hindered the cash economy.
- i) There was a decline in African industries which also faced a lot of competition from imported manufactured goods for example the Bark cloth and iron working industries.
- j) Guns were introduced into the interior which caused a lot of insecurity and increased incidences of wars for territorial expansion.
- k) Clans and tribal units, languages were broken and inter-tribal peace was disturbed for example Swahili language replaced the traditional languages in the interior.
Abolition of slave trade
- Reasons why it was difficult to stop slave trade
- Slavery existed before in Africa societies that is to say, domestic slavery and internal slave trade, which provided a favourable situation for continuation of the lucrative slave trade.
- The Abolition movement which had begun in Britain and her overseas territory first took effect in West Africa. The decline in West African trade encouraged the expansion of trade in East Africa especially with America and West Indies.
- Slave trade was difficult to stop because of division of African tribes against each other .This meant that African tribes would find it difficult to unite together and resist the slave traders, who raided their societies using organized bands of men.
- Disregard of human life, many African rulers tended to put less value for the lives of their subjects whom they ruled for example quite often, a ruler of a tribe would easily order his warriors to attack the villages of his subjects and seize their property, kill some of them.
- Active participation and willing cooperation of African chiefs and coastal traders who were making a lot of profits made the slave trade last for so long.
- Many European countries depended on the products of slave labour in West Indies and America for example, British industries depended on raw sugar, raw cotton and unprocessed minerals from America which she was not willing to lose.
- European slave merchants and Africans involved in the trade were blinded by the huge profits made from the trade.
- There was smuggling of slaves outside the forbidden areas. Slave traders would pretend to sail northwards when sighted by British patrol ships but would change course after British navy ships had disappeared.
- Other European countries refused to co-operate with Britain to end slave trade because they had not yet become industrialized, and therefore they still benefited from it for example Portugal and Spain.
- The only economic alternative of slave trade was Agriculture which was not reliable compared to the booming slave trade.
- The anti slavery campaign was too expensive for Britain alone to compensate slave owners.
- Stopping slave trade in the interior was difficult because Arabs were in control of large areas.
- The East African coastline was long which delayed the anti-slavery group penetration in the interior.
- Due to the tropical climate, most British personnel were affected by malaria which hindered the stopping of Slave trade.
- Seyyid Said and Barghash were always unwilling to end slave trade at once due to fear of losing revenue and risk of rebellion by Arabs who found it profitable.
- The anti-slavery group was small compared to the East African Coast.
- European powers continued with slave trade, they shipped the slave cargos in to ships bearing American Flags.
Factors that led to the abolition of slave trade
- It was the British government that began the abolition of the slave trade during the years,1822 - 1826 . This was because of the pressure by various groups based on different factors;
- a) Rise of humanitarians in Europe such as Christians and scholars condemned it on moral grounds. The missionaries wanted it to be stopped because they wanted good conditions for the spread of Christianity. The formation of the humanitarian movements in England aimed at stopping all kinds of cruelty including slave trade, flogging of soldiers and child labour.
- b) Industrialization in Britain was one of the main forces behind the abolition .E.g. Britain industrialists urged its abolition because they wanted Africans to be left in Africa so that Africa can be a source of raw materials for their industries, market for European manufactured goods and a place for new investment of surplus capital.
- c) Formation of Anti-slavery movement and the abolitionist movement in 1787. Its chairman was Granville Sharp and others like Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce who gathered facts and stories about the brutality of slave trade and slavery to arouse public opinion in Britain.
- d) Religious revival in Europe, Anglicans preached and condemned slave trade as being opposed to laws of God and humanity. Catholic popes also protested against the trade and prohibited it. In 1774, many religious leaders served as examples when they liberated their slaves in England.
- e) The French revolution of 1789 and the American revolution of 1776 emphasized liberty, equality and fraternity (brotherhood) of all human beings. As a result, people began to question whether anyone had a right to deprive fellow man of his liberty when he had done wrong.
- f) The British desire to protect their national interests, British planters wanted slave trade stopped to avoid competition with other European planters .This is because other planters were producing cheaper sugar, British sugar accumulated hence the need to stop over production.
- g) The rise of men with new ideas e.g. Prof. Adam Smith(challenged the economic arguments which were the basis of slave trade when he argued convincingly that hired labour is cheaper and more productive than slave labour, Rousseau spread the idea of personal liberty and equality of all men.
- h) Slaves had become less profitable and yet had led to over population in Europe.
- i) Influential abolitionists like William Wilberforce ( a British member of parliament ) urged the British government to legislate against the slave trade in her colonies.
- j) The ship owners stopped transporting slaves from Africa and began transporting raw materials directly from Africa and America to Europe, which led to a decline in slave trade.
Steps in the abolition of slave trade
- The first step was taken in 1772 when slavery was declared illegal and abolished in Britain. The humanitarians secured judgment against slavery from the British court.
- In 1807, British parliament outlawed slave trade for British subjects.
- 1817 British negotiated the “reciprocal search treaties” with Spain and Portugal.
- Equipment treaties signed with Spain 1835 Portugal 1842 and America 1862.
- In E. Africa in 1822 Moresby treaty was signed between Captain Moresby and Sultan Seyyid Said it forbade the shipping of slaves outside the sultan’s territories. British ships were authorized to stop and search suspected Arab slave-carrying dhows.
- In 1845, Hamerton treaty was signed between Colonel Hamerton and Sultan Seyyid Said. It forbade the shipping of slaves outside the Sultan‘s East African possessions, i.e., beyond Brava to the north.
- In 1871 the British set up a parliamentary commission of inquiry to investigate and report on slave trade in E. Africa.
- In 1872 Sir Bartle Frere persuaded Sultan Barghash to stop slave trade but not much was achieved.
- 1876 the Sultan decreed that no slaves were to be transported overland.
- 1897 decree left slaves to claim their freedom themselves
- 1907, slavery was abolished entirely in Zanzibar and Pemba.
- In 1927, slavery ended in Tanganyika when Britain took over from Germany after the 2nd world war.
Effects of abolition of slave trade
- a) The suppression of slave trade led to loss of independence that is to say, it confirmed among the Arabs and Swahilis that the Sultan had lost independence over the East African coast, and that he was now a British puppet .
- b) The suppression of slave trade led to development and growth of legitimate trade which provided equally profitable business to both Europeans and African traders. Many ship owners diverted their ships from transporting slaves to transporting raw cotton and raw sugar from Brazil and America.
- c) It accelerated the coming of European missionaries to East Africa who emphasized peace and obedience thus the later European colonization of East Africa.
- d) Disintegration of the sultan Empire. This is because it loosened the economic and political control which the sultan had over the East African nations .His empire in E.A. therefore began to crumble .This gave opportunity to other ambitious leaders like Tippu-Tip to create an independent state in Manyema ,where he began selling his ivory and slaves to the Belgians in Zaire.
- e) The abolition of slave trade was a catalyst to the partition of East Africa where by Britain took over Kenya, Zanzibar and Uganda and Germany took over Tanganyika.
- f) Slave trade markets were also closed for example Zanzibar in 1873 following the frère treaty signed between Sultan Barghash and Bantle Frere.
- g) Islam became unpopular as many converted to Christianity.
- h) African societies regained their respect and strength as they were no longer sold off as commodities.
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
- The Omani Arabs (Imams of Omani) replaced the Portuguese as the rulers of the East African coast after the capture of fort Jesus in 1698.
- The new rulers initially administered the region through some Arab families;
- The Mazrui (Mazaria) family which ruled Mombasa
- The Nabahan Family which ruled Lamu
- The civil wars back home made it hard for the Omani Arabs to control the coast immediately. There were also threats of Persian invasion. Constant rebellion from coastal towns against Omani governors posed a serious challenge to Omani rule. Pate for example refused to pay tax and even murdered the imam’s messengers. Towns they were loyal to Oman were attacked. The Mazrui established themselves as independent rulers of Mombasa and ordered towns like pate, Pemba and Malindi to pay allegiance to them. Their greatest allies were the Mijikenda who promised them support in case of Omani attack.
The struggle between the Mazrui and the Imams of Oman (1741-1840)
- a) The Omani wanted the revenue from the taxes levied on trade.
- b) The towns also wished to maintain their independence as they were during the Portuguese rule.
- c) The towns were also encouraged by the prevailing weaknesses in Oman due to civil wars and the Persian threat.
- d) The harsh and ruthless rule and manner in which the Oman rulers collected taxes.
- e) Mombasa had fought against the Portuguese and did not wish to be under control of another foreign power
- The appointment of Mohammed Ibn Azthman al Mazrui as the new governor of Mombasa coincided with the death of the Oman Imam Saif Ibn- Sultan of the Yorubi and his replacement with Ahmed Bin Said al-Busaidi.
- The new Mombasa governor refused to recognize the new imam and declared the independence of Mombasa from Oman. The sultan had him murdered and fort Jesus seized. A year later, the brother of the murdered governor recaptured the town and the fort. This became the century long struggle between the al-busaidi and al-Mazrui families.
- Taking advantage of the problems in Oman, Mombasa expanded her power and control over the coastal towns (she took over pate in 1807 and attacked Lamu in 1810). Lamu appealed to Oman for assistance.
Seyyid Said and the struggle
- Further political changes happened in Oman. Seyyid said rose to power as the imam (Seyyid) of Oman. His father, the ruler of Oman had died in a sea battle in 1804 when he was only 13 years. His cousin Badr Ibn saif took over. In 1806, Said stabbed Badr to death fearing domination. With the assistance of the British he had entrenched his position as the Seyyid of Oman at the age of 15 years. The British even promised him support in claiming the east African coast.
- He then sent a governor to build a fortress in Mombasa and to order all towns to recognize the power of Oman. Mombasa’s new governor Abdullah Ibn Ahmed defied the order and even continued to attack Brava.
- By 1817, Seyyid said had succeeded in freeing Pate from Mazrui rule.. in 1822, with the help of Zanzibar, an Oman ally, he liberated Pemba and Brava from Mombasa. In 1823, he gained control of the Bajun Islands. He ordered that no town should trade with Mombasa.
- In 1824, the sultan of Mombasa offered Mombasa to become a British protectorate to protect him from the Oman rule. The new powerful position of Mombasa was however short-lived upto 1826 due to the terms of the Moresby anti-slavery treaty between Seyyid said and the British. The animosity between Mombasa and Oman continued. In 1837, there was a dispute in Mombasa over the succession to the vacant office of the Liwali. This became an opportune chance for Seyyid said to lure the members of the Mazrui family into fort Jesus where he killed them.
Seyyid Said; Sultan of Zanzibar 91840-1856)
- After that Seyyid said consolidated his power and control over the coast as well as the interior of east Africa. He then transferred his capital from Muscat to Oman.
- The transfer of the capital to Zanzibar from Muscat was due to the following reasons;
- a) Seyyid said desired to effectively control the coastal towns through the centrally located Zanzibar.
- b) Zanzibar had a pleasant climate compared to Muscat which was hot and dry. It also had fresh water, adequate rainfall and fertile soils that favoured clove growing.
- c) Zanzibar was easily defensible as an island. It was easy to sea the enemy from far and launch an attack from the island.
- d) The good deep harbours of Zanzibar I which ships could anchor were attractive. Zanzibar’s central position also favoured development of long distance trade.
- e) The town had a long history of loyalty to Oman throughout the Mazrui- busaidi struggles.
- Seyyid said appointed Liwalis to rule important towns. They were give the responsibility of collecting custom dues levied at each port. The Arabs in the local towns were allowed to rule themselves. Seyyid said was keener on the commercial empire than political leadership. He stated “I am nothing but just a merchant”.
- Seyyid said developed an economic programme based on agriculture and international trade.
The development of plantation Agriculture
- Seyyid sad encouraged settlers from Oman and Zanzibar to take advantage of the fertile sols and good climate at the coast to settle in Mombasa. Malindi, Lamu and Pemba venture into agriculture.
- Plantation agriculture largely depended on slave labour.
- The people of Mombasa extended plantation agriculture into the mainland, acquiring land from the Mijikenda in exchange for gifts. They planted rice, maize, millet, beans, sesame and sorghum. Along the island, large plantations of coconut mango trees, cashew nuts and citrus fruits were developed. Grain plantations were developed around Malindi and Takaungu whose land was largely unoccupied and the orma were no longer a threat.
- By 1870, about 1400 to 1500 slaves worked on plantation farms in Malindi which had become the granary of Africa producing all kinds of grains, mangoes, coconut, mangoes and oranges. Seyyid said also established a clove plantation in Zanzibar. He also encouraged people to grow coconut trees by putting in place a policy that for eve coconut tree cut, three were to be planted.
- Plantation agriculture intensified slave trade.
The coming of the Portuguese
- Since the 10th century Arabian influence along the coast had been strong. Most of the port towns along the East African coast had been built by Arab Sultans, who brought the Muslim religion to the coastal people.
- The Portuguese explorer and soldier, Vasco da Gama, was the first European to make contact with the people of the East African Coast. He had been paid by the King of Portugal to find a sea route to India.
- The Portuguese at the East African coast 1500 – 1700 A.D
- The Portuguese were the first Europeans to have contacts with the people of the East African Coast.
- They invaded the east African coast in 1498 at a time when the Ottoman Empire occupied most of the Middle East thus blocking the overland route to India from Europe.
- They were adventurous and in search for the sea route to India. This led them to the East African Coast where they stayed for 200 years.
Reasons for the coming of the Portuguese at the East African coast
- a) The need to establish a commercial empire in order to get the products of East Africa e.g. ivory, gold, silks and spices that were mainly controlled by the Arabs merchants.
- b) They wanted to obtain control of the main trading towns, e.g. Kilwa, Mombasa etc.
- c) They wanted to defeat the Muslim traders and rulers who had monopolized the Indian Ocean trade.
- d) They wanted to prevent other European rivals from gaining access to the Indian Ocean Trade e.g. the French, Dutch, British
- e)Desire to get revenue for the development of their country.
- f) The Portuguese wished to share in the profits of the Indian Ocean Trade by imposing taxes and forcing wealthy coastal towns to pay tribute to the king of Portugal.
- g) The coast had natural harbors where ships could anchor on their way to and from the East for fresh food and water. The Portuguese therefore wanted to establish a calling station for resting, refresh, treating the sick, repairing wrecked ships e.t.c
- h) The coast was strategically located and this made it easy to control sea pirates and other rival powers.
- i) They wanted to revenge on the Muslim Arabs who had conquered Portugal in 711 AD by converting them to Christianity and stop the spread of Islam i.e. the Arabs had ever run the Iberian Peninsula and forced the Christians to accept Islam.
- j) They hoped to get assistance of King Prester John thought to be in the interior of north – east Africa. They hoped the king would help them in their crusade against the Muslims.
- k) They had hope of stopping Egyptians and Turks from sending military aid to their fellow Moslems on the coast.
- l) They were interested in exploration and adventure; this was a period of Renaissance (means to be born again/change) in Europe. Hence hoped to search for the unknown, new knowledge and sailing across un mapped seas.
- m) Desire to acquire revenue for the development of their country.
Portuguese conquest of the coast 1500-1510 (Stages of conquest) Steps taken by the Portuguese to occupy the East African coast
- In 1497 King John 11 sent Padro da Covillha on a land journey to India to gather information about the Eastern trades and the sea routes.
- In 1498 Bathromew Diaz sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, thus proving that there was a way round South Africa to the Indian Ocean.
- Between 1497- 1499 Vasco da Gama at the command of King Emmanuel the fortunate of Portugal visited Mozambique, Mombasa and Malindi on his way to India. He arrived in Malindi in March 1498 to a warm welcome by the locals.
- He returned to Portugal in 1499 and gave a report of the flourishing Sofala trade, the Deep Harbour in Mombasa and the existing disunity of coastal people.
- In response to Vasco da Gama’s expeditions, the king of Portugal sent fleets of ships to conquer the important trading towns of the East African coast.
- In 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral attempted to capture Sofala with its Gold trade but he failed.
- In 1502 Vasco da Gama came back with 19 ships aiming at capturing Kilwa because it was the most important and prosperous. He captured the palace, imprisoned the Sultan and only released him when he accepted to pay tribute to Portugal.
- From Kilwa he invaded Mombasa, which tried to get assistance from Malindi but since they were great rivals Malindi refused to give assistance, this disunity made the work of conquest easy.
- In 1503 Ruy Laurence Ravasco was sent with a number of ships and forced the islands of Mafia and Zanzibar and other towns to pay tribute to Portugal.
- In 1504, Lopez destroyed gold trade at Kilwa. Attacks were too much on the harbour that trade came to a standstill. But again the Arabs failed to unite to fight the Portuguese.
- In 1505 Francisco D’Almeida arrived at the coast on his way to Gao where he had been appointed the first Portuguese viceroy (governor) of the Eastern Empire. With 1500 men and 20 ships, he attacked Sofala which surrendered without struggle because she was tired of Kilwa’s rule and therefore preferred the Portuguese to fellow Arabs. His forces continued northwards and attacked Kilwa. The Sultan and his followers took off to the bush while the Portuguese looted and burnt down the town before he departed to India. He also conquered Mombasa.
- In 1506 – 1507 Tristao Da Cunha took on the Northern towns of Socotra, Oja, Brava and Lamu. Towns that submitted without struggles were only asked to pay tribute to Portugal. Malindi was even excused from paying tribute due to her friendship with the Portuguese.
- In 1509 Alba quiqui captured the remaining towns i.e. the work of conquest was completed with taking the islands of Pemba, Mafia, and Zanzibar. Mombasa was burnt down.
- By 1515 the Portuguese had succeeded in conquering most of the coastal towns, bring them under Portuguese rule. However towns like Gedi, Kilifi, Pate, Manda, Mombasa and Lamu continued with resistance. Mombasa was heavily attacked in 1528.
- In 1585, a Turkish captain, Amir Ali Bey, arrived at the coast as an envoy of the sultan of turkey to free the coastal towns from the Portuguese. Rebellion then broke out between 1585 and 1588 between Ali Bey, the Portuguese, and the people of Mombasa and Zimba warriors. The towns of pate, Siyu and Pemba were attacked and forced to pay heavy fines while manda was completely destroyed.
- Portugal finally brought all the coastal towns under her control establishing her headquarters in Mombasa that had been subdued in 1589. in 1593, the Portuguese built fort Jesus
- Why the Portuguese build Fort Jesus.
- a) They used it as a watch tower
- b) To hide against attacks by the enemies
- c) As military base
- d) To offer food security and protection.
- e) To act as an armament.
- f) To act as a prison for the captives.
- Portuguese control of the east African coast as greatly supported by the conquest of Hormuz, which made it easier for them to control sea traffic in the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Eden and Arabian Sea.
Why the Portuguese defeated the East African Coastal towns/Why the Portuguese were successful
- a) They had superior weapons e.g. cannon guns which made terrible noise and threw people in panic as compared to the poor musket guns of the coastal Arabs.
- b) They had well trained soldiers with superior skills of fighting compared to the coastal people who had no permanent organized army e.g. Vasco da Gama, Francisco D’Almeida were ruthless army commanders which helped them to defeat the coastal dwellers.
- c) They had better and faster ships (carracks) well equipped for naval warfare. The Portuguese soldiers wore Armour on their bodies and helmets on their heads, which protected them from the weapons of the coastal people.
- d) The coastal towns were disunited which gave chance to the Portuguese to fight isolated enemies e.g. Malindi refused to unite with Mombasa due to local conflicts. Some cooperated with the invaders giving them food and bases e.g. Malindi and Sofala.
- e) Some coastal towns like Kilwa were caught unaware. The Portuguese employed cruel methods of fighting like burning down towns and surprise attacks.
- f) The ships acted as stages against the hostile weapons of the coastal people.
- g) The coast had natural harbours and was not open to attacks.
- h) The constant attacks on the coastal towns by the Galla, Zimba and Turkish e.t.c had weakened their defence.
- i) The Portuguese were financially equipped and therefore supported their soldiers because they wanted to control the East African trade.
- j) The coastal states had very weak economies that could not sustain prolonged fights especially against the economically strong Portuguese.
Portuguese Administration at the coast
- By 1510, the conquest of the East African coast was over and administration fell into the hands of the Portuguese. For easy administration, the coast was divided into two zones;
- a. The area North of Cape Delgado was ruled by the Captain at Malindi
- b. The area South of Cape Delgado was ruled by Captain at Mozambique
- Both captains were answerable to the Portuguese viceroy at Goa on Indian coast at the General headquarters. Cape Delgado was made the midpoint of the East Africa possession. Sofala was made the regional headquarters but still under the charge of the captain who took his orders from the viceroy at Goa. Later, the Captain in the North was stationed at Mombasa after the construction of Fort Jesus in 1593 because they were rebellious. Other forts and garrisons were established at Sofala and Kilwa.
- The Portuguese captains were responsible for the collections of tributes from coastal rulers. They imposed the customs dues on all imports and exports. They were also responsible for the suppression of rebellions on the coast. The Portuguese had problems with administration because they could not provide enough troops to all garrisons their strongholds.
- The Portuguese were more interested in gold trade in Sofala. Unfortunately, they failed to develop this trade because of the following;
- There were wars in the mining areas between the Portuguese and Coastal people.
- As a result the Portuguese were so cruel that any sign of disobedience was punished with maximum brutality to serve as a warning to others who might choose to rebel. This partly explains the unpopularity of the Portuguese on the coast.
- The Portuguese also applied the policy of divide and rule by setting one town against the other. For example Malindi against Mombasa.
- The relationship with the subjects was not good. They lived in isolation of each other by race and religion. The Portuguese established their own settlements, built their own churches and had their own priest. This could be the reason why their religion was rejected and hatred increased.
- In addition, the few Portuguese officials were corrupt, plundered and ordered destruction on the coastal town. All this earned them hatred and opposition from the people and it was not a surprise that they were nicknamed "AFRITI" meaning Devil.
- The Portuguese did not mix freely with Africans because they considered themselves to be a special race.
- During the Portuguese reign, the glory of the coastal states was no more. The high standards of living the coastal people had enjoyed were no more. The trade that had made them rich was declining. Many buildings were in ruins and there was widespread poverty and misery
Reasons that led to the decline of the Portuguese at the East African Coast (Problems/challenges they faced)
- a) Portugal was a small country that could not provide enough administrators and officials for such a large coastline that extended from Sofala in the south to mogadishu in the north. The territory was too big and long for effective control and administration.
- b) It had few soldiers and could not keep fortified garrison along the coast.
- c) Authority was left in hands of incompetent and corrupt officials who were after enriching themselves.
- d) The Africans hated the Portuguese due to differences in religion, that is to say, Muslims against Christians (Portuguese).
- e) The Portuguese were cruel, harsh and brutal, they always punished the coastal people whenever they attempted to rebel and made them to be hated.
- f) The Portuguese also used divide and rule policy for example, they allied with Malindi against Mombasa.
- g) There was decline of trade due high taxes on imports and other restrictions hence smuggling of goods, which affected the Portuguese economy. Due to decline in trade, the people became poor and dissatisfied and they continuously rebelled.
- h) The Portuguese failed to support their own allies at the coast, some even betrayed them.
- i) Portugal had been forced into a union with Spain between1580–1640 which weakened her control of the trading colonies as she was no longer interested in the overseas empire.
- j) Portugal was challenged by other European powers, which began competing with the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean Trade e.g. Dutch, English, French, Turks and others.
- k) The coastal people found useful allies against the Portuguese due to their bad rule e.g. Turks, Oman, and Arabs
- l) They were faced with constant rebellions along the coast. This greatly disrupted life at the coast e.g. Pate, Mombasa
- m) Tropical diseases which claimed their life like smallpox, malaria making it difficult for them to administer the coast effectively.
- n) The Portuguese were greatly weakened by a group of cannibals the Zimba, who attacked the East African coast.
- o) The unhealthy climate made the area unattractive for them to work for instance, some places where too humid and hot while others were too cold.
- p) The distance between Portugal and the East African coast was too far hence reinforcement delayed.
- q) There was a problem of communication barrier, the Portuguese refused to learn the African languages and these made their administration difficult.
- r) The income obtained from the gold trade was not enough to pay for administration i.e. soldiers and officials.
- s) The Capture of Fort Jesus their stronghold in 1698 by the Omani greatly contributed to their decline.
The collapse of Portuguese rule
- In 1585, a Turkish captain, Amir Ali Bey, arrived at the coast as an envoy of the sultan of turkey to free the coastal towns from the Portuguese. Rebellion then broke out between 1585 and 1588 between Ali Bey, the Portuguese, and the people of Mombasa and Zimba warriors. The towns of pate, Siyu and Pemba were attacked and forced to pay heavy fines while manda was completely destroyed
- As a result of their ruthlessness, the coastal people became hostile to the Portuguese.
- Mombasa for example resisted the humiliation they got from the Portuguese appointed sultan
- The sultan’s heir Yusuf was treated as a servant who resented the people of Mombasa
- On 15th august 1631, during the Christian feast of Assumption in Mombasa, Sultan Yusuf stabbed the captain with a knife, killing him instantly. This sparked off a rebellion where many Portuguese were killed.
- Yusuf posed a threat to the Portuguese rule until his death in 1637.
- The people of pate also revolted in 1666. However, their ruler was arrested and exiled to Goa where he was executed
- In 1622, the Persians drove the Portuguese from Hormuz. In 1650, the Portuguese were expelled from their bases in Muscat by the Omani Arabs under sultan Saif
- Britain, France and Holland also began to compete the Portuguese in trade.
- The final blow to Portuguese rule was attack by the Omani Arabs and the seizure of fort Jesus. The coastal Arab towns had appealed to their brothers in Oman for assistance against the Portuguese brutality.
- In 1652, an Oman fleet sailed to pate and Zanzibar, overpowered and killed the Portuguese.
- In 1696, Imam Saif Ibn Sultan of Oman sailed to Mombasa with a large fleet and army. The Portuguese took refuge in Fort Jesus as battle raged on (about 2500 Portuguese men, women and children) the Portuguese were unfortunate as they could not get supplies to sustain the war with 3000 plus Arab soldiers with full packing of the coastal people.
- In 1697, the Omani forces got access to the Fort and found most Portuguese afflicted with disease. By December 1698, the Omanis penetrated the Fort only to find all except twelve Portuguese dead. This marked the end of Portuguese rule though they made a temporary seizure of the fort in 1728 but were overpowered.
- For the coastal people, it was however a mere change of guard from the Portuguese to the Arabs
Results of Portuguese stay at the coast of East Africa
- a) The Portuguese built Fort Jesus at the coast in Mombasa in1592/3 which became a fortress and later a tourist attraction for centuries.
- b) They enriched the Swahili language with an addition of 60 words e.g. emeza meaning table and pesa meaning money.
- c) They introduced new crops from South Africa of which many have become staple diet for many East Africans e.g. cassava, pawpaws, maize, oranges, sweet potatoes, guavas, pineapples and mangoes
- d) They made an improvement in ship building. During their stay on the coast, many architects came in from India and Europe.
- e) There was establishment of closer trading links between the coast and India.
- f) They introduced new farming methods for example they encouraged the use of cow dung as manure.
- g) They led to the coming of more European and Asian traders and craftsmen especially those who helped in the building of Fort Jesus.
- h) They broke the Muslim- Arab monopoly of the Indian Ocean Trade.
- a) Trade declined due to the constant wars and rebellions and heavy taxes imposed.
- b) There was decline of the coastal towns because many were burnt down and left in ruins for example Kilwa and Mombasa.
- c) There was widespread poverty and misery among the coastal people due to decline in trade.
- d) There was heavy loss of lives during the attacks. There was depopulation due to the many wars in the areas
- e) There was destruction of property like buildings and crops, which led to famine and starvation.
- f) The coastal people suffered oppression and brutality under harsh rule of the Portuguese.
- g) Their religion, Christianity, made no impact at the coast because they lived far from their subjects and stagnation of the Islamic faith because discouraged preaching.
- h) Smuggling developed because the Portuguese had failed to establish proper trading links with the Interior.
- i) Some towns were prevented from trading with their initial partners which led to their decay e.g. Gedi
- j) They led to the European interest at the coast hence leading to the colonization in the 19th Century
The East African coast
- The Graeco- Roman Documentary which only makes indirect references to the east African coast.
- The Swahili chronicles written by the people of the coast. E.g the Kilwa chronicle gives account of achievements of coastal rulers before the arrival of the Portuguese.
- Periplus of the Erythrean Sea; by a Greek merchant in 1st Century AD describes the people and places along the coast and the Indian Ocean Trade. (Erythrean Sea Trade).
- Geopgraphia by Claudius Ptolemy makes reference to east African coast and the trade along Somalia and Kenyan coasts.
- Christian Topography of Cosmos Indico of the 6TH Century describes the trading activities on the coast of East Africa.
- Renowned travelers like Al-Mosudi, Al Idrisi and Ibn Battuta wrote firsthand accounts about the places they visited and the people they met at the coast in the 10th Century AD.
- The existing archaeological evidence in east Africa include the remains of pottery , iron tools, beads and coins which prove the presence of international trade
Early visitors to the east African coast upto 1500
- Due to the great accessibility of the east African coast, there was widespread interaction between it and the people from the outside world. This was also aided by the monsoon winds that blew vessels / ships to the coast between November and April and took them away between may and October.
- The earliest visitors were the Egyptians, Phoenicians and Indonesians.
- Others who came later on included the Greeks, Persians, Romans, Chinese, Arabs, Syrians, Indians and the Portuguese.
- Their coming to east Africa is accounted for by the quarrels between the Seleucid rulers in Greece and the Ptolemaic Greeks in Egypt over control of the land route to the east through the Mediterranean lands.
- The rising demand for ivory made the ptolemies venture into the red sea and finally into the east African coast. Evidence of Greek existence on the coast is the Ptolemic Gold Coin found near Dar es Salam.
- In AD 45, Hippalus, a Roman sailor using monsoon wind knowledge reached the red sea and entered the Indian Ocean. The Romans were keen on breaking the Arab monopoly over trade. Evidence of trade between the Romans and the coast is in the writing of a Roman Historian Pliny (23-79AD) who points out the high coast of trade between India, Arabia and china.
- The fall of the Roman Empire in the 5thC AD affected international trading network in the Roman Empire.
- They were mainly immigrants from Shirazi on the eastern shore of the Persian Gulf. Their adventure into the east African coast happened during the reign of the Sassanid Dynasty (224-636AD), which was determined to rebuild the Persian Empire that had been destroyed by the Macedonian Greeks, through wealth amassed from international trade.
- By the 6th C , the Persians were trading in India and later china, controlling the red sea and parts of Egypt and Arabia.
- They got involved in the east African trade and even established ruling dynasties e.g. the Shirazi Dynasty) at the coast. They intermarried with the locals and introduced Islamic religion. They were later overthrown by the Arabs. The succeeded in introducing Bowls of glass, swords, beakers and pots to the coast.
- They visited the coast in the middle ages. This is evidenced in the work of the Chinese authors during the Sung Dynasty (960- 1279 AD) and Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), who referred to the east African coast as Tseng- Pat or Pseng- Po.
- There has also been evidence of Chinese coins dating to 700 AD at the coast.
- The last Chinese fleet must have reached Mogadishu in 1430AD. The Chinese brought in Silk cloth, porcelain bowls and plates in exchange for Gold\, leopard skin, Rhino Horns and tortoise shells.
- Porcelain remains have been found at the coast.
- The earliest Arab settlers to arrive were the Daybui from Daybul In north western India. They arrived along the east African coast by AD 650 for trade. The earliest Arab settlement was Qanbalu (Pemba). They later settled in manda, Kilwa. Lamu and Mombasa
- The Arabs reffered to the Africans as the Zenj (Blacks)
Factors that facilitated the coming of Arabs to the east African coast
- The Indian ocean provided the highway through which the traders traveled
- The traders had the skills of harnessing the monsoon winds (trade winds) they knew what times of the year to come to the coast and what times to go back.
- The traders had marine technology e.g. they had ship-building technology and knew how to use the compass for navigation of the ocean
- They ensured the control of the red sea was in their hands to bar the enemy from attacking them
- The ports of southern Arabia were good calling places on their journey between the east and the west.
- The deep harbours at the coast were ideal for their ships to anchor, refuel and get supplies
Reasons for the coming of the Arabs
- They wanted to trade and control the commercial activities along the east African coast.
- Some Arabs came as refugees, fleeing from religious and political persecutions in Arabia.
- They came to spread their religion, Islam.
- Some came as explorers to explore the east African coast.
- Some came to establish settlements along the east African coast
Trade between the East African coast and the outside world
Development and organization of the trade
- The earliest foreign traders must have been the Romans who traded with the Indians in the Far East. They made stopovers at the east African coast for ivory whose demand had grown tremendously.
- Muslim Arabs acted as intermediaries in the Indian Ocean trade between the Indians and the Romans. They also exported frankincense and myrrh among other things.
- Traders from Persia, Arabia and Syria brought glass beakers and bowls, swords, pots, grains, sugar, cloth and beads in exchange for palm oil, tortoise shells, ivory and slaves.
- The Greek, roman and Chinese traders brought porcelain bowls, daggers, swords, pottery, cowrie shells, glassware, beads and silk in exchange for ivory, rhinoceros horns, bee wax, tortoise shells , coconut oil and mangrove poles. Cowrie shells were obtained from Maldives islands while spices came from Spice Island.
- East Africa also exported leopard skins, gold, ostrich feathers, copal, copper and iron. Ivory was used in Asia to make bangles, bracelets, piano keys and for decorations
- The traders relied on the monsoon winds to blow their ships to and from the east African coast.
- The Indian Ocean trade was conducted through the barter system but later coins were used as a medium of exchange. During barter, the foreigners bartered their goods with gold, ivory and slaves. Seyyid said later introduced copper and silver coins.
- The middlemen in the trade included the Arabs and Swahili who organized caravans to the interior to acquire local goods which they sold to traders at the coast.
- As there was no common language spoken, trading was conducted silently, hence the name ‘silent trade’
- Capital for the trade was provided by the Arabs. Later the Indian banyans started giving credit facilities to the traders which increased the volume of trade.
- The sultan of Zanzibar provided security to the Arab traders, enabling them to penetrate the interior to acquire goods.
- The trade stimulated development of towns along the coastline. E.g Rhapta (probably located between pangani and Dar es Salam), Essina and Sarapion were the earliest towns to grow. Lamu Malindi Mombasa, pate and Brava also developed.
- The merchants settled at various places on the coast and on the islands and interacted with the locals leading to development of the Swahili culture.
Factors which promoted the Indian Ocean trade
- (a) Availability of items of trade from the east African coast and foreigner countries. For example, ivory, slaves, cotton and porcelain.
- (b) The high demand for trade items from the coast by consumers from the outside world was also a promoting factor. This was caused by the uneven distribution of resources. Foreign items were also on demand at the coat.
- (c) The existence of enterprising merchants in both the foreign lands and the east African coast led to promotion of trade links. The Akamba, Mijikenda, nyamwezi and Swahili middlemen for example played a pivoted role in the trade.
- (d)The existence of local trade among Africans which acted as a base upon which the Indian Ocean trade was developed.
- (e) The accessibility of the east African coast by sea. This enabled the foreigner traders to reach the region across the Indian Ocean.
- (f) The existence of the monsoon winds facilitated the movement of the vessels which made it possible for the traders to travel to and from the coasty.
- (g) The existence of peace and political stability at the east African coast created a conducive atmosphere for business transactions. Where there was need, the traders were given security by the sultan of Zanzibar.
- (h) The existence of natural harbours along the coast ensured safe docking of the trade vessels for fueling and off-loading.
- (i) The advancement in the ship building technology in Europe gave great advantage to the traders. This made water transport reliable and regular.
- (j) The existence o the Indian Banyans (money lenders) who gave credit facilities enabled many more people to join the trade.
Impacts of the trade on the peoples of east Africa
- (a) The trade led to intermarriage between Muslim traders with the local Bantu communities giving rise to the Swahili people with a distinct culture.
- (b) There was emergence of Kiswahili as a new language of the coastal people. The language is a mixture of Bantu and Arabic languages.
- (c) The trade led to the spread of the Islamic culture along the coastal region. Stone buildings were constructed, new dressing styles arose (women began to wear buibui while men wore kanzus), new eating habits also evolved.
- (d) The Islamic law, sharia was also introduced.
- (e) Many Africans were converted to Islam. However the religion did not spread beyond the coastal region prior to the 19th c.
- (f) New crops were introduced along the coast. For example, rice, wheat, millet, cloves, vegetables and fruits such as bananas and oranges. Cloth, cowrie shells and spices were also introduced.
- (g) Profits derived from the trade were used to develop towns like Pemba, Mombasa, Lamu, Zanzibar and Kilwa.
- (h) The trade led to the rise of a class of rich merchants exhibiting a high standard of living. African merchants who rose to prominence included chief Kivoi among the Akamba, Ngonyo of the Giriama, Mwakikonga of the Digo, Nyungu ya mawe, Mirambo and Msiri of the Nyamwezi.
- (i) There was decline of the local industries like weaving and iron working which were affected by the influx of foreign goods like cloth fro India and iron tools from Asia and Europe.
- (j) There was destruction of wildlife, especially elephant and rhinoceros due to the increased demand for ivory.
- (k) The increased demand for slaves promoted warfare among the communities as many people were captured during slave raids. It also created fear while others lost their life during the warfare.
- (l) Slave trade also disrupted African economies as able bodied men were captured leaving behind the aged, weak, and children who made little contribution. Many even died of starvation since they could not participate in food production.
- (m) African population in the hinterland greatly reduced as many were sold into slavery.
- (n) Money (currency) was introduced as a means of exchange to replace the barter system of trade.
- (o) East African coast was exposed to the outside world through trade. This paved way for European imperialism later on.
- (p) Trade routes led to the establishment of trade caravan routes which later were upgraded to roads by the colonialists.
Who are the Nilotes?
- The Nilotes are groups of people whose origin is associated with river Nile and who have similarities in the languages they speak. This is why they are referred to as Nilotic speakers.
- They originated from the South-western fringe of the Ethiopian highlands. In Kenya, they are the second largest language group
List the classifications of the Nilotic speakers (Identify the groups into which the Nilotic speakers are divided)
- The River-lake Nilotes,
- The plain Nilotes
- The Highland Nilotes.
Name the communities that belong to the River-Lake Nilotes group
- The Kenya Luo, who mainly occupy Luo Nyanza and parts of Western province. They are sometimes called Southern Luo in order to distinguish them from other River-lake Nilotes in Uganda and southern Sudan.
- The Dinka,
- The Luo of Uganda.
THE KENYA LUO [Analyse/discuss migration and settlement of the Luo into Kenya]
- The Luo originated from Bahr-El-Ghazal, area in Southern Sudan, from where they moved and settled at Pu Bungu in northern Uganda.
- They then moved to Pakwach, where they had settled by 1450AD. It was from Pakwach that they later migrated into Kenya.
- By the 15t h century, the Luo had begun to move to present-day Kenya.
- Though they all claim common ancestry in Ramogi, They migrated and settled in Kenya in four main groups. These were:
- Joka Owiny,
- Joka Jok,
- Joka Omolo,
Analyse/discuss migration and settlement of the four Luo groups into Kenya
- The term “Joka” means “People of”. “Joka Jok” means “people of Jok”.
- Jok and his people were the first to move eastwards out of Uganda. They were the first Luo group to arrive in Kenya.
- By the 15t h century, they had settled at Ramogi hills of Kadimo in Yimbo in present-day Siaya district.
- Later, two of Jok‟s sons fled to south Nyanza across the Winam gulf to form the Karachwonyo and Wanjare clans.
- From Ramogi hills, Joka Jok also spread to Sakwa, Alego, Asembo and other parts of Nyanza province. Joka Jok migrated as a result of internal conflicts among other factors
- Owiny and his group may have moved from Uganda in late 16t h century AD. They passed through Mbale, Toro and the Mount Elgon region and eventually settled in Samia
- By early 17t h century, they had arrived at Sigoma in Alego, from where they spread to Uyoma, Kisumu, Nyakach and south Nyanza
- Because Owiny was a great fighter and leader, his people became popularly known as Joka Ruoth. His name was merged with that of Sigoma (the place where Owiny and his people first settled in Alego) to form Owiny-Sigoma
- Joka Omolo came from the northern Bunyoro region in present-day Uganda. They settled temporarily in Ibanda and Bukoli before moving on to Samia, Ugenya and Gem.
- By 1600, they had reached Yimbo, from where they spread to Alego and other areas.
- As they migrated, they encountered Abagusi and Abalogoli, whom they pushed out of Yimbo.
- By early 18t h century, some Joka family groups had moved across Winam gulf into south Nyanza
- Though associated with the Luo, Abasuba were originally Bantu. Most of them migrated from Buganda in late 18th century
- They intermarried with the Luo and settled in the Gwasi area and on the Lake Victoria islands of Mfangano and Rusinga. Most of them adopted Luo culture
Give reasons for the migration of the Luo from Bahr-El-Ghazal in Sudan to Kenya by 1800AD
- Search for fresh grazing land and water for their large herd,, probably due to overstocking
- Natural calamities such as drought, famine, pests, etc.
- Family feuds (internal conflicts/rivalry).
- Population pressure in their cradle land.
- Hostilities and threats as well as attacks from neighbouring communities.
- Outbreak of diseases and epidemics, which afflicted both people and livestock.
- The spirit of adventure.
- Search for better fishing areas
Explain social organization among the Kenya Luo during the pre -colonial period
- The family was the basic social unit.
- Several families formed one clan.
- They practised polygamy (marriage of more than one wife).
- They were exogamous i.e. they did not allow marriage within the clan.
- They were deeply religious and believed in a creator: God, whom they called Nyasaye.
- They had sacred shrines and trees where they offered sacrifices to the ancestral spirits.
- They had religious leaders, including priests, rain makers and medicine people.
- The youth underwent initiation (Ng‟angrwok) at puberty, which involved extraction of six of their lower front teeth.
- They had several ritual ceremonies at birth, naming, marriage and death.
- Marriage was celebrated and tokens like cows were exchanged to seal the relationship.
- Burial was celebrated through dancing and feasting, in view of the fact that the departed had joined a new and better world: that of the living dead.
Explain the economic activities of the Kenya Luo during the pre -colonial period
- Keeping livestock. They kept Cattle, sheep, goats, etc. Dogs were kept and used in hunting while cats were kept as pets. They also kept chicken, ducks and gees.
- Fishing. Luo men and women fished in lake Victoria as well as local rivers and streams.
- Trade. The Luo traded with Abaluhyia, Abagusi, the Kipsigis, Nandi, Abakuria and other neighbours. They sold surplus food and animal products as well as earthenware in exchange for spears, farm implements and soapstone among others.
- Hunting. They hunted animals to supplement their diet.
- Crafts. They were good in basketry, canoe building, weaving and cloth making.
- Ironworking. They practised iron smelting, which they learnt from neighbouring communities such as the Luhyia and Nandi.
- Agriculture. They grew sorghum, beans, sweet potatoes, peas, finger millet, pumpkins, cassava, a variety of vegetables and a variety of grains.
Discuss Political organization among the Kenya Luo during the pre -colonial period
- They were a decentralized community. They were led by councils of elders
- The lowest level of political structure was the family head, referred to as Jadwong‟
- several families who traced their descent to a common ancestor formed one clan.
- Within the clan was a council of elders (Doho), who settled disputes.
- Under the Doho were lineage Councils (Buch Dho‟OT).
- Clans were grouped to form larger territorial units called Gweng‟ (in singular) or Gwenge (in plural).
- Each Gweng‟ was self governing, with its authority in the hands of a council of elders that comprised all clan heads and outstanding elders from foreign lineages.
- When grouped together, Gwenge formed Oganda, which was a kind of sub tribe governed by Buch Piny, which was a council that comprised the Heads of the different Gwenge, outstanding diviners, medicine men, healers, rainmakers and warriors. Buch Piny was chaired by the Chief (Ruoth). It dealt with issues such as boundary disputes, external invasions and interclan conflicts
- Within the Buch Piny was a war leader called Osumba Mrwayi, who led a group of warriors known as Thuondi (bulls), who defended the community and conducted raids. Luo expansion continued up to the colonial period, when they were stopped by European colonialists in the 19th century.
Explain the role/functions of the council of elders among the Kenya Luo during the pre - colonial period (What were the duties of the council of elders among the Kenya Luo during the pre-colonial period?)
- Administration of justice.
- Serving as the final court of appeal in Gweng‟ matters.
- presiding over religious ceremonies.
- Declaration of war or negotiation of peace.
- Admission or expulsion of strangers
Explain the consequences/impact/results of the migration and settlement of the Luo in Kenya by 1750AD
- Increased population in the region.
- Increased civil and intercommunal warfare.
- displacement of the Western Bantu e.g. Abaluhyia and Abakuria as well as other communities such as the Maasai.
- Assimilation of some Luhyia and other groups in the region.
- Increased trading activities. The Luo exchanged livestock for the items they did not have.
- Intermarriage due to interaction between the Luo and other groups.
- Luo adoption of agriculture alongside pastoralism as a result of their contacts with the Bantu farming communities.
- redistribution of populations as some communities left while others came into the region.
Nilotes Social Organization
- There were slight variations in the social organizations of the various Nilotic groups in Kenya. However they shared institutions such as the clan-based organization, belief in one God, veneration of ancestral spirits, age-set system, social ceremonies and existence of religious leaders.
- The family was the basic social unit in many communities. Several related families grouped together to form clans among the Luo, Maasai and Nandi.
- They believed in one supernatural being. The Maasai referred to him as Engai while the Luo called Him Nyasaye.
- The communities believed in the existence of ancestral spirits, to whom sacrifices and libations were made to ensure they remained happy.
- There was the existence of religious leaders whose work was to lead the communities during religious functions and rituals. Some of the religious leaders had assumed political power by 19th c. For example the Orkoiyot among the Nandi and Oloibon among the Maasai.
- The Maasai and other Nilotic groups had rain makers and diviners.
- The age-set system was another common social institution. The age sets were formed by those who were initiated at the same time. The institution created a bond among the initiates that cut across the families and clans thus uniting the whole community.
- There were social ceremonies that accompanied the rites of passage like circumcision, marriage and death.
- The Luo as their form of initiation extracted six lower teeth. The other groups practiced circumcision. In all the groups, the initiates were taught the community values.
The Nilotes economic organization
- The nilotes were nomadic pastoralists who kept Livestock like sheep, cattle and goats for milk, meat and blood.
- They traded among themselves and also with their neighbours. The kalenjin traded with the Maasai and with the Luo and neighbouring Bantu communities like the Abaluhyia. They sold animal products and red ochre in exchange for grains from the Bantu.
- They practiced iron-smelting, making implements such as arrow heads and spearheads. This skilled was borrowed from the Bantu.
- The Maasai also practiced mining e.g. mined iron, salt and red ochre which they used for decoration and as a commodity for trade.
- There existed variation in the economic activities within a single community like the Maasai. Some sections of the Maasai e.g. the Kwavi practiced crop growing i.e. growing grains and vegetables. The Purko were purely pastoralists
- They practiced craft e.g. made pots, weaved baskets and leather belts.
- Raiding other communities for cattle was also a common economic practice.
- The Luo who lived near Lake Victoria practiced fishing. The Turkana also engaged in fishing on Lake Turkana.
Political organization of the Nilotes
- The Nilotic communities had a decentralized system of administration with all the communities organized on clan basis.
- There existed councils of elders that administered and ensured maintenance of law and order, settled disputes between clans and other communities.
- The nilotes had a warlike tradition. Each community had Warriors who defended the community and raided other communities. The Luo reffered to the warriors as Thuondi. The Maasai called them Moran.
- The age-set system determined political leadership since all those initiated together formed one age-set for life.
- The institution of religion influenced most of the political affairs of the Nilotic speakers. For example, the Orkoiyot among the Nandi and the Oloibon among the Maasai were primarily religious leaders who wielded political authority in the 19th century
The Nandi Social organization
- The family was the basic social unit. Several related families grouped together to form clans among Nandi. The family institution was very important in the community. It played an important role in the Kokwet (council of elders) and in the clan activities.
- The age-set system was an important social institution among the Nandi. Nandi boys and girls were initiated at puberty through circumcision. Circumcision marked entry into adulthood. The initiates were taught the deepest community values during the period.
- Age sets were formed by those who were initiated at the same time irrespective of the clans they belonged to. In total, there were eight age-sets among the Nandi namely Sawe, Maina, Chuma, Korongoro, Kipkoimet, Kaplelach, Kimnyinge and Nyongi.
- The Nandi boys became junior warriors after circumcision. They only promoted to senior warriors after the Saket apeito ceremony (slaughter of bullock) that was done after every fifteen years.
- Marriage within the same clan was prohibited among the Nandi. This was meant to create unity by encouraging intermarriages between different clans.
- They believed in one supernatural being whom they referred to him as Asis, who was believed to be the protector of the community.
- The Nandi believed in the existence of ancestral spirits, to whom sacrifices and libations were made to ensure they remained happy.
- The community also had important religious leaders whose work was to lead the community during religious functions and rituals, diviners and rain makers.The institution of Orkoiyot among the Nandi was borrowed from that of Oloibon among the Maasai.
Religious functions that the Orkoiyot of the Nandi did
- He Mediated between God and the people/acting as a priest.
- He presided over Offering of sacrifices to God on behalf of the people.
- He advised and blessed the warriors before they went to war.
- Blessing people before they undertook special activities like planting and harvesting.
- He foretold what was going to happen in the future. e.g. success or misfortune in the community.
- The Nandi were pastoralists who kept Livestock like sheep, cattle and goats for milk, meat, manure and blood. Cattle were a symbol of status among the Nandi and also a form of dowry settlement.
- The Nandi cultivated crops such as Millet and sorghum due the fertile soils and favourable climate in areas like Aldai.
- They also practiced hunting and gathering to supplement their food production.
- The Nandi raided other communities for cattle. They acquired large herds of cattle through raiding neighbouring communities such as the Maasai. Abaluhyia and Luo.
- They traded among themselves and also with their neighbours. The Nandi traded with the Maasai and with the Luo and neighbouring Bantu communities like the Abaluhyia. They sold animal products and red ochre in exchange for grains from the Bantu. The Nandi however were self sufficient in food.
- They practiced craft e.g. made pots, weaved baskets and leather belts.
- The family was the basic political unit. It was headed by a father who dealt with internal matters such as discipline, allocation of crops, land and cattle. In matters affecting the neighbourhood, he was assisted by the Kokwet (council of elders) which was made up of neighbourhood heads.
- Above the Kokwet was the clan organization whose council of elders tackled matters to do with grazing rights.
- Above the clan, there was a larger socio-political unit comprising different war groups located in the same geographical zone called a pororiet. This formed the highest political unit among the Nandi. The pororiet council of elders comprised representatives from different clans
- Its functions included negotiating for peace and declaring war.
- The Nandi boys became junior warriors after circumcision. They only promoted to senior warriors after the Saket apeito ceremony (slaughter of bullock) that was done after every fifteen years.
The Maasai [Social organization]
- The Maasai were divided into two groups; the pastoral Maasai (Purko) and the Agricultural Maasai(Kwavi or Iloikop).
- The Maasai were organized on clan basis with each clan associated with a particular type of cattle. In total, the Maasai had five clans spread over large areas and not necessarily staying together.
- Maasai boys and girls were initiated at puberty through circumcision. Circumcision marked entry into adulthood. The initiates were taught the deepest community values during the period.
- After circumcision, the boys entered an age set to which they belonged the rest of their life.
- The age set institution created a bond among the initiates that cut across the families and clans thus uniting the whole community.
- All the boys initiated together also formed a warrior class called Morans and lived in special homesteads called Manyattas away from the rest of the community. For about ten years.
- They were not allowed to take milk from their mother’s house and were required to adhere to ritual and dietary restrictions.
- They believed in one supernatural being. The Maasai referred to him as Engai. Prayers and sacrifices were offered to him at the shrines.
- There was the existence of religious leaders whose work was to lead the communities during religious functions and rituals. They called their religious leader Oloibon.
Functions of Oloibon
- He presided over religious ceremonies. / He was consulted on all religious matters
- He blessed warriors before they went to war
- He advised the council of elders
- He foretold the future events
- The Maasai and other Nilotic groups had rain makers and diviners.
- There were several social ceremonies that accompanied the rites of passage like circumcision, marriage and death. The Eunoto ceremony marked the graduation of the Morans into junior elders. This ceremony is still practiced upto date
Economic organization of the Maasai
- The Maasai were nomadic pastoralists who kept Livestock like sheep, cattle and goats for milk, meat and blood..
- They traded among themselves and also with their neighbours such as the Agikuyu, kalenjin and Taita. They sold animal products and red ochre in exchange for grains from the Agikuyu.
- They practiced iron-smelting, making implements such as arrow heads and spearheads..
- They also practiced mining e.g. mined iron, salt and red ochre which
- They also practiced mining e.g. mined iron, salt and red ochre which they used for decoration and as a commodity for trade.
- Some sections of the Maasai e.g. the Kwavi practiced crop growing i.e. growing grains and vegetables.
- They practiced craft e.g. made pots, weaved baskets and leather belts.
- Raiding other communities for cattle.
Political organization of the Maasai
- The largest political unit amongst Maasai was the tribal section, which was a geographically distinct entity which operated as a nation, especially during ceremonies.
- Affairs involving inter-clan cooperation were dealt within adhoc meetings comprising age set spokesmen
- Before a Maasai young man became an adult, he underwent the following four stages.
- The youths at this stage looked after family and clan livestock until they reached circumcision stage at about 15 years.
- The stage was joined by young men circumcised together and comprised of ages between 18 and 25 years. They defended the community and conducted raids to boost the clan and tribal flocks. They had a military leader known as Olaiguani.
- The stayed in isolation in manyattas undergoing military training in order to graduate into senior warriors. After that they were permitted to marry.
- This was the political authority that evaluated the day to day issues of the community. It comprised heads of households,, aim responsibility was to maintain peace and instruct warriors on how to handle issues in the community. They were permitted to own livestock. The senior elders
- They comprise the senior most age-set. Membership was determined by age and experience. The group performed religious functions and also was responsible for and dealt with difficult judicial and political decisions.
- The Maasai adopted the institution of Oloibon or prophet that combined socio-religious functions and later own assumed political authority.
- There were several social ceremonies that accompanied the rites of passage like circumcision, marriage and death. The Eunoto ceremony marked the graduation of the Morans into junior elders. This ceremony is still practiced upto date.
RESULTS OF MIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT OF HIGHLAND NILOTES IN KENYA
- They displaced some communities they found in the areas where they settled e.g. Abagusii, the Kwavi Maasai and the Abaluyia.
- Some Highland Nilotes were absorbed/assimilated by the Bantu such as the Teriki and the Tachoni.
- The Highland Nilotes traded with their neighbours/they exchanged animal products for grains from the Abaluyia and the Abagusii. This led to the expansion of trade in the region.
- Their settlement increased the population of the region.
- The highland Nilotes intermarried with the Luo, Abagusii and Abaluyia. This strengthened their relations.
- There were ethnic wars/conflicts due to cattle raids.
- There was cultural exchange leading to enrichment of their lives.
Origin of Bantus, Who are Bantu-speakers? (State the meaning of the term Bantu)
- The term Bantu refers to a group of people who speak related languages. They constitute the largest language group in Africa and occupy two thirds of the sub-Saharan region.
- The original homeland of the Bantu was between eastern Nigeria and the Cameroon highlands
- They moved from Cameroon through the Congo forest into the lake region of east Africa, Zambia and Shaba province of the Democratic Republic of Congo
- They then spread into east, central and southern Africa
- Due to their size and strength, they managed to conquer and now occupy two thirds of sub-Saharan Africa
- They form the majority of Kenya‟s population
Describe Bantu migration
- Bantu migration was slow and gradual, involving small groups at a time.
- Around 500 BC, they were living in the Congo forest, which was a major dispersal point from where they began to migrate.
- Their movement was in four major waves, two of which led to their settlement in Kenya.
Describe four major waves of Bantu migration into east Africa (In what four waves were the Bantu divided as they migrated into east Africa?)
- That which moved south-eastwards through the area west of lake Victoria, which became the second dispersal point and from where some groups, especially the Western Bantu, passed through present-day Uganda and eventually settled in Western Kenya from 1000AD as others, such as the Banyoro and Baganda, settled in Uganda.
- That which moved and entered east Africa at a point south of lake Victoria and proceeded eastwards across northern Tanzania up to the area between Taita hills and mount Kilimanjaro. At this point, some Bantu groups such as the Sukuma, Kuria, Nyamwezi and Haya were left in Tanzania.
- That which proceeded northwards from the area between Taita hills and mount Kilimanjaro up to Shungwaya.
- That which proceeded from Shungwaya up to the Kenyan coast. These became referred to as the Eastern Bantu.
Identify the dispersal points through which the Bantu migrated from and settled in various areas
- The Congo forest,
- The area west of Lake Victoria,
- The area between Taita hills and mount Kilimanjaro,
State the reasons for the migration and settlement of the Bantu into Kenya
- Population pressure due to food production, enabled by their knowledge in ironworking, with which they made and used better farm implements.
- Their might and strength due to better weapons and farm tools, which enabled them to easily fight and defeat other people and to clear new lands for agriculture.
- Internal pressure (family or clan rivalry).
- Natural calamities such as famine, drought, etc.
- Search for new farmland.
- The spirit of adventure i.e. their desire to taste life in new lands.
- Invasions and frequent attacks by warring neighbours.
- Diseases and epidemics, which affected both people and livestock
Discuss Socio-political organization of the Kenya Bantu during the pre-colonial period
- They were divided into clans, with the clan as the basic unit in the community.
- They practised circumcision.
- They believed in the existence of a supernatural being: God.
- Diviners and medicine-people were highly valued. Some communities had seers.
- They had rituals that marked different stages of life, e.g. birth, naming, circumcision, marriage and death.
- They had a regimental (Age-Set) system. circumcision formed the basis for an age-set and age-grade system
- They were divided into clans, each with a clan head.
- They had councils of elders, who settled disputes and presided over ceremonies.
- Some like the Wanga were centralized under monarchs. The Wanga were led by a King (Nabongo).
- Some, like the Mijikenda, lived in fortified villages.
- They were organized into Age-sets and age-grades.
- They had warriors chosen from the Age-sets to defend the community or enrich it through cattle raids on their neighbours
Explain the economic activities of the Kenya Bantu in the pre-colonial period
- They participated in local, regional and international trade.
- They practised farming.
- They kept cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic animals.
- Some were hunter-gatherers.
- They practised crafts such as iron smelting, basketry and pottery
- Some communities such as the Mijikenda practised fishing
MIGRATION & SETTLEMENT OF THE BANTU INTO KENYA [Describe two main groups in which the Bantu were divided as they migrated into Kenya]
- The Western Bantu, who were part of the first wave of migrants that moved south-eastwards from the Congo forest through the area west of lake Victoria, passing through present-day Uganda, where some of them settled as others proceeded to and settled in Western Kenya from 1000AD.
- The Eastern Bantu, i.e. Bantu-speaking groups that occupy the area between the rift valley and coastal Kenya, who entered Kenya after migrating eastwards across northern Tanzania. They had began to settle in Kenya by 1000AD and may have followed different directions to get to their present homeland.
Identify the communities that belong to:
(a) The Western Bantu,
(b) The Eastern Bantu.
- The Mijikenda,
- The Pokomo,
- The Taita,
THE WESTERN BANTU [Explain the migration and settlement of Abagusi, Abakuria and Abasuba into Kenya]
- Abagusi may have originated from a place known to them as Misiri, under their ruler and ancestor called Kwitu.
- From Misiri, Abagusi and some Abaluhyia groups migrated to the Mount Elgon region where they lived for several generations.
- Around 1500AD, Abagusi, Abakuria and a section of Abalogoli migrated down Nzoyia river valley and settled at Goye in Yimbo and near Ramogi hill and other areas on the eastern shores of lake Victoria.
- Due to arrival of Luo Ancestors In the lake region around 1550AD, Abagusi were pushed to Alego, Kisumu, Sakwa and Asembo areas.
- Shortly after 1600AD, drought forced Abagusi to migrate and settle in the Kano plains. Their farther migration eastwards brought them into conflicts with the Kipsigis. Because of this, they moved to the fertile Kisii highlands and other parts of their present homeland, such as Kitutu, South Mugirango and others.
- In spite of conflicts with the Luo, Maasai and Kipsigis, Abagusi exhibited and practised good interaction, due to which they intermarried, traded and had other forms of exchange with these communities
- Abakuria live in south Nyanza. Their traditions indicate that they are related to the Abalogoli of Abaluhyia and Abagusi too.
- They also trace their origin to the Mount Elgon region and maintain that they came from a place called Misiri.
- Abakuria may have migrated alongside Abagusi up to 1500AD when they took their separate direction.
- Abakuria settled briefly around the shores of Lake Victoria, where they interacted with the Luo and the Southern Cushites. Abakuria may have picked up the practice of circumcision and Age-set organization from the Southern Cushites.
- Some of the Kuria clans may have come from northern Tanzania.
- By 1800AD, Abakuria had all settled in south Nyanza, where they again met and continued interacting with Abagusi. Indeed, some clans of Abagusi originally settled in Kuria territory in the second half of the 18th century
- Abasuba occupy Mfangano and Rusinga islands on lake Victoria, where they settled from 1750AD, after arriving as refugees fleeing from Buganda. Other Suba people were displaced by the in coming Luo.
- Suba migration was mainly triggered by fighting in Buganda and Busoga, following the assassination of Kyabbagu by some of his children. Kyabbagu was King of Buganda. As a result of the assassination, there was a struggle for succession to the throne, which made some of the groups around Lake Victoria to flee.
- In their migration from Busoga and Buganda, most of the Suba spoke either Luganda or lusoga.
- The Suba later interacted with the Luo as they entered Kenya, although they at first saw the Luo as a threat to them. They traded and intermarried with the Luo among other practices.
- Some Abasuba settled at Gwasi and Kaksingiri in later years. They adopted the social customs of the Luo. Today, most Abasuba have adopted Luo culture.
- Because of Luo influence, Abasuba have almost lost their original language and way of life
Explain how Abaluhyia migrated and settled into Kenya (Analyse the migration and settlement of Abaluhyia into Kenya)
- Luhya oral tradition traces their origin to an area called Misiri. Historical evidence shows that Abaluhyia resulted from intermarriage between various ethnic groups in the course of their migration into Kenya. Buluhyia is an area in which Nilotes, Bantu and some Cushites interacted.
- Luhyia migration and settlement into Kenya started around 300AD. Their most recent ancestors spread from eastern Uganda from around 1300AD. Most of them may have originated from the mount Elgon region and then settled in Bukhayo, Marama, Tiriki, Bunyore, Wanga, Maragoli, Marachi, Kisa, Samia, Idakho, Isukha, Bungoma and other Bukusu areas, Bunyala, Busonga, etc.
- As they migrated, they assimilated other groups, such as the southern and eastern Cushites as well as Southern Nilotes.
- Between 1550-1750AD, Luhyia society began to take shape. By 1883, Abaluhyia had fully emerged as a community.
- Abaluhyia interacted with Nilotic speakers such as the Maasai, Kalenjin and Luo, which led to a lot of cultural exchange.
- The interaction of Abaluhyia with several other communities perhaps explains why there exists so many clans and dialects among Abaluhyia. In fact, the term Luhyia means Family. Abaluhyia means People Of the Family or Family-people
Explain how Luhyia interaction with Nilotic speakers facilitated cultural exchange (In what ways did Luhyia interaction with Nilotic speakers lead to cultural exchange?)
- Some Luhyia clans such as Abashimuli of the Idakho were formed.
- Some Abaluhyia picked up and started speaking the languages of the people they interacted with. This is more so with the Marachi, Kisa and Samia, who started speaking the Luo language. On the other hand, the people with whom Abaluhyia interacted adopted Luhyia dialects.
- From the Kalenjin, the Luhyia learnt cattle keeping and age-set organization.
- Some such as the Wanga bought or borrowed military services from the Maasai, who also had entered Luhyia territory.
- Sharing of practices, particularly in the border region resulted. E.g. Southern Luhyialand, especially Bunyala, Samia and Busonga (Usonga) have been heavily influenced by the Luo due to sharing of language and rituals, such as removal of teeth
Identify the dialects that constitute Luhyia community (What dialects is the Luhyia community made of?) Eighteen major dialects constitute Abaluhyia. These are:
Trace the migration and settlement of the Wanga into Kenya (Analyse/explain Wanga migration and settlement into Kenya)
- The Wanga Kingdom was founded by the Bahima, who had migrated from western Uganda and who settled at Imanga hills under their King: Muhima, who was referred to by the title Nabongo. Between 1544-1652, Nabongo Muhima founded the Hima dynasty by uniting the different clans that had settled at Imanga.
- Shortly after 1652, the Hima dynasty was replaced by the Bashitsetse dynasty under their ruler called Wanga. It was after this ruler (Wanga) that the Kingdom was later named, to become Abawanga or Bawanga (people of Wanga). In most cases, the community is referred to just by the name Wanga.
- The Bashitsetse established a more centralized system of government.
- During the reign of Nabongo Wamukoya, a group rebelled and formed a parallel kingdom known as Wanga Mukulu of Kweyu. During Nabongo Mumia‟s time, Wanga Mukulu was ruled by Nabongo Sakwa.
- The Abawanga suffered attacks from their neighbours. To resist these attacks, Nabongo had to seek assistance from the Europeans. They got assistance from General Hobley.
- The British expanded the Wanga traditional rule and made Nabongo a Paramount Chief. As a Paramount Chief, Nabongo Mumia ruled what was known as Eastern Uganda, which include the present Nyanza and Western provinces and parts of Rift Valley (Turkana, Uasin Ngishu, Trans Nzoia, Nandi, Bomet, Kericho, Buret, Baringo, West Pokot, Keiyo, Marakwet and Nakuru) up to Mai Mahiu.
- Through Mumia, the British assisted the Abawanga to fight their enemies e.g. the Ababukusu, Luo, and Iteso. Mumia died in 1949.
Identify the Kings (Nabongos) that reigned over Wanga
- Nabongo Wamukoya Netia (1760-1787),
- Nabongo Osundwa (1787-1814),
- Nabongo Wamukoya (1814-1841),
- Nabongo Shiundu –(1841-1882),
- Nabongo Mumia (1882-1949)
Describe the political organization of the Wanga in the pre -colonial period
- The Wanga are of special interest because of their centralized system of government, which no other Luhyia or Bantu group in Kenya had.
- They were headed by a king (Nabongo).
- The office of Nabongo was hereditary.
- Nabongo was assisted by a chief minister and an army commander.
- Nabongo levied taxes on the conquered communities and controlled trade in his kingdom.
- Nabongo mainly appointed members of the royal family as officials to administer the provinces.
- Apart from the Wanga, all other Kenya Bantu had no centralized authority. Some Western Bantu communities such as the Luhyia were affected by the spread of warfare in the Western Kenya region, so the political set-up among some communities had to be reorganized. The centralized system of government such as that of the Wanga was most reliable.
Discuss the socio political organization of the Western Bantu during the pre -colonial period
- They were organized in clans. The clan was the basic unit of their political and social organization.
- Circumcision of boys was a very important practice, especially among Abaluhyia and Abagusi. It was at circumcision that the boys were taught the values and customs of their homeland. While Abagusi and Abakuria circumcised their females, the rest of the western Bantu did not. Some Western Bantu communities like the Khayo, Samia, Marachi and Abasuba do not have the practice of circumcision.
- After initiation, the boys joined age-sets. Various age-sets had various duties, e.g. provision of warriors to defend the community, raid for animals,, help one another in tasks such as hunting, building huts, harvesting, etc. Senior age-sets advised the junior ones, settled disputes, distributed war booty, etc.
- They believed in one God. They regarded God as controller of everything, who continues to influence man's life, even after man‟s death. They called God by different names. They also believed in ancestral spirits, to whom they poured libations and offered sacrifices.
- Medicinemen and diviners were highly valued in the society. Sorcerers and witch doctors were hated, because they were believed to use charms and medicine to harm others
- Apart from the Wanga, the Western Bantu were politically organized as follows in the pre-colonial period:
- They were under village councils run by elders.
- They were categorized into age-set systems, which provided the community with defence and security.
- Positions of leadership were hereditary
Explain the functions/role of the council of elders among the Western Bantu during the pre-colonial period
- They maintained and ensured law and order in the community.
- They served as the final court of appeal in all matters.
- They had power to declare, stop or call off war.
- They presided over religious and other communal functions.
- They served as ritual experts.
- They settled land disputes
Explain the economic activities of the Western Bantu during the pre -colonial period
- Keeping livestock. They kept cattle, sheep and goats, which provided them with milk, meat, hides and skins.
- Agriculture. They grew grains, pulses and root crops such as cassava, arrow roots, potatoes and yams as well as legumes like beans and peas.
- Trade. Abagusi gave their Luo neighbours grains, iron implements and soap-stones in exchange for livestock, salt, hides, milk, pots, baskets, etc. The case was similar between the Luhyia and their Nandi and Luo neighbours.
- Fishing. They used hooks and lines, basket nets and fence traps to catch fish. They sold some of the fish they caught to neighbouring communities.
- Ironworking. This enabled them to have better weapons and farm implements, which aided their migration and settlement in various places before they finally settled in their present homeland.
- Crafts. They were good in pottery and basketry, which boosted their trade and other economic activities.
THE EASTERN BANTU [Who are the Eastern Bantu?]
Identify the communities that belong to the Eastern Bantu
- The Mijikenda,
- The Pokomo,
- The Taita,
- The Agikuyu,
- The Ameru,
- The Akamba
- The Aembu
- The Coastal Bantu.
- The Highland Bantu
(a) The Coastal Bantu,
(b) The Highland Bantu.
The Coastal Bantu include:
- The Mijikenda,
- The Pokomo,
- The Taita.
- The Akamba,
THE COASTAL BANTU [Trace/explain the origin of the Coastal Bantu]
- They probably were the first Bantu people to settle in Kenya.
- Their ancestors may have moved from a dispersal point west of Lake Victoria through northern Tanzania to the area between Taita hills and Mount Kilimanjaro.
- Others such as the Mijikenda moved towards the coast, while the Chagga of Tanzania settled to the south. The Taita remained on the hills as the Mijikenda and other groups moved along the coast up to Shungwaya, which may have been somewhere between rivers Juba and Tana. The present highland Bantu moved westwards and eventually occupied their present home areas.
- The Shungwaya dispersal mainly resulted from the southward expansion of the Oromo by 1600AD. The Mijikenda groups started settling in their present home areas in the course of 1700AD. By the beginning of the 19t h century, they had settled in their present homeland. The Pokomo on the other hand moved from Shungwaya, following the river Tana. Here, they interacted with Cushites such as the Oromo and the Somali.
Who are the Mijikenda?
Name the nine communities the constitute (make up) the Mijikenda.
- The Giriama,
Analyse/trace the migration and settlement of the Mijikenda and Pokomo into Kenya
- The Mijikenda trace their point of origin to Shungwaya, which in Bantu means “To be driven away”.
- From Shungwaya, the Bantu were forced to move southwards by the Oromo, who also stopped their northward migration around the 16t h century AD. The Somali also joined the Oromo in forcing the Mijikenda out of Shungwaya, from where the Mijikenda moved in small groups, which explains why they settled in different places and why today the Mijikenda exist and are identified by their small groups or clans.
- The Mijikenda settled in fortified villages, just inland from the coast. Each of the nine groups settled in their own separate ridges, which are commonly referred to as Kaya, a word that means „towns‟. The term Mijikenda itself expresses that the community consists of nine related groups.
- Each Kaya was fortified with tree trunks. Even after settling in their present homeland, their main enemies were the Oromo and the Somali.
- By the 19t h century, the Mijikenda had interacted and established themselves as middlemen in the Long Distance trade between the Akamba and the Waswahili at the coast.
- Ancestors of the Pokomo lived with those of the Mijikenda at Shungwaya, but the Pokomo moved southwards and settled along river Tana, where they interacted with Cushitic communities. Population pressure and Oromo attacks were the main reasons for Pokomo movement from Shungwaya.
Name the three hills inhabited by the Taita.
- Mangea hill, where they first settled.
Trace/analyse migration and settlement of the Taita into Kenya
- The Taita are a people of mixed origin, though most of them trace their origin to Shungwaya.
- They first settled on Mangea hill in the 16t h century, from where they migrated to their present home areas.
- They live on three hills i.e. Davida, Sagalla and Kisigan
Identify Taita clans and their origins
- The Wasadu, who originated from the Oromo.
- The Wanyanya, who originated from the Maasai, Oromo and Akamba.
- The Wanya, who originated from the Mijikenda, Agikuyu and Shambala.
- The Shambala, who originated from Tanzania.
- The Wasann, who originated from the Pokomo, Akamba and Shambala.
- The Wasasadu, who originated from the pare in Tanzania.
- The Waikumi, who originated from the Maasai and Akamba.
- These clans emerged as a people after many years of interaction.
ORGANIZATION OF THE COASTAL BANTU
- They were divided into clans, each with its council of elders (Kambi), which served as the final court of appeal in all matters as the highest ruling council.
- The council of elders comprised the highest level of Age-set systems as part of the organization of the society.
- Under the elders were prophetesses and prophets (Wafisi), who had authority over all religious and ritual matters by administering oath and conducting all traditional ceremonies at every level e.g. circumcision, harvesting, planting, cleansing, reconciliation, etc.
- In short, the social and political institutions among the coastal Bantu were closely interwoven.
Describe the economic activities of the Coastal Bantu during the pre -colonial period
- Agriculture. They mainly cultivated grains, with which they traded.
- Keeping livestock. They kept cattle, sheep and goats, which provided them with milk, meat, hides and skins.
- Fishing. Most of the coastal Bantu who lived on the sea-shore and along river-banks caught fish to supplement their diet and to boost their trade.
- Hunting. This was more so with the Taita and Mijikenda, who hunted elephants and rhinoceros for ivory, horns, etc.
- Trade. The Mijikenda traded with the Akamba, Chagga and Taita as far back as the 18t h century AD. They traded in grains, goats, sheep, cattle, iron tools, beads, clothes, ivory, skins, rhino horns, etc.
THE HIGHLAND BANTU
THE AKAMBA [Analyse/discuss migration and settlement of the Akamba into Kenya (Trace the origin of the Akamba)]
- The Akamba trace their origin to the area around Mount Kilimanjaro, from where their ancestors migrated to the great bend of the river Tana. They then moved to Taita hills and finally reached Tsavo west. Around mid 15t h century AD, the Akamba followed the eastern banks of river Athi, from where one group moved across the Athi to Ulu. Due to Oromo attacks, another group of the Akamba moved south to the Galana river and settled in the region around Chyulu hills north of Mount Kilimanjaro. Due to drought in the Chyulu area, some Akamba migrated and settled in the Mbooni hills near Machakos around mid 16t h century. Soon, due to population increase, some Akamba migrated farther to Iveti, Kilungu, Masaku and Makueni. In the course of their migration and settlement, the Akamba met and interacted with the Agikuyu.
In what ways was Akamba migration and settlement influenced by the environment? (Explain how and what environmental factors influenced Akamba migration and settlement into Kenya)
- Those in Mbooni region took up agriculture due to soil fertility and ample rainfall in the area.
- The Akamba who moved to drier areas like Chyulu hills became hunters.
- Others moved to Kitui and adopted pastoralism and hunting. It is this group that later participated in the Long Distance trade by providing ivory and slaves to the coastal traders in thee 19th century.
In what ways did the Akamba interact with the Agikuyu in the course of Akamba migration and settlement into Kenya? (Explain interaction between the Akamba and Agikuyu in the course of Akamba migration and settlement into Kenya)
- They exchanged trade items.
- They intermarried.
- They adopted cultural aspects like language and dressing.
- They raided and fought each other.
- They began sporting activities such as wrestling and archery.
THE AMERU [Name the dialects that constitute/make up the Ameru]
- The Tigania,
Discuss/analyse migration and settlement of the Ameru into Kenya
- The Ameru claim a place called Mbwa, which is somewhere at the coast (probably Manda island) as their area of origin. However, historians believe that this tradition of Mbwa fits very well with Bantu dispersal from Shungwaya.
- By late 15t h century, ancestors of the Ameru had begun arriving in Meru. Ameru migration from the coast was mainly due to Oromo pressure.
- From Shungwaya, the Ameru moved westwards along the river Tana and pushed into Igembe and Tigania regions. Around 1400AD, the Ameru and other Mount Kenya groups were living as hunters and pastoralists.
- They moved farther into the interior, crossing river Tana. Some, especially the Tharaka, finally settled to the east of River Tana as others such as the Chuka, Muimbi, Imenti, Tigania and Igembe settled in the area west of the River Tana
- The Ameru and Agikuyu are believed to have initially migrated as one group until 15th and 16th centuries, when the Agikuyu took their separate direction. The traditions of the two groups and those of the Aembu and Mbeere seem to confirm this view.
- Aembu and mbeere ancestors are believed to have initially migrated with those of the Ameru and Agikuyu from the Kilimanjaro area before going their separate way.
- By 1500, the Mbeere had settled in their present homeland. However, the Aembu crossed River Thuci and moved north-westwards to the area east of mount Kenya, where they settled and interacted with the Athi and Gumba, who they later assimilated and from who they learnt the art of bee keeping, ironworking and circumcision.
- The Agikuyu are the largest population of all the Eastern Bantu. They inhabit the Central province of Kenya.
- Describe two legends or myths that refer to Gikuyu origin.
- That which presents the Agikuyu as having originated from Mukurwe Wa Gathanga, where their ancestors (Gikuyu and his wife mumbi) were settled after God created them. According to this legend, Gikuyu and mumbi begat nine daughters, who married and mothered the nine clans of the present Agikuyu.
- That which states that the Agikuyu may have descended from one of the four sons of a Mbeere man, the other three of which may have mothered the Akamba, Athi and Maasai.
Discuss/analyse migration and settlement of the Agikuyu into Kenya
- By 1200AD, The Bantu had already settled in the Central province of Kenya. However, the original inhabitants of the area were hunter-gatherers, such as the Athi (Dorobo) and the Gumba. These may have been the remnants of the original inhabitants. The Athi and the Gumba interacted with the Agikuyu, who later assimilated them.
- The Agikuyu may have moved south-west from the coast around 1400AD, probably to avoid hostile neighbours, such as the Oromo. They also may have moved in search for cultivable land. They followed the Tana River.
- As they moved, some groups broke off and settled in different places. Those who settled in the east became the Tharaka while those who settled in the south-west became the mbeere. They had arrived and settled in Mbeere and Chuka from a northern direction by the 16th century AD. One group proceeded to the confluence of the Tana and Thika rivers by the beginning of the 18t h century. This was the group of Gikuyu ancestors that is associated with the Mukurwe Wa Gathanga tradition in Murang‟a.
- The Agikuyu later moved to the Mweya plains, where they were joined by the Akamba and the Thagicu. Farther expansion of the Agikuyu led to the displacement of the Athi and Gumba, some of who were assimilated while others ran into the Nyandarua and Mount Kenya forests.
- In the first half of the 19t h century, the Agikuyu once more migrated to Othaya and Aguthi. They also moved north-eastwards to Mathira and Tetu in Nyeri. They spread and settled in different parts of Central province and reached as far as Kiambu and Nyandarua. Their settlement in Kiambu and Nyandarua was interrupted by the coming of the Europeans in the 19t h century. However, they were still migrating by early 20t h century.
- As they migrated, the Agikuyu borrowed ideas from the Cushites, the Maasai, the Gumba and Athi. The Gumba and Athi were later together known as the Okiek.
- The Maasai seriously opposed or resisted Agikuyu invasion. However, the Athi welcomed and were on good terms with the Agikuyu. The Agikuyu borrowed many economic and social aspects from the Athi, e.g. ironworking, circumcision, clitoridectomy (female circumcision) and some age-set features.
Describe the socio-political systems among the Agikuyu during the pre -colonial period
- The Agikuyu at touched a lot of political and social importance to the family and age-set.
- Being the smallest social and political unit, every family had its own head. Several families formed a clan.
- Gikuyu country was divided into clans or territorial units, each of which was made up of several sub-clans (Mbari) with common descent, usually living on the same ridge. each territorial unit was headed by a council of elders: the “Kiama”, under a senior elder known as “Muramati” or “Muthamaki” (spokesman). Muramati was highly respected by the community because of his wisdom and leadership qualities. However, he was not a chief.
- Each sub-clan was ruled by a council of elders subordinate to the “Kiama”. This performed religious, administrative and judicial roles within the sub clan, leaving the “Kiama” to deal with matters beyond its ability or communal mandate.
- At puberty, young boys were initiated through elaborate rites, crowned with circumcision, during which they were taught the social values, customs and their duties to the community as warriors.
- Boys circumcised at the same time formed an Age-set (Rika). Age-sets formed the military base for the Gikuyu community, since members of the same age-set considered one another as brothers, which created a strong political and social bond. Circumcision of girls was also done every year.
- They believed in one God (Ngai), who was all-powerful and in complete control of all life and who has a definite dwelling place: Mount Kirinyaga (Mount Kenya). Since God was all-powerful, people prayed to him through priests. priests offered the community‟s prayers to God through ancestral spirits. Diviners interpreted God‟s messages to the people.
- Sacrifices were offered to God in thanksgiving or to ask for his blessings.
- The Agikuyu strongly believed in ancestral spirits, who continued to live for many generations, even after physical death and who were all-powerful as intermediaries between God and the living.
- Medicinemen and diviners were very important in the community. The Medicine man (“Mundu Mugo”) could cure certain diseases and expel evil spirits. Medical skills were inherited from close relatives. The Diviner (“Murathi”) could foretell the future.
- From the main council of elders, a council of senior elders was formed.
Explain the role/duties of the council of elders among the Agikuyu in the pre -colonial period (What were the functions of the council of elders among the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period?)
- They were the highest court of appeal.
- They solved land and inheritance disputes.
- They settled civil and criminal cases.
- They presided over religious and other functions.
Identify the economic activities of the Agikuyu during the pre -colonial period
- Agriculture. They grew sorghum, eleusine, millet, root crops and many others for subsistence.
- Animal husbandry. They kept cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, etc.
- Trade. They exchanged various trade items with their Maasai, Akamba, Okiek and other neighbours. Such items included grains and livestock.
- Ironworking. From iron smelting, they obtained weapons and farm implements, with which they were able to settle and farm in their present homeland.
- Crafts. They made pots, baskets and other items, which boosted their skills in trade and other economic activities.
Discuss the effects of Bantu migration and settlement into Kenya
- Increased population in the regions where they settled.
- spread of ironworking to other parts of Kenya. The skill reached other communities, such as the Luo.
- Increased intercommunal conflicts. For instance, they fought with the Oromo at the coast, the Maasai in the Rift Valley and the Luo near Lake Victoria.
- More trading activities as the Bantu exchanged iron products with other communities. For example, Abagusi gave iron products to the Luo in return for baskets.
- Increased cultural interaction and exchange. For instance, many Bantu groups assimilated the Southern Cushites as some Bantu were assimilated by Nilotes.
- spread of agricultural practices in Kenya. For example, the Kwavi Maasai of Kenya adopted cultivation.
- Population redistribution. E.g. the Dorobo moved to forested areas.
- Displacement of some communities. For instance, Abagusi were displaced by the Luo in the Kano plains. Some Eastern Cushites were displaced by the Agikuyu from parts of central Kenya.
- Intermarriage. E.g. Abaluhyia intermarried with the Maasai, Kalenjin and Luo.
- Exchange of knowledge and skills. Many Bantu adopted the Age-set system and the practice of circumcision from the southern Cushites.
Chapter 13 Social
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Development Of Industry
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
European Invasion Of Africa
Form 3 Level
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....