In 1585, a Turkish captain, Amir Ali Bey, arrived at the coast as an envoy of the sultan of turkey to free the coastal towns from the Portuguese. Rebellion then broke out between 1585 and 1588 between Ali Bey, the Portuguese, and the people of Mombasa and Zimba warriors. The towns of pate, Siyu and Pemba were attacked and forced to pay heavy fines while manda was completely destroyed
As a result of their ruthlessness, the coastal people became hostile to the Portuguese.
Mombasa for example resisted the humiliation they got from the Portuguese appointed sultan
The sultan’s heir Yusuf was treated as a servant who resented the people of Mombasa
On 15th august 1631, during the Christian feast of Assumption in Mombasa, Sultan Yusuf stabbed the captain with a knife, killing him instantly. This sparked off a rebellion where many Portuguese were killed.
Yusuf posed a threat to the Portuguese rule until his death in 1637.
The people of pate also revolted in 1666. However, their ruler was arrested and exiled to Goa where he was executed
In 1622, the Persians drove the Portuguese from Hormuz. In 1650, the Portuguese were expelled from their bases in Muscat by the Omani Arabs under sultan Saif
Britain, France and Holland also began to compete the Portuguese in trade.
The final blow to Portuguese rule was attack by the Omani Arabs and the seizure of fort Jesus. The coastal Arab towns had appealed to their brothers in Oman for assistance against the Portuguese brutality.
In 1652, an Oman fleet sailed to pate and Zanzibar, overpowered and killed the Portuguese.
In 1696, Imam Saif Ibn Sultan of Oman sailed to Mombasa with a large fleet and army. The Portuguese took refuge in Fort Jesus as battle raged on (about 2500 Portuguese men, women and children) the Portuguese were unfortunate as they could not get supplies to sustain the war with 3000 plus Arab soldiers with full packing of the coastal people.
In 1697, the Omani forces got access to the Fort and found most Portuguese afflicted with disease. By December 1698, the Omanis penetrated the Fort only to find all except twelve Portuguese dead. This marked the end of Portuguese rule though they made a temporary seizure of the fort in 1728 but were overpowered.
For the coastal people, it was however a mere change of guard from the Portuguese to the Arabs
Results of Portuguese stay at the coast of East Africa
The Portuguese built Fort Jesus at the coast in Mombasa in1592/3 which became a fortress and later a tourist attraction for centuries.
They enriched the Swahili language with an addition of 60 words e.g. emeza meaning table and pesa meaning money.
They introduced new crops from South Africa of which many have become staple diet for many East Africans e.g. cassava, pawpaws, maize, oranges, sweet potatoes, guavas, pineapples and mangoes
They made an improvement in ship building. During their stay on the coast, many architects came in from India and Europe.
There was establishment of closer trading links between the coast and India.
They introduced new farming methods for example they encouraged the use of cow dung as manure.
They led to the coming of more European and Asian traders and craftsmen especially those who helped in the building of Fort Jesus.
They broke the Muslim- Arab monopoly of the Indian Ocean Trade.
Trade declined due to the constant wars and rebellions and heavy taxes imposed.
There was decline of the coastal towns because many were burnt down and left in ruins for example Kilwa and Mombasa.
There was widespread poverty and misery among the coastal people due to decline in trade.
There was heavy loss of lives during the attacks. There was depopulation due to the many wars in the areas
There was destruction of property like buildings and crops, which led to famine and starvation.
The coastal people suffered oppression and brutality under harsh rule of the Portuguese.
Their religion, Christianity, made no impact at the coast because they lived far from their subjects and stagnation of the Islamic faith because discouraged preaching.
Smuggling developed because the Portuguese had failed to establish proper trading links with the Interior.
Some towns were prevented from trading with their initial partners which led to their decay e.g. Gedi
They led to the European interest at the coast hence leading to the colonization in the 19th Century
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