Discuss six criticisms that have been made against the communist party.
Describe the structure of the communist party in the union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
The highest organ of the communist party structure was the all-union party congress. It was the final decision making organ.
Another important party organ was the Poliburo/Presidium of the central committee. It made decisions when the central committee was in recess.
The central party committee controlled and supervised and supervised the functions of the various department e.g. the Amy, finance and personnel
The secretariat was the next organ in the political set up of the communist party. It played a role in the formation of government policy.
Explain six factors that led to the collapse of East African community.
Why was the East African community formed?
To maintain a common market for the member states/ promotes balanced economic cooperation
To provide common services to the three member state especially in the areas of transport and communications
To promote political cooperation between the three countries
Facilities free movement of the people of the region to foster greater cooperation and understanding among them.
Explain the political organization of Mwene Mutapa Kingdom during the pre- colonial period.
The empire was ruled by the emperor who was both head of state and Government
The office of the emperor was hereditary
The emperor was assisted in administering the empire by the queen mother, head drummer, emperor’s sister, emperor’s principal wives the chancellor and military
The empire was divided into provinces which were ruled by lesser kings/ chiefs who were directly answerable to the emperor
The Empire had a standing army which was used for defense and expansion of the kingdom
The emperor controlled trade activities whose revenue was used to sustain the empire and the army.
Priests acted as a link between the people and the emperor
The king was military leader
The king was a religious leader/ semi divine
Describe the social organization of the Shona during the Pre- colonial period.
The shona believed in one powerful god Mwari
They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits whom they consulted from time to time
The Shona communicated with the spirit through mediums/ oracles
The priests presided over religious functions such as offerings sacrifices to god
Shona elders were highly respected
Priests came from Rozwi clan
They had sacred places of worship/ shrines
They were clan based
They live in circular stone houses
It was a polygamous society
Explain five ways in which West African communities benefited from the Trans- Saharan Trade.
What five factors undermined the trans- Saharan trade?
Explain six factors that contributed to the spread of Christianity up to the thirteenth century A.D
What three factors have led to the development of religious beliefs in societies
Desire to understand things that were beyond human understanding such as the sun, moon, floods and drought
Search for security in the face of uncertain to human existence e.g. death, diseases and war
Attempts by the human race to explain their existence on earth i.e. the belief in existence of a force behind creation
Desire to keep the community together
Desire for unity
Direct/ indirect divine revelation to certain individuals in the society.
Explain four advantage of the land tenure system in Britain
Why did the industrial revolution take place in Britain ahead of other European countries?
Britain had ready markets for industrial products within the British Empire
The empire was also a source of raw material for industries in Britain.
She had large reserves of coal, which was used, as a source of industrial Energy
She had a well- established cottage industry which provided a basis for the industrial growth
Some of the inventions that accelerated industrialization were made in Britain e.g. steam engine
Britain had developed a strong economic base in her participation in overseas trade.
There existed a class of rich businessmen who were keen to invest in the Industries
Availability of labour following the displacement of peasants as a result of the Agrarian revolution.
Agrarian revolution led to production of adequate food for the industrial Workers.
Existence of well developed banking and insurance systems which advanced loans to entrepreneurs
Protection of her trading ships from piracy by her strong navy
Britain had a well- developed transport system both land and water
Availability of skilled labour
Britain enjoyed relatively long period of peace and stability
Explain five consequences of urbanization on European communities during the nineteenth century.
What five factors influenced the development of early urban centers in Africa?
Discovery of crop farming led to the development of farming centers which attracted population and later became towns
Trading activities between different communities led to the development of trading centres which later became town.
Trading centres that were used for religious activities developed into towns.
Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus led to the development of towns.
Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns
Places along the coast where ships stopped for supplies developed into towns.
Mining centres developed into settlements which became towns for example Meroe.
Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into Towns.
Towns developed at cross- routes
Development of centres of learning e.g. Alexandria
Distinguish between a written and an unwritten constitution