What factors led to the development of urban centers in African during the pre-colonial period?
Trading activities led to the rise of convergent centres which later developed into towns.
The existence of local industries led to population concentration in place that later developed into towns/mining centers e.g.
Existence of trade routes which linked various placed led to the development towns at major cross-roads.
Administration/royal centres later developed into towns e.g. Kumasi and Addis Ababa.
Development of centres of learning later became urban centres e.g. Timbukutu./ education centres e.g. Acescentrio.
Development in Agriculture led to availability of food which in turn encouraged people to establish permanent settlements/farming centres
Religious centres developed into towns e.g. Ife and Kumasi
Places that were secure attracted population concentration and later developed into towns e.g. Thababosiu the capital of Basutoland.
Ports and harbous which were used as calling stations for replenishments developed into urban centres e.g. Cape Town, Malindi, Cairo.
Places where water was available developed with urban centre.