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COURTESY OF ATIKA SCHOOL
The term disease denotes any condition or disorder that disrupts the steady state of wellbeing of the body.
Health is a state of physical, mental and emotional wellbeing in the internal environment of the body.
Some of the causes of diseases are due to entry of pathogens and parasites. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi.
Parasites are organisms which live on or in the body of another organisms.
Vectors are animals that carry the pathogen from one person to another. Most are ectoparasites that transmit the disease as they feed.
Bacterial diseases - Cholera and Typhoid
Causative agent is a bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
It is spread through water and food contaminated by human faeces containing the bacteria. The bacteria produce a powerful toxin, enterotoxin that causes inflammation of the wall of the intestine leading to:
Carriers should be identified, isolated and treated during outbreaks.
The term disease causative agent usually refers to the biological pathogen that causes a disease, such as a virus, parasite, fungus, or bacterium. Technically, the term can also refer to a toxin or toxic chemical that causes illness. [Source: wikipedia.org]
Protozoa - Malaria and Amoebic dysentry (Amoebiasis)
Use appropriate anti-malarial drugs.
Amoebic dysentry (Amoebiasis)
This disease is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. The parasites live in the intestinal tract but may occasionally spread to the liver. Transmission - They are transmitted through contaminated water and food especially salads.
Treatment of infected people with appropriate drugs.
Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma
Ascaris lumbricoides lives in the intestines of a man or pig, feeding on the digested food of the host.
The body of the worm is tapered at both ends.
The female is longer than the male.
Mode of transmission
Deworm using appropriate drugs - ant-helminthic.
Schistosoma or bilharzia worm is a flat worm, parasitic on human beings and fresh water snails. (Biomphalaria and Bulinus). The snail act as intermediate host.
Mode of Transmission
Schistosomiasis also known as a bilharsiasis is caused by several species of the genus schistosoma. Schistosoma haematobium - infects the urinary system mainly the bladder. S. japonicum and S. mansoni both infect the intestines. Schistosoma haemotobium is common in East Africa where irrigation is practised and where slow moving fresh water streams harbour snails.
It is spread through contamination of water by faeces and urine from infected persons. The embryo (miracidium) that hatch in water penetrates into snails of the species Biompharahia and Bulinus. Inside the snail's body, the miracidium undergoes development and multiple fission to produce rediae. The rediae are released into the water and develop to form cercariae which infect human through:
Effects on the host