20 multiple-choice questions based on the document Introduction to Computers along with their answers
Here are 20 multiple-choice questions based on the document "Introduction to Computers" along with their answers:
20 QUESTIONS BASED ON INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS ALONG WITH THEIR ANSWERS
DEFINITION OF PARALLEL CABLES
A parallel interface is a method of transmitting data where multiple conductors, or wires, are used to send information simultaneously. This is typically done through parallel cables. The main advantage of using parallel cables is the ability to transmit data at a faster rate, especially over short distances.
Unlike serial interfaces where data is transmitted sequentially through a single wire, parallel interfaces utilize multiple wires to transmit data in parallel. This means that multiple bits of data can be sent simultaneously, increasing the overall data transfer rate.
EXAMPLES OF PARALLEL CABLES
Examples of parallel cables commonly used in computer and electronics systems include:
EXAMPLES OF PARALLEL CABLES IN PICTURES
USES OF PARALLEL CABLES
Parallel cables have been widely used in various computer and electronics systems for different purposes. Here are some common uses of parallel cables:
CHARACTERITICS OF PARALLEL CABLES
Parallel cables possess several characteristics that distinguish them from other types of cables. Here are some key characteristics of parallel cables:
ADVANTAGES OF PARALLEL CABLES
Parallel cables offer several advantages that have made them useful in various applications. Here are some advantages of parallel cables:
DISADVANTAGES OF PARALLEL CABLES
Parallel cables, despite their advantages, also possess certain disadvantages that have contributed to their decreased usage in modern consumer electronics. Here are some of the disadvantages of parallel cables:
UNDERSTANDING SERIAL CABLES: DEFINITION, EXAMPLES, AND CHARACTERISTICS
Definition of serial cables:
Serial cables, also known as serial communication cables, are used to transmit data between two devices in a serial manner, where data is sent one bit at a time sequentially over a single wire or a pair of wires.
Examples of serial cables:
Serial cables are used for transferring data between devices using a serial communication protocol. Here are some examples of serial cables:
Examples of serial cables in pictures
Characteristics of Serial Cables:
Characteristics of Serial Cables:
Uses of serial cables:
Serial cables have been widely used for various purposes. Here are some common uses:
Advantages and disadvantages of serial cables
Advantages of Serial Cables:
Advantages of Serial Cables:
Disadvantages of Serial Cables:
Disadvantages of Serial Cables:
Advantages and Disadvantages of Two Open Line Cables on Data Transmission
A Comparison of Twisted Pair Cable Types and Their Pros and Cons
Twisted pair cables are a common type of network cable used for data transmission. They consist of pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together to reduce electromagnetic interference. Twisted pair cables have both advantages and disadvantages during data transmission.
Advantages of Twisted Pair Cables during Data Transmission:
Disadvantages of Twisted Pair Cables during Data Transmission:
Understanding Digital, Analog, and Hybrid Computers: Differences and Applications
Digital computers operate using discrete values and are the most common type of computer. They use binary digits, or bits, which have two possible states: 0 or 1. Digital computers process information in a step-by-step manner, where each step involves performing logical operations on these binary values. They are highly accurate and precise, making them suitable for handling complex calculations and executing algorithms. Examples of digital computers include personal computers, laptops, servers, and smartphones.
Analog computers, on the other hand, work with continuous values. They represent and manipulate data in a physical, continuous form such as voltages, currents, or other measurable quantities. Analog computers are designed to model and solve mathematical equations by using physical phenomena to represent and compute values. They are particularly useful for tasks involving real-world phenomena, such as simulating fluid dynamics or electrical circuits. However, analog computers are less precise than digital computers and are more susceptible to noise and inaccuracies. Examples of analog computers include slide rules, analog oscilloscopes, and certain scientific instruments.
Hybrid computers combine the features of both digital and analog computers. They use digital components for performing logical operations and processing discrete data, while also incorporating analog components to handle continuous data. Hybrid computers are often employed in scientific and industrial applications that require both precise calculations and real-time monitoring of physical quantities. For instance, in a nuclear power plant, a hybrid computer can perform complex calculations using digital components while monitoring and controlling analog readings from various sensors.
Discrete values are separate and distinct values that can be represented individually. In the context of computing, discrete values are typically binary, taking on either a 0 or 1 state. Digital computers operate with discrete values, processing and manipulating binary data in discrete steps.
Continuous values, on the other hand, are unbroken and can take on any value within a range. They represent quantities that can vary infinitely, such as time, temperature, or voltage. Analog computers work with continuous values, using physical phenomena to represent and process these continuous quantities.
In summary, digital computers process discrete values using binary digits (0s and 1s), analog computers work with continuous values using physical representations, and hybrid computers combine elements of both digital and analog technologies to handle both discrete and continuous data.
Types of CPUs: Bus Size and Processor Architectures Explained
Types of CPUs can be categorized based on various factors, including bus size and processor architecture. Here are some major types of CPUs:
1. Bus Size:
a. 32-bit CPUs:
These CPUs have a data bus width of 32 bits, which means they can process data in 32-bit chunks. They are commonly found in older systems and low-end devices.
b. 64-bit CPUs:
These CPUs have a data bus width of 64 bits, allowing them to handle larger amounts of data and address more memory. They are commonly used in modern computers and high-performance systems.
2. Processor Architectures:
a. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computers):
CISC CPUs have a wide variety of complex instructions that can perform multiple low-level operations in a single instruction. They are designed to prioritize instruction richness over simplicity. Examples of CISC instruction set architectures include x86 (Intel and AMD processors), System/360 through z/Architecture, PDP-11, VAX, and Motorola 68k.
b. RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computers):
RISC CPUs employ a simplified instruction set, focusing on executing a smaller number of instructions efficiently. They aim for simplicity and faster execution. Well-known RISC families include ARM (used in mobile devices and embedded systems), MIPS, Power (including PowerPC), SPARC, and RISC-V.
c. MISC (Minimal Instruction Set Computers):
MISC is a processor architecture characterized by a minimal set of basic operations and corresponding opcodes. MISC CPUs prioritize simplicity and efficiency in terms of hardware design. The INMOS transputer is a notable commercially successful MISC architecture.
It's important to note that these distinctions are not mutually exclusive, and CPU designs can incorporate elements from multiple architectures. Additionally, there are various other factors that can differentiate CPUs, such as clock speed, cache size, microarchitecture, and manufacturing process, which contribute to their overall performance and capabilities.
Computer Buses: Overview, Types, and Functions in Computer Architecture
A computer bus, in the context of computer architecture, refers to a communication pathway or set of electrical links that enables the transfer of information and signals between various components of a computer system. Buses are an essential part of a computer's internal architecture as they facilitate the exchange of data, instructions, and control signals among different hardware components.
Here are some examples of computer buses commonly used in modern computer systems:
In addition to these basic buses, computer systems may also utilize other specialized buses for specific purposes. For example:
To delve deeper into the topic of computer buses, you can explore various resources such as computer architecture textbooks, online articles, and research papers. These sources provide detailed information about bus protocols, bus architectures, bus arbitration techniques, and the advancements made in bus technologies over time.
Exploring Different Types of Registers in Computer Architecture
In computer architecture, registers are temporary storage locations within the central processing unit (CPU) that hold data being processed. Different types of registers serve various purposes in a computer system. Here are some common types of registers:
Identify the following types of ports
Work out the hexadecimal equivalent of 1011111000112
Work out the hexadecimal equivalent of 1011111000112Divide in to 4 bits
Work out the hexadecimal of each group
1011-ll thus B
1110 = 14 thus E
Join the representation BE316
Using one's and two's complement work out 1410 - 910
Describe the following network services and identify their applications
i. Voice mail (2 Marks)
Voice Mail (or voice matt, voice mail VMS, sometimes called message bank) is a centralized system of managing telephone messages for a large group of people.
In its simplest form it mimics the functions of an answering machine, uses a standard telephone handset for the user interface, and uses a centralized, computerized system rather than equipment at the individual telephone.
Voicemail systems are much more sophisticated than answering machines in that they can:
ii. Video conferencing. (2 marks)
Differentiate between Internet and World Wide Web. (2 marks)
The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.
Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols.
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data.
Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.
The diagram below shows four common network topologies A, B, C
(i) Name the network topologies labeled A, B, C and (4 marks)
(ii) Explain what happens if server X in topology A fails. (1 mark)
(iii) List two problems associated with network topology B. (2 marks)
(iv) List two disadvantages associated with network topology D. (2 marks)
Advantages of storing files in folders. (4 marks)
Properties that an operating system displays about a file. (2 marks)
What will happen if you attempt to delete a folder while a file contained in it is Open? (1 mark)
Explain the following terms as used in disk management using operating system:
(i) Disk defragmentation. (2 marks)
Process of putting together scattered files to fasten access speed
(ii) Disk clean up (2 marks)
Process of deleting and removing files on the hard disk that may no longer be needed e.g. files on cache, internet files, installation files
State and explain four functions of an operating system
Explain two coding schemes. (4 marks)
Physical features of human beings that can be considered in Bio metric analysis. (3 marks)
State and explain three components of an experts system. (6 marks)