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COURTESY OF ATIKA SCHOOL
Q6. Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
She felt the weight of injustice that women have felt since time immemorial in her male dominated world. Even a half- wit like her brother-in –law could rob her of her hard earned wealth, and her grandson of his rightful position as the chief, for in all truth Otieno should have held the chief’s stool only until the infant Owour came of age, but it was now clear he had no intention of ever giving up the chiefdom and after his death, his numerous sons would make sure that it stayed in the family. Owour would be outnumbered practically by infinity to one. As it was, his grandmother feared for his life and watched him like a hawk. It was disquieting to have all one’s egg in this one tiny frail basket.
After pondering over her predicament at length Akoko decided to make contact with the sirikal and seek their intervention. The first thing she did was to remove her two year old grandson and take him back to her brother, Oloo in Yimbo. His mother had meanwhile married one of the numerous cousins. In any case she was not the sort of woman to fight for her rights, leave alone her sons’s. All she wanted was a husband and some security, and who could blame her? After all not everybody could be like Akoko.
Before she left she went to see her daughter Nyabera who was in mourning again having lost both her sons to a ferocious outbreak of measles which had raged through her village during the last harvest. She was pregnant again but so downcast and depressed that she stayed in her house, rarely going out and hardly eating. She needed help and her mother decided to spend some time with her before leaving.
She found her daughter thin to the point of emaciation with her belly sticking out before her like an appendage. When she saw her mother still unbent and uncowed by suffering, looking like a woman half her age, she just broke down and wept in her arms as if she was a little girl again.
“Cry my child, for one does not bury a child without burying a apart of one’s soul with it. It is good to cry for who can comprehend the ways of Were? It is for us men to wash away our painful confusion with tears and then to carry on, perhaps there might be some meaning in it all that only glimmers like firefly in a dark night. Who knows but that one day Were will give you a child that lives grows? Yesterday is not today and today is not tomorrow for each day rises fresh from the hands of Were god of the eye of the sun, bringing with it gladness and sorrow, sun and darkness, the two faces of Were; for how can we appreciate light unless we understand darkness? Weep my child and do not hold pain within yourself for it will turn into a snake that devours you from the inside.”
i. what happens immediately before this excerpt? 3 marks
ii. Name two injustices Akoko suffer from her brother-in-law. 2 marks
iii. Akoko and her daughter can be said to be ill-fated. Give reasons using evidence from the extract and elsewhere in the novel. 4 marks
iv. “After all not everybody was like Akoko”. How was Akoko different from her grandson’s mother mentioned in the excerpt? 4 marks
v. (a) Akoko mentions of going to the sirikal for intervention . What did she want intervention? 2 marks
(b) Apart from the sirikal, name other changes that come with the white man. 3marks
vi. Identify and illustrate two stylistic devices used in the excerpt. 2 marks
vii. (a) As Akoko comes to see her daughter Nyabera, she is very expectant. Whom does she give birth to? 1 mark
(b)Akoko comes out as the source of the river. How does this child contribute to the river? 4marks
i. -Owour Kembo dies and his son Owang Sino becomes chief.
- Owang Sino also dies – Owour young brother Otieno Kembo becomes chief.
ii. The injustice that Akoko suffers from her brother-in –law Otieno.
a. He tries to grab Akoko’s personal wealth. √1
b. There is a clear indication that Otieno Kembo had no intention of giving up the chiefdom
when young Owour, Akoko grandson came of age. √1
iii. (a) Akoko loses her husband and the same applies to Nyabera. √1
(b) Akoko’s two children Obura and Owang die young and the same applies to
Nyabera’s children except Awiti. √1
iv. -Akoko does not remarry like her daughter-in –law after the death of her husband. √1
- Akoko could fight for her rights, “ in any case, she was not the type to fight for her rights. √1 2marks
v. (a) She wanted the serikal to force Otieno Kembo to relinquish the chiefdom to young
Owour when he came of age.
(b) The Whiteman came with Taxes, new religion, money and education. 3 marks
vi. (i) Metaphor√1 – she felt the weight of injustice that women…………………√1
(ii) Proverb √1– it was disquieting to have all one’s eggs in this one tiny frail basket. √1 2 marks
vii. (a) she gives birth to Awiti. √1
(b) – Awiti gives birth to children- Becky, Vera, Aoro and other children. √1
- Becky given forth two children with new white husband. √1
- Aoro marries Wandia and have children. √1
- This shows the river gains momentum/ rejuvenates from Awiti. √1 4 marks
Q7. Read the extract below and then answer the questions that follow.
Owuor looked at his grandmother in confusion. Naturally he had thought that his secret was well kept. The confusion became respectful admiration. He should have known that nothing could escape this astute woman.
“Grandmother, you know that I have worked closely with the priest and I feel that I would like to enter priesthood. I want to be a priest.” His grandmother was nothing if not surprising, so he should have been flabbergasted by her reaction but he was.
“ I wondered when you would get the courage to come out with it. You would not be my grandson if you were a coward. You have concluded quite wrongly that I will stand in your way. It is true that I have had hopes that you might one day sit in the chief’s stool that your father and your grandfather once occupied, but things have changed and people are turning to different things. I had also hoped that you would marry and provide many sons to ensure the continuity of the house of Owuor Kembo , but no I will not stand in your way.
However, from now henceforth you shall take your grandfathers’ name so that as long as you live his name shall be heard among the people. You will not be Owuor Sino, but Owuor Kembo. That is all my boy. Do whatever the spirit bids you”.
Owuor could only say weakly; Oh grandmother! The two women smiled at each other over his head.
And so it was that Peter Owuor Kembo, aged fifteen, formally Petro Owuor Sino found himself as seminarian at St. Paul’s Seminary Rakwano. His worldly possessions were few, his academic knowledge haphazard but he had faith in God and therefore in himself and he had love in his heart and the solid love of three women behind him. Finally he had unbounded hope in the future. So what if this hope was rosily cohered by his youthful enthusiasm? One wise man once said that it was better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all. In the same vein, it is better to have been buoyed up by hope , the horizon limitless before one, than to have lived in the grey world of timid fearfulness. The course of the world is changed by those who dare to dream. Some dream of wealth and others dream of fame, Owuor dreamt of a life expended in service. He had never really known his father or the joy of a father-son relationship, now dreamt of being the spiritual father of many.
And so he entered the rigors and splendor of life in the seminary. Sometimes when things were particularly tough, he would wonder whether mere blood and flesh would survive it, but it never entered in his mind to leave. If he had learned anything at all at his grandmother’s knees, it was that a job once begun had to be completed. He was no quitter. He would survive. He would see it through. One day he would be Father Peter. Maybe one day a bishop. He was happy to serve Christ anywhere and in anyway.
(a) Explain briefly what happened before the excerpt. 4 marks
(b) Give two character traits of Akoko brought out in this excerpt. 4 marks
(c) Explain how Owuor is considered courageous. 2 marks
(d) What really made Owuor want to become a priest. 2 marks
(e) At the end of the excerpt, Owuor has one wish ‘To become a spiritual father of many’.
Explain what he missed in his father but hopes to get as a father 6 marks
(f) Grandmother, you know that I have worked closely with the priest and I feel that I would like to enter the priesthood. I want to be a priest. (Write in indirect speech). 2 marks
(g) Give one theme evident in the extract. Illustrate 5 marks
(a) Owuor had fully decided to join the priesthood and confided to his cousin Awiti.
Her mother had gone to her home and had stayed for two years and was now back. Owuor told her his wish and together went to inform the all-knowing Akoko.
They found her working in the mission compound where they were staying. 4 marks
(b) Astute – even before Owuor could mention/ report that he wanted to be a priest she (Akoko) knew there was something in the boy since he was hiding all along.
Determined – Akoko did not tire to fight for her rights. She had well informed Owuor his position in the tribe, that he was destined be the rightful heir to the chief’s stool now held by the council of elders (the Jodongo) 4 marks
(c) Owuor is considered courageous in the sense that he knew he was the rightful heir to the
Chief’s stool. He defied without offending Akoko. His passion for the vocation of priesthood was strong. He first told his cousin Awiti who advised him to wait for her mother Maria. When Maria came he informed her. They both went to report to Akoko. Owuor then, without fear announced his intensions to Akoko.
(d) Owuor wanted to become a priest because of the newly acquired knowledge of the mass, catechism teachings and the closeness to the missionary priests as an altar boy. 2 marks
(e) Owuor will miss the powers of a tribal chief and that of head of the Jodongo, marriage and sire children just like his father
- Owuor as a priest will be a father to many. Many will call him ‘father’ since he will be their spiritual mentor and priest of their lives(both children, men and women will be his) 3 marks
(f) Owuor told his grandmother that she knew that he had worked closely with the priests and he felt that he would like to enter the priesthood and become one (a priest). 2 marks
- The whiteman brought the christian religion specifically the Catholic faith which taught the blacks using catechists and the institution of a seminary.
- Various cadres were evident- Christians. Catechists, priest and also bishops.
- Owuor chose not to be the traditional spiritual leader as a chief to become a father in Christianity.
- Religion brought people to God with love in their heart, faith and hope for heavenly possessions rather than worldly possessions of a chief, which can be lost. 3 marks
Q8. Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
“For this jewel there can be no price. Therefore we have decided to give her to you free except for a token bull, two cows and six goats with which to funish the requirements of chik. The bull shall come to me in lieu of her father. The two cows and goats will be taken to Yimbo to the house of Oloo her grandmother’s brother who in all ways was a father to the girl and her cousin and always provided for them.” The aspiring suitors stared in disbelief. Held in readiness back in seme were twenty four head of cattle, double the normal bride price which was the least they expected to be asked. Oloo had instructed his uncle to ask for a grace period of six months in which he would have looked for whatever else they would have demanded. And now this. They couldn’t possibly give away such a girl for free. They must have something hidden up their sleeves. But they hadn’t. He was just an incredibly lucky man and it was beginning to dawn on him.
1. Place the excerpt in its immediate context. (4 marks)
2. “For this jewel there can be no price”. Whose words are these? What had led to this response? (4marks)
3. ‘He was just an incredibly lucky man and it was beginning to dawn on him’
Justify this statement. (3 marks)
4. Identify the use of irony in this excerpt and show the significance. (3 marks)
5. Apart from tradition, what is the other main theme depicted in this extract? (2 marks)
6. Give two character traits of the speaker of these words. “For this jewel there can be no price………”
as depicted before and in this occasion. (4 marks)
7. What significant event occurred after this occasion? 2 marks)
8. (i) The aspiring suitors stared in disbelief. Supply the question tag. (1 mark)
(ii) The bull shall come to me in lieu of her father. Explain the meaning of this sentence. (1 mark)
(iii) Who is described as ‘jewel’? (1 mark)
Onyango Silwal had introduced the girls family√1mk to the suitors and the people of Seme requested to be told the bride price. √1mk
The two parties harmoniously conclude the negotiations as food and Kongo flows. √1mk Akoko
engages in a talk with the son-in-law. √1mk
Onyango Silwal. √2mks people of Seme wanted to know the bride price. √2mks
3. Awiti was an educated girl √1mk a teacher √1mk and yet he was asked to pay a token price. √1mk
4. Awiti is an educated beautiful and professional teacher. √1mk expectedly anybody who marries
her would pay dearly√1mk yet the suitors only pay a token bride price. √1mk
5. - Change √1mk (i) unlike in Akoko’s days bride price is no longer elaborate and expensive.
It is a token nowadays. √1mk
(ii) Marriages are friendly and peaceful unlike Akoko’s day when they were characterized
by rivary and tension. √1mk
6. (i) Hypocritical – pretends he is contented to accept token bride price for Awiti yet he was
angry when Akoko and Maria decided they would not demand a hefty bride price.
(ii) Appreciative - describes Awiti as a jewel
(iii) Understanding/ friendly – appears friendly and understanding as he announces the
suitors terms of paying bride price.
(iv) Irresponsible – neglects his duty in raising his brother’s child (Any 2 well illustrated traits @ 2 = 4 marks)
7. That night√1mk Akoko passes on√1mk
8. (i) didn’t they? ( observe punctuation)
(ii) Be given/ get the bull instead of Awiti’s father.
(iii) Elizabeth Awiti
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow:
“Mother, I have decided to seek the new religion which you have heard about. You know my life is a painful wound to me and much as I try my heart fills with bitterness- for me and for you”.
“ My child, do not feel bitterness for me for I am an old woman who has lived her life. As for you it is better that you seek this new way. It might give you hope and rescue you from bitterness. Bitterness is poison to the spirit for it breeds nothing but vipers some ofwhich might consume your very self. Pain and sorrow all human being feel; but bitterness drops on the spirit likealoes- causing it to wither. I give you my blessing my child. If you are walking along and you find your path leading nowhere, then it is only wise to try some other path.”
“ Thank you mother. I will bring you news as soon as I can. May Were protect you.”
(2)(a) . before this Nyabera had gone to philipo to inquire about the new religion. She had then gathered her things and decided to leave her daughter with her mother n Yimbo. Shei informs her mother of her decision to seek the new religion .Her mother encourage her to go ahead and join the new religion and forget her bitters .Immediately after this Nyabera t ravel s to Aluor mission and join the new religion
(b). Nyabera had suffered a lot in her life because her children had died mysteriously leaving her with only grl child .(Ant) Her husband had died .Ogoma Kwach who had inherited her had gone to his family
(c ). (i). Both had lost their husbands through death
(ii). Their children had died
(iii). They were both sonless
- philosophical – Bitterness is poison to the spirit for it breeds nothing but viper………………………………”
(e). Dialogue – “Mother I have decided……..
Simile – “but bitterness drops on the spirit like aloes ……..”
Use of Non – English Were
(f). Theme of religion – Nyabera decides to seek new religion….
Theme of human suffering - “ You know my life is a painful wound
Q10. Read the excerpt below and then answer the questions that follow.
“Brothers, we greet you and bring you many greetings from the people of seme. My nephew, Oloo, son of my late brother Sigu, came to me and said: “Father, I have found a girl and I want to get married. Now I am a reasonable man and I know the ways of chik, so I asked him: ‘Son I asked him one does not just find a girl in the air. One sends ajwanyo to go and spy a girl and find out her antecedents and character. Is she a thief or a witch? Is she lazy or shiftless? Might there be consanguinity between you and her? Who is her mother and father? I tell you my brothers that I was flabbergasted to hear that none of these things had crossed his mind. He knew that her mother’s name was Maria and her grandmother’s name was Akoko and that was all. You will therefore forgive us because we do not know you and you do not know us. We only came because we have faith in our son who has always been a reasonable man. We therefore wish to introduce ourselves before we go on. I am SemoRakula of Seme, our village is near that strange rock- upon-a-rock, Kit-Mikai. We are the descendants of that wear warrior, Nyagudi Kogambi. Oloo and these young men are my sons and nephew . Oloo is a man of learning and what is more a soldier who has fought for the white man in distant landa Now he is a clerk with a big kambi (company)in Nakuru, where he gets a good salary. So should this suit be acceptable to all you need have no fear that your daughter will starve. I tell you these things because there are things jawang’yo would have found out for you. Thank you brothers.” A pot of kong’o was moved near him and he drew a long refreshing draught. Some things never change-a spokesman needs to irrigate his throat.
“Brothers, people of Seme. My name is Oyange Silwal The girl Awiti is the only child of my late brother Okumu. We are from Sakwa from the village of Gombe, The girl has group in Gem because her mother being a widow and having converted to Christianity decided to settle here which a good thing is because now she is like light for the rest of us. She is highly educated and a teacher of children.
(a) Place this excerpt in its immediate context. (4marks)
(b) Identify and illustrate any three thematic concerns evident in this excerpt. (6marks)
(c) Describe the character of Awiti as brought out in this excerpt, (2marks)
(d) Apart from the case in this excerpt, explain where again there is a compromise in the bride
price later on in the novel. (2marks)
(e) In one sentence, paraphrase the statements below (2marks)
“Brothers, people of Seme. My name is OyangeSilwal The girl Awiti is the only child of my late brother
Okumu. We are from Sakwa from the village of Gombe.
(f) We only came because we have faith in our son who has always been a reasonable man.
Provide a question tag for the above statement. (l marks)
(g) ‘ You will therefore forgive us brothers because we do not know you and you do not know us.’ In light
of what happens in the novel, why is the speaker begging for forgiveness. (2marks)
(h) Identify and illustrate any two stylistic devices evidently used in this excerpt. (4marks)
(i) Give the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the excerpt. (2marks)
irrigate his throat;
Oyangesilwal tells the people of Seme that Awiti is the only child of his late brother Okumu and that they are from Sakwa from the clan of Gombe
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COURTESY OF ATIKA SCHOOL
6. “A woman is the driving force in the society.” Prove the validity of this statement basing your argument on the text The River and the source by Margaret Ogolla.
(Should be able to tell that the student had understood the question and he knows what he is going to write). (2 mks)
The driving force in the text The River and the Source is the woman kind. The woman is a source of inspiration, influence and power in the society. This is exhibited in the following ways. From the moment Akoko is born, she is a big influence in her surrounding. She becomes the focal point of her family. Her father and brothers are stolen by her charm. She changes her father’s attitude towards the girl child when he says “A home without a daughter is like a river without a source.” Akoko affects her generation. She is a source of inspiration for her daughter Nyabera, her grand daughter Elizabeth and Elizabeth’s children notably Aoro. Wandia says that Aoro keeps saying that he is not a great grandson of Akoko for nothing. This is to mean that even after her death, she is still influenced. She allows Nyabera to join Christianity and Peter to become a priest. She is influenced in the lives of the people she interacts with.
Vera takes after her great grandmother. She is an influence. She is so determined to become an electric engineer and she becomes. She chooses to become celibate and joins the Opus Dei. After Becky’s death she takes over her children though they stay with Aoro and Wandia.
Nyabera was a source of inspiration to her children and grandchildren. She takes charge of Peter after the death of her brother Owing Sino. She is embodiment of strength, determined and patience. She goes through a lot of pain as a woman and she becomes the focal point from where Elizabeth gets her strength. She is a big influence to her generation.
Wandia is another source of inspiration for her society. She beats Aoro in an anatomy class and that is the beginning of what they share later in life. She is a source of inspiration for her husband and children. She later becomes a pediatrician. This is because of Daniel’s condition. Any other well explained capturing the character and the role of the woman in the text.3 x 4 = 12 mks
This must summarize the prints above. A relevant conclusion. (2 mks) Marks distribution 2 marks- introduction 12 marks – the content ( the prints) 2 marks – conclusion 4 marks - - language use.
7. “The River and the Source highlights the virtue of courage.” Using Akoko, justify this statement .
The River and the Source portrays Akoko as a woman of courage which helps her overcome some of the various challenges she faces.
(i) Akoko draws the attention of the village and defends herself against her mother-in-law Nyar Alego and brother-in-law Otieno Kembo’s allegations for using witchcraft to prevent Owuor Kembo her husband from marrying other wives. She leaves her matrimonial home regardless of the absence of her husband, to show that she could not take the accusations anymore. This helps her to protect the image of her family which had been questioned and to stamp her position so that her in-laws would respect her.
(ii) Akoko shows courage when she makes the legendary journey to Kisuna to go and report Otieno Kembo to the D.O. She faces the DO and later the DC as she lodges her suit against Otieno and wins the case. She has the courage to take the long journey, whose virtue lies in the fact that Otieno is ousted from being the chief and with it comes the end to oppression and heavy-handedness Otieno had visited on the people for the short time he was chief.
(iii) Akoko confronts Otieno when he threatens to whip her because of reporting him to the “sirkal”. She tells him “you may be twice my size, but I have three times your courage. This stops Otieno from continuing to insult her at that moment since he does not proceed. It also prevents him from physically beating her up.
(iv) Akoko leaves Yimbo for Aluor when she decides to join her daughter, Nyabera, in pursuing the new way of life (Christianity). She agrees to take on a completely new culture; thereby, abandoning what she has always known
to be the way of life. This helps her, together with her daughter, to find peace which eventually paves way for the success of her grandchildren.
− Expect the candidate to briefly summarize the topic of discussion.
− They may also give a proverb summarizing the content.
8. “Despite good parenting, children can sometimes be a disappointment”. Using Elizabeth and Mark children, write an essay in support of this statement.
Can be general specific, general and specific (Don’t accept mere definition. Must be the first paragraph) Example Sometimes parent may bring up children according to the books. They have very clear vision of what their children should become in adult life but they end up deviating. Though not always painfully the parents feel disappointed. Elizabeth and Mark are such parents.
D (i) Vera – a promising girl, very educated, infact an electrical engineer. Her parents especially the father had hopes settle as a family but she ends up being a non-marrying member of Opus Dei.
(ii) Becky though pretty shows she will be a problem when she is a child. She is lazy, only an average student. At one time, she doesn’t want to proceed with education were it not for responsible father. Later she disappears from home to become an air hostess. She lives a promiscuous life and is an irresponsible mother. She painfully dies of HIV and Aids great disappointment to both parents. \
(iii) Aoro is a mad genius. At form one, he catches the attention of the headboy for being indisciplined. He is sent home and only goes back because of a disciplinarian father. Later he marries Wandia – a Kikuyu though a good the father had hoped he marry a nice Luo girl and even tries to advice him against the idea.
(iv) Tony is attracted to the church even when a boy. He is always in the company of his uncle who is a catholic priest. Though Mark admires Peter, he could not imagine his son becoming a catholic priest. This is because he would become a celibate. Tony becomes a catholic priest.
(v) Odongo is the first child to fail class seven. He wants to be taken to secondary school – The father stand his ground and is made to repeat class. He later becomes a successful farm manager. Expect four well illustrated points Mark 3 : 3 : 3 : 3 = 12 marks
Must be the last paragraph Expect a recap of the content or a candidate’s opinion.
Language 4 marks.
9. “Akoko is the embodiment of change.” Discuss the validity of this statement, using illustrations from The River and The Source.
It is true that Akoko is a true embodiment of change. This is shown by the following illustrations:
- E (i) When Maria Nyabera goes through several misfortunes including the loss of her children, she is at the point of despair, and she decides to seek a new way to console her. She consults Akoko who encourages her to join Christianity. She tells her “as for you it is better that you seek this new way. It may give you hope and rescue you from bitterness pg. 103. Again, after Nyabera is converted to Christianity, she still feels a vacuum for she does not have a son. Consequently, she goes to seek for a son from Ogoma Kwach, when things do not work between them, she comes back to the mission devastated and heart broken. The caring Akoko encourages her to seek forgiveness from God. Nyabera spends the whole night at the tabernacle praying after which she feels consoled. “Go to the church and talk to him there …. Pg. 123. It is after this experience that Nyabera realizes that when she was away looking for a son, there was one (Peter Owuor) who loved her dearly. From then she reconciles herself to the fact that she would live with only one child.
E (ii) Elizabeth Awiti excels in Primary school and she is offered a place at a Teacher’s Training College. Nyabera is so worried of releasing her child to the world “there was a vice-like band around her head and she thought she would faint … a sword shall pierce thy soul … pg. 130 – 131. Reasonable Akoko brings her back to her senses and tells her “you’re not wise my child, learn wisdom, don’t you see the world is changing pg. 132.Later, when Elizabeth informs her parents that her fiancé Mark Sigu, would be coming to seek for her hand in marriage, Nyabera wonders how Elizabeth can think of getting married to a man whose antecedents she doesn’t know. Akoko brings her back to her senses and tells her, “Accept it Maria, the world is changing pg. 143.” Also during betrothal, Mark Sigu’s light complexion causes fear among the hosts because they feared Elizabeth could have chosen to get married to a jamwa (foreigner). “Apart from Akoko who must have left her mother’s womb with a broad outlook all of them were strictly parochial … a catastrophe.” Pg.146. Meaning that it is only Akoko who would not have minded if Elizabeth had chosen a non-Luo. This change is reflected in Aoro and Becky who chose to marry spouses from a different race and tribe.
E (iii)Traditionally, women do not own wealth, Akoko has accumulated so much wealth, “for by now her mother’s wealth was staggering even by the standards of today pg. 68 After her husband’s death, her brother-in-law, Otieno Kembo, misappropriates her husband’s wealth and threatens to grab Akoko. She takes a drastic step and heads to Kisuma to seek redress from the sirikal. (The D.O and the D.C). Traditionally this case would have been dealt with at the clan level. “She knew that as a woman, a widow and a sonless mother … she was greatly disadvantaged. Pg. 73.
E (iv) Owuor Kembo on meeting Akoko, falls irrevocably in love. “Owuor experienced an indescribable sensation pg. 24.” It should be noted that traditionally, love was not a prerequisite to marriage. Consequently, Owuor Kembo remains strangely monogamous. Even the pressure to marry another wife, from his mother and the council of Jodongo can’t deter him” long have we pleaded with you to take another wife … adamantly refused pg. 38. Traditionally, a chief should be polygamous the fact that the chief remains monogamous is change that is attributed to Akoko’s admirable personality. “Owuor Kembo” treats his wife like a queen … pg. Owuor Kembo pays more than double the normal bride price that is thirty head of cattle. Traditionally he should have bargained to bring this number down but he doesn’t. “Let us shock them by accepting their offer without bargaining … your name will be repeated from mouth to mouth for years to come.” Pg. 23.
From the above illustrations, it is clear that Akoko is truly an embodiment of change.
10. The Western culture has totally changed the African traditions. With reference to the “River and the Source,” show the validity of this statement.
(i) Candidate should bring out the general understanding of the erosion / transformation of the African traditions. Candidate should also demonstrate that the meaning is applicable in the novel.
− Traditionally, spying ensured there was no consanguinity, the spouse was of good character as seen in the marriage of Akoko and chief Owuor Kembo. In Mark Sigu’s case there was to spying to the influence of formal education. Polygamous to monogamous, singlehood.
− Initiation opened doors to marriage e.g. Akoko’s vis-à-vis Wandia’s, Becky’s, Awiti’s.
− Tero (wife inheritance) ensured morality and continuation of family line. Gradually it was abandoned.
− Funeral and burial rites and ceremonies have also undergone transformation e.g. chief Owuor Kembo’s followed the traditions while Akoko’s was Christian.
− Political leadership / administrative systems change from chieftaincy helped by Council of Jodongo shifted to a colonial system (sirikal) eventually to an African Multi-party system.
− Naming system.
− Education system from informal to formal. (Any other relevant)
Any 4 well illustrated points 4 x 3 = 12mks Conclusion Candidate should tag their conclusion to the body of the answer. 2:3:3:3:3:2 = 20 marks.
11. Widowhood pushes women to a disadvantaged position in society. Write an essay in support of this statement basing your answer on The River and The Source by Margret Ogolla.
Introduction Can either be general or textual giving allusion to the suffering widow undergo in the society Content
− Soon after her husband ‘s death ,Akokofinds it difficult to sustain her fight with her in-laws.Otieno ,in particular ,plunders her wealth deliberately because she is defenseless widow.
− Otieno sits on the chief’s stool with heavy arrogance secure in the knowledge that Akoko, awidow, cannot fight for it on behalf of Owour sino, her grandson.
− Her refusal to be inherited makes her vulnerable to abuse and despise .She flees Yimbo.
− In Oloo’s homestead, Akoko, nowwidowed, is derided by her sister –in –law who are looking for every opportunity to push her away.
− Nyabera‘s firm hold on Ogoma Kwach (her inheritor) provokes a protest from his wife and the council of Jodongo.
− Her re-union later with Ogoma Kwach does not last and the man is set on marrying a second wife.
− Owang’ sino’s wife Alando nyar uyoma, as a widow cannot defend her son and heir to the chieftaincy against Otieno .The son is taken from her by Akoko for protection in Yimbo.
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Q3. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow
Odero looked confused for a moment, having expected a spirited fight to reduce the number to at least twenty head. However, he was not a great Chief for nothing. He rose beautifully to the occasion. After all style had to be met with style, Nyadhi with Nyadhi
“Ayie, I have accepted your suit. May the young girl be called so that people of Sakwa may see what a jewel we are giving them.” “Giving us!” thought Otieno in annoyance. ‘at this rate there will be no cattle left for me pay bride price with.’
In a little while Akoko walked in, in the company of her mother. Traditionally the girl at this point should have been the picture of demure shyness, her eyes fixed firmly on the floor, her hands held together in front of her mouth. Not Akoko. She walked in, steps measured, head held high, hands at her sides. Her head swiveled around a bit and then her gaze rested on Owuor. Let him see what he was getting.
‘What a brazen lass, ‘thought Otieno. ‘Thirty head indeed!’ Owour experienced an indescribable sensation. What happened, of course was that he had fallen deeply and irrevocably in love. Since that was not considered particularly important for a successful marriage, he did not understand or appreciate what was happening to him and that it would change his entire life and outlook.
She turned and left the room. Her mother remained for the rest of the ceremony. “People of Sakwa,” continued Aloo, “We are pleased that we have reached an understanding. We hope that a friendship will spring up between us now and into posterity. Let us pour more libation to Were and drink more kong’o to gladden our hearts. Mother of Akoko, please bring us some food.” The feasting went on into the late afternoon until about the tenth hour. Then the suitors had to leave, for chick did not allow them to spend the night.
(a) Place this excerpt in its immediate context. (4mks)
(b) What were chief Odero’s expections after fixing the bride price at thirty head? (2mks)
(c) Why is Otieno disappointed? (2mks)
(d) Explain what Otieno does later in the novel as a sign of dislike for Akoko. (4mks)
(e) Explain the meaning of the following words as used in passage
(ii) Brazen lass
(f) Change the following into a question (1mk)
(g) Describe any two aspects of tradition evident in the excerpt. (2mks)
(h) Describe Otieno’s character as depicted in the extract. (4mks)
(i) Examine two aspects of style and their effects. (4mks)
- The Jodongo had been outside consulting on how much to demand as bride price.
- They have come back into the hut.
- The people of Sakwa bring the bride price
- Akoko is married off after the traditional mock fight
(b) He thought the suitors would request to have it reduced. It wasn’t to be
(c) He did not expect the bride price to be fixed at thirty heads as this would mean there will be no more cattle to pay (bride price) for his own wives
(d) Complains as does his mother about Akoko’s inability to have many children.
He takes away Akoko’s wealth. He is not willing to hand over the chieftaincy to Akoko’s grandchild
(e) (i) Modest
(ii) A girl who is shameless
(f) Is she not a brazen lass?
(g) Tradition – the behaviour of girls before their suitors – they should be shy, their eyes on the ground hands at their mouths
Suitors cannot spend the night at their in-laws
(h) Selfish – wants Akoko’s bride price reduced so as to benefit “at this rate there will be no cattle left to pay bride price with”
Sarcastic – says “Thirty head indeed.” As he does not approve of Akoko’s behaviour (4mks)
(i) - Metaphor – “Jewel” refers to Akoko – she is precious/her beauty makes her extremely valuable as a jewel
- Local dialect – “Kong’o” and “Were” - the local words give the story local flavo
Q5. Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
“Let them show that my daughter is not going to starve in that wasteland they call a home.”They trooped back into the hut and the negotiations began in earnest.
“Brother, people of Sakwa, we are pleased to welcome you to Yimbo. It is customary, because of the good dak between us, for you to marry our daughters and we yours. we are therefore more than neighbours, we have great wat between us of the intermingling of blood though this has not occurred between our two lines so there is no danger of brother marrying sister- a great taboo. Since you are our brothers, we will not make things difficult for you.” Here he stopped to take a sip of Kong’o and you could have heard the ants talk, so great was the silence. However, nobody was fooled by his sweet words.
He continued, enjoying immensely the tension he was creating. “Our daughter, Adoyo Obanda is a great beauty whose assets have been praised and sung by many a nyatiti singer from here to Chumbu Kombit, from Sakwa to Loka Nam. She is as fleet as a gazelle and her flying feet have been incorporated into the saying of our village so that mothers sending their daughters on errand tell them to run like Adoyo of the flying feet. She has been carefully brought up and has been taught all the requirements of chik. She is a very apt pupil, and will therefore not bring shame and ruin to her husband by improper conduct.
Her antecedents are peerless for she can trace her bloodline clear to Ramogi our great father and her blood is pure for we have always taken care to marry correctly. She is also the eldest daughter of our great chief, a man whose fame is known throughout this land. After careful consultation, we have therefore decided that thirty head of cattle should be the proper bride price.” Was that an inaudible gasp from someone at the back? Chief Owour Kembo signaled to his uncle and the old man spoke.
(a) State what happens just before and after this extract. (4 marks)
(b) What is the importance of this ceremony? (3 marks)
(c) Identify and illustrate two themes brought out in the extract. (4 marks)
(d) Identify and illustrate 3 features of style used in the extract. (3 marks)
(e) With illustrations, cite two character traits of Akoko as evidenced in the extract. (4 marks)
(f) We have therefore decided that thirty head of cattle should be proper bride price.
(Rewrite the statement in indirect speech) (1 mark)
(g) “Let them show that my daughter is not going to starve in that wasteland they call a home.”
Who says this and what aspect of his/her character is brought out in the statement? (2 marks)
(h) However, nobody was fooled by his sweet words.(change into active voice) (1 mark)
(i) What was Otieno’s reaction about the bride prize? (3 marks)
- Akoko’s marriage negotiations are going on.
-Chief Odero Gogni calls the council Jodongo outside for consultation.
- he had already sent away twelve suitors who wanted a hand in marriage for his eldest daughter.
- he liked this particular suitor but wants to trim their arrogance.
- sets bride price at thirty heads of cattle. 2 marks
- The suitors request to be allowed to consult.
- watching what was going on from her mothers kitchen. Akoko is resigned
to remaining in her father’s home.
- the suitors especially Otieno Kembo argue against the high bride price.
-Owour Kembo accepts the dowry asked for without bargaining. 2 marks
(b) - the marriage was to portray the great friendship between the two parties involved in
the case of Sakwa and Yimbo.
- Intermarriage was to lead to a cordial relationship.
- Customarily, good neighborliness was to be fostered through marriage. 3 marks
Marriage institution was core in the people’s lives.
Negotiations and dowry payments was necessary before marriage took place.
Love and marriage
Love wasn’t a necessary ingredient for marriage to take place.
A girl married the man of her fathers choice. 4 marks
(d) simile –she is as fleet as a gazelle.
Personification –you could have heard the ants talk.
Metaphor –her flying fleet.
Local language – ‘wat’ ‘dak’ ‘nyatiti’ ‘kongo’ Any three= 3 marks
(e) fast/swift –she is as fleet as a gazelle.
Apt – she is apt pupil
Pure – her antecedents are peerless …… can trade her bloodline………Her blood is pure.
Popular – have been praised by many singers 4 marks
(f) They said that it had therefore been decided that thirty head of cattle should be the
proper bride prize.
(g) chief Odero Gogri
- Sets high expectations for his visitors.
- refers to their home as wasteland.
-wants to ensure his daughter would be comfortable when she gets married. 2 marks
(h) - we were however not fooled by his sweet words. 2 marks
(i) - says thirty heads was enough to marry three wives.
- says women are all the same.
- suggests that they should get of there. 3 marks
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Q1. Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
At first light, as was her wont- for she was an early riser, she woke the entire village with wails and screams. People rushed out of their houses to the chief’s homestead thinking that it was the chief or his son who had died, for either case it would have been Nyar Yimbo’s duty to raise the alarm. When a good sized crowd had gathered, she stood just outside her house and spoke with a loud voice.
“I Akoko Obanda Nyar Yimbo (daughter of the people of Yimbo) came to the homestead of Owour Kembo, chief, as a pure girl nineteen seasons old. In all that time I was taught nothing but the ways of Chik and how to conduct myself as a woman of impeccable birth. Never in all that time did my mother or my father take me out in the dark for the purpose of showing me how to cast spells or to brew love potions to snare the hearts of me. I was taught that the way to keep a man was by the work of my hands and the words of my mouth. Obanda my granduncle was a great healer, after whom many children are named. He was known to harm no man and frequently sent off those who sought trouble for others with a flea in their ear.
Has anyone ever seen me gossiping with other women at the water hole? Do I always not rise early to till my lands? Have I ever begged for food from you my mother-in-law as all your daughters-in-law do? Do I not always have enough to eat and more left over to barter in exchange for cattle, goats and sheep? (Indeed the size of the herds had become quite impressive).
Children are a gift from Were both to the deserving and undeserving. Do not even murderers, witches and sluggards who cannot even feed themselves have children? Should I spit in the eyes of Were like a snake and deny that he has given me children? Were creates a child in its mother’s womb in secret, in his own time and at his own evolution. I have not stood in the way of my husband and other women. He is the chief and I cannot order him either to marry or not to marry.
Much has been said by the daughter of the people of Asembo(nyar Asembo) and her son Otieno about the thirty head of cattle that were paid to my father as a bride price. It causes them much bitterness that I have not borne thirty children in exchange for those cattle. Indeed my continued presence here is bitter aloes to them. Therefore I shall lift their gloom and suffering and depart from here to go back to my father’s house. Be it known that my father was a wealthy man before receiving those cattle and would have remained wealthy without them. For none of my twenty- one brothers is wifeless. Be it noted also that the wealth I have created in this home is more than double the number paid for me. This everyone knows. Therefore when I reach home, I shall request the council of Jodongo to convene proceedings for a separation. My people will give back your cattle and you will give me back mine.
(a) Explain what happens just before the extract. (3 marks)
(b) Identify one theme that is addressed in this excerpt. (2 marks)
(c) Identify and illustrate two features of style used in the extract. (4 marks)
(d) Identify and illustrate three character traits of Akoko as brought in the extract. (6 marks)
(e) Comment on the view that this society holds about a married woman. (2 marks)
(f) Explain the meaning of the following phrase as used “…………… raise the alarm” (1 mark)
(g) Children are a gift from were both to the deserving and the undeserving.
(Change into an interrogative statement) (2 marks)
(h) Elsewhere from the novel, compare how Owour Kembo and Otieno treat their wives. (2 marks)
(i) What happens just after this extract? (3 marks)
(a) 1. Akoko’s husband is under pressure to marry another wife.
2. Nyar Asembo (chief Owour’s mother) wails and laments accusing Akoko of bewitching her son (chief Owour Kembo)
3. Akoko is in the fields but later comes home and she gets the wind of the matter.
(b) 1. Family conflict – Nyar Asembo is in a conflict with Akoko because she is unable to bear children regularly.
- She also accuses her of bewitching the son which annoys Akoko deeply.
2. Religion –Akoko believes in were- children are a gift from Were and created them in secret.
3. Traditions – naming of a children; Obanda my granduncle was a great healer, after whom many children are named.
(c) Rhetorical questions – “ Has anyone ever seen me gossiping with other women at the water hole?
Use of local language- ‘Were’ ‘chik’ children are brought up in the way of chik
1 mark for identification
1 mark for illustration
(d) 1. Hardworking/ determined
She tills her land and has enough to eat and barter
2. impulsive /rash/ reckless
-when she learns about the accusation from the mother –in –law she wails and people gather.
She does not think about the results of her action.
- she strongly believes that children are a gift from Were- god.
(e) - Women are viewed as a source of wealth. Akoko says that thirty head of cattle was
paid as bride price.
- Women are supposed to bear as many children as possible as long as bride price was paid for them 1 mark each
(f) Attract attention
(g) Are children a gift from Were both to the deserving and undeserving?
(h) Owour Kembo- treats Akoko as a queen 1 mark
Otieno –treats his wives like sluts 1 mark
(i) -Akoko leaves her matrimonial home.
- The children protest but she orders them to go back and wait their father’s return.
- When Owour Kembo comes and gets the story, he almost strikes his mother and throttles his brother half to death. 1 mark
Q2. Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
“She means everything to me”. She looked at him steadily for a little while. “So do you -though I am beginning to think it’s a waste of time. When are you going to propose if at all?. We’ve known each other for six years. Six years? What I don’t have by now I’ll never get. I am twenty six years old and you are looking at the finished product. And I am tired of being asked when I will bring home the man from Ruguru- meaning the man from the west as my relatives refer to you”.
“You do not mean it, don’t you? It is not brain fever due to overwork and lack of sleep, is it?” he said it half in rest, half in earnest. “You really are too much,” she said getting up.
“Come on! Do have a sense of humor. It isn’t every day a girl proposes to me. As a matter of fact this is the first time – so forgive me if don’t quite know what to say. But you know there’s never been anyone else since I met you. To heal with it, since we are in the age of equality, why don’t I just say that there’s never been anyone else? The answer is yes I’ll marry you. Any day you want. Today, if we can get anyone to marry us”.
You are really a comedian, you know. What are you still doing here- an underpaid intern? Your should be out there earning your millions with bill Cosby and the rest”. This was how there conversation always ended. Two strong wills pitted against each other. She wondered if she was taking on more than she could manage. But he had a power over her- which even he did not know. There was no one else, there could be still she was piqued by him.
“Point taken. But I am dead serious. You can tell your mum that I’ll over pay my courtesy call as soon as this internship business is over. My intentions towards her daughter have always been good even if I am not a son of Mumbi and Gikuyu- the founders of your great tribe”.
The alarm rang and cut him short. “Yak! I’ve got to run, honey. I have gallonfuls of blood testing yet to be done. I’ll just walk you to the bus stop and then get on with the job at hand. “He grubbed his coat and opened the door. She understood. After all, she herself was an intern and at the mercy of the clock and the back and call of others. It was one hell of a life and once heel of a courtship. Why couldn’t she fall in love with an ordinary guy who worked ordinary hours? One doctor in the house was than enough. She wondered if the marriage would survive the onslaught of medicine. Time would tell.
(a) Explain what happens immediately before and after this excerpt. (4 marks)
(b) Identify and illustrate any one theme evident in this excerpt. (2 marks)
(c) (i) She means everything to me” who is referred to a “she” in this sentence? (1 mark)
(ii) What makes the ‘she’ age faster than she should have later in the story? (1 mark)
(iii) I am twenty six years old and you are looking at the finished product”.
Explain the meaning of the underlined phrase. (1 mark)
(d) Both Wandia and Aoro are interns in different hospitals. What challenges do they encounter as they serve as interns? (4 marks)
(e) Which trait of character is shared by both Aoro and Wandia in this excerpt? (3 marks)
(f) Illustrate any two features of style used in the excerpt. (2 marks)
(g) Where do Aoro and Wandia meet for the first time in the story? (1 mark)
(h) “There’s never been anyone else since I met you” (Beginning: Never…………). (1 mark)
Wandia has time off from Machakos Hospital to go and see her mother. On her way to Muranga she stops by to see Aoro her boyfriend in Nairobi. (2 marks)
Wandia meets her mother in Hospital she also visits her sister and spends the night there.
Her intended marriage to Aoro is discussed by both her sister and mother. (2 marks)
(b) Change (1 mark) - Wandia proposes to Aoro, a deviation from the norm since men normally propose to women (1 mark).
(c) (ii) Wandia’s mother. 1 mark
(ii) Because of worry, overwork and lately diabetes. (1 mark)
(iii) She is mature and ready for marriage. She does not require any more time to develop. 1 mark
(d) -they have no time to rest or eat.
-they have no time for social life
-they have no sleep and are overworked.
- They interact with rude and uncompromising consultants. 4 x1=4 marks
(e) Both are loving/ caring 2 marks
-Wandia proposes to Aoro
-Aoro confesses to Wandia (1)
(f) Direct address – she means everything to me”
Humour – “I’ll marry you. Any day you want. Today, if we can get anyone to marry us.
Rhetorical question- “why couldn’t she fall in love? 2 marks
(g) At the university of Nairobi as they pursue medicine 1 mark
(h) Never has there been anyone else 1 mark
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1. ‘The River and the Source: Margaret A. Ogolla. “In the traditional Africa Society, women suffer the effects of gender discrimination.” Using illustrations from, The River and The Source, validate the statement. (20marks)
− Gender discrimination occurs when men show bias against members of the opposite sex. Women heroes in the novel have to struggle since the society treats them as lesser beings.
− Male chauvinism is seen when chief Odero Gogni contemplates “another rock for his sling since Akoko cried with a lot of gusto. Men do not recognize girls because they are passers-by unlike boys who stand for family continuity. Chief Odero Gogni has to disguise his love for Akoko because such love is unseemly.
− The society has low attitude towards girls. It does not consider important to seek for their opinion on their own marriages.
− Chief Odero with his sons turns away many suitors before they settle on chief Kembo. Details on marriage, bride price are settled in bride’s absence .She is only called in when the most critical issues have been dispensed with. She leaves soon after she has been introduced to her husband. Akoko chooses a husband for Nyabera.
− A man owns a woman’s “body and soul.” Akoko is scandalized when threatens to leave her husband.
− Otieno is bitter that his brother chief Kembo had never beaten his wife .Akoko describes relationship between husbands and their wives like that of cats and dogs or like the one between ravens and chicken. Akoko is grateful for her husband since he treated her well.
− Otieno grabs Akoko’s wealth soon after her husband dies. Believes that a woman does not deserve any wealth. Akoko felt the weight of injustice that women had felt in a male dominated world.
− It is a waste of time a girl to become educated. Her sole objective of existence being married and bringing up of children. Awiti ploughs her way through school despite difficulties encountered. All other girls drop out of school. When Pilipo is converted to Christianity, he thinks that catechism is too difficult for a woman to understand.
− The society expects a female to hide her intelligence. On Awiti’s graduation from primary school, the teacher refrains from mentioning that she has been admitted into a teacher training college; people would ostracize her for her brilliance or no man will take her for a wife.
− The women in the text are so good at what they do that they are able to overcome the barrier s that society has placed in their way.
Introduction 2 marks Expect developed points. Mark 3:3:3:3=12marks Conclusion = 2 marks Grammar and presentation =4mks. Total = 20 marks
2. A strong household is founded on strong family values. Making reference to Mark Sigu’s family in Margaret Ogola’s The River and the Source, write an essay to justify this statement.
In the River and The Source, Mark Sigu meets, woos and marries Elizabeth Awiti in the rightand traditionally expected way. They start and develop a strong family that is founded on strong values such as love, respect and discipline among others. Accept any other relevant introduction. (Up to 2 marks)
F (i)I. Mark Sigu had the devoted love for his wife and the affection for all his children. (pg 192). He did things for Elizabeth that would never have even crossed the mind of a full blooded African man. He knew she was overworked both at home and in school and in spite of the House-help they had, he threw a helping hand round the house – especially in taking the kids off the hands of his wife. (pg. 173).This bond of love helps the family to remain united in the face of many challenges.
F (ii).In Mark Sigus house, Members are loyal to each other. For instance when Mark Sigu realizes that promiscuity would ruin his marriage he so forcefully dumps the girl and asks for leave to go and bring back his family from Aluor. (pg 170) He tells his mother off when the latter feels he is over protective to the wife. (pg 167).This clear demonstration of loyalty helps the two to remain together right into their sunset days.
F(iii). The Sigus have instilled a sense of hard work in the family. Mark keeps on studying to get promotions so that he can have his children live a decent life. (pg 166, 172). Mark felt very lucky about his hard working children. Vera had seven unbeatable records in school, Becky was not doing so badly, Aoro had maintained a continuous lead in school and Tony followed suit. (Pg 185, 186). Hard work defines the Sigus.
F(iv) Children in their growing up must be brought up with high level of discipline. Mark and Elizabeth were firm on their children’s discipline and they never spared them any time they misbehaved. When Tony and Aoro almost made their twin drown they are heavily punished. (pgs 176-179). When Aoro is suspended from school, he is denied food and asked to start fending for himself. (pgs 187-191).This firm discipline instills hard work in the children.
F(v) A strong family is also built up on mutual respect. The parents extend a measure of respect to the children and vice versa. This is seen on various instances: on serious matters concerning the family, Mark and his wife consult before a favorable decision is made. When Vera wants to go out with Tommy Muhambe she requests for permission the father.(pg 206 – 208). This too builds a strong family. Mark any 4 well developed points 3: 3: 3: 3 (12 marks)
In conclusion, looking at the Sigu family, one would say that the foundation of a strong family guided by good ethics depends on the husband and the wife, how close they are to their Children and how they develop acceptable values systems. Accept any other valid conclusion.(2 mks)
Grammar and Presentation 1-3 on the body award 1 mark
4-5 on the body award 2 marks
6-8 on the body award 3 marks
9-12 on the body award 4 mark
3. Drawing illustrations from Margaret Ogola’s The River and The Source, write an essay proving that Akoko is at the centre of the change process in the society of the River and The Source.
Change is inevitable and cannot be preserved. In the River and the Source, Akoko becomes instrumental in spearheading the change. In the contemporary society, a lot of change has been initiated in a manner that transforms the people’s ways of living.
(a) Polygamy: - Otieno has several wives - Odero has several wives Monogamy: - Owuor Kembo does not marry a second wife for the first time in their history. He resists the pressure of taking on a second wife from his mother and council of elders because he finds fulfillment in his wife Akoko.
(ii) Solving disputes – Disputes were solved by the Council of Jodongo, Akoko goes home after the accusations by her mother-in-law that she had bewitched Owuor Kembo. Elders from both sides settle the dispute however, when Otieno plunders her property, Akoko makes history by taking a pioneering journey to Kisuma to seek justice from the Jorochere (the white man) through her, the whole of Sakwa experiences the impact of the white man’s rule.
(iii) Traditional worship, the community believed in were God of the eye of the rising sun. However, Akoko advises Nyabera to venture into the hitherto the unknown world of Christianity. This ushers enormous changes in Akoko’s lineage.
(iv) Marriage was mandatory in the traditional setting. However, with Akoko’s blessing, Owour Sino adapts celibacy which is unheard off traditionally. He becomes a catholic priest.
(v) Informal education was the order of the day but with Akoko’s encouragement, Awiti pursues education which she rightly believes is the direction that life is taking. She reprimands Nyabera who tries to resist Nyabera’s departure to a teachers training college.
(vi) Bride price was mandatory for any marriage to take place in the traditional setting. However, to the dismay of Oyange Silwal and Mark Sigu’s party Akoko asks for only a token bride-piece setting a precedent which is a clear break with tradition.
Clearly, Akoko is among the few African women who embraced change without demur. She seems to understand that change is mandatory and people must keep pace with it.
4. A strong household is founded on strong family values. Making reference to Mark Sigu’s family in Margaret Ogola’s The River and the Source, write an essay to justify the above statement.
In The River and the Source, Mark Sigu meets, woos and marries Elizabeth Awiti in the right and traditionally expected way. They start and develop a strong household that is ruled with strong values like love, respect and discipline among others/ accept any other relevant introduction. (2mks)
I. Mark Sigu had the devoted love of his wife and the affection of all his children. (pg192). He did things for Elizabeth that would never have even crossed the mind of a full blooded African ma. He knew she was over-worked both at home and in school and in spite the house-help they had, he throw a helping hand round the house – especially in taking the kids off the hands of his wife.(pg 173)
II. (ii There is protection offered to family by the Sigus. When he realizes that promiscuity would ruin his marriage he so forcefully dumps the girl and asks for leave to go and bring back his family from Aluor. (pg 169-170) He tells his mother off when the latter feels he is over protective to the wife. (pg 167)
III. The Sigus have instilled a sense of hard work in the family. Mark keeps on studying to get promotions so that he can have his children live a decent life. (pg 166, 172). Mark felt very lucky in his hard working children. Vera had seven unbeatable records in school, Becky was not doing so badly, Aoro had maintained a continuous lead in school and Tony followed suit. (Pg 185, 186)
V. Mark and Elizabeth were always concerned about the welfare of their children. Tony falls sick at night on the groin. The whole family is concerned. (pg 179-182). Elizabeth also falls sick in pregnancy. (pgs 192-194)
VI. Children in their growing up must be brought up with high level of discipline. Mark was firm on his children’s discipline and they never spared them any time they misbehaved. When Tony and Aoro almost made their twin drown they are heavily punished. (pgs 176-179). Aoro is suspended from school. He is denied food and asked to start fending for himself. (pgs 187-191)
VII. on heavy matters concerning the family Mark and his wife consult before a favourable decision is made. Vera decides to forgo her chance at a national school and join Becky’s. (pg 175). When Elizabeth falls sick (192-194). Vera wants to go out with Tommy Muhambe (pg 206-208)
VIII. The Sigus let their children follow their own paths in life, marriage and career. Vera joins Opus Dei Aoro becomes a doctor and marries from another tribe. And Tony joins the priesthood.
Mark any 4 well developed points 3: 3: 3: 3 (12mks)
In conclusion, looking at the Sigu family, one would say that the foundation of a strong family guided by good ethics depends on the husband and the wife, how close they are to their children and how they develop acceptable values systems./ Accept any other valid conclusion. (2mks)
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COURTESY OF ATIKA SCHOOL
Q1. “Having given birth does not qualify someone to be mother of a child, but the care and nurture offered to that child is the one that does so.” With illustrations from Bertloit Brecht’s The Caucasian Chalk Circle, qualify this statement. (20 marks)
- True motherland is not necessarily biological but it goes beyond that. It is about how someone cares and nurtures for that child she claims to be her mother.
- Accept any other relevant introduction.
-Natella Abashwili, the biological mother of Michael, abandons the child as she flees the city.
- The governor’s wife is said to be more interested in her fine linen and shoes as well as horse carriages.
- It takes the motherly instincts of the kitchen maid, Grusha, to retrieve the baby and flee with it offering protection and nourishment.
- Grusha adopts the baby and risks being captured by the soldier and crosses the dangerous and rotten bridge.
- The mockery of Grusha’s sister-in-law concerning the illegitimate child, Michael, does not affect her affection for the young boy.
-Grusha endures an arranged and difficult marriage to a “dying” man Jussup, for the sake of the child.
- She fights for the custody of Michael in court and does not pull him to her side in the test of the chalk circle so as not to harm him. This proves her true motherhood.
- True motherhood has indeed been highlighted through Grusha’s tender actions no wonder she is given the custody of Michael.
Accept any other relevant conclusion.
Q2. Write an essay on the disputes that arise in the play, and how each of them is resolved. (20 marks)
A dispute is a serious disagreement, especially one that involves two parties and lasts for sometime. In this play, there are a number of disputes that arise. Some of the disputes are amicably solved, while others spill over to disaster.
Accept any other plausible introduction.
The Grand Duke is involved in war with the Persians. This dispute is resolved by the Grand Duke being overtaken alongside his princess.
- There is a dispute between goat herders and the fruit farmers over the ownership of a certain valley.
- A neighboring group of peasants from another valley intends to utilize the valley under contest by carrying out horticultural farming, while the other people who are the real owners want to herd goats.
- The dispute resolution is mediated by a delegate of the state reconstruction commission from
Tiflis. The valley is given to the fruit growers because they have a good plan of irrigating
it so that it gives high yields. - Another dispute is between the two brothers, the fat prince and the governor Georgi Abashwili. The cause of the dispute is power and authority.
- The dispute is resolved through a crude and cruel way. The fat prince topples (overthrows) the governor and orders him to be beheaded. This leads to a state of fear, impunity and lawlessness. Many people become refugees.
-Another form of dispute exists between Grusha and Lavrenti’s family. Grusha’s brother is
under pressure from Aniko to marry her off to a “dying man”.
- This dispute is resolved through corrupt means. The mother of the “dying man” demands
four hundreds plasters to allow Grusha to be married to her son Jussup. This is after Grusha
is convinced by Lavrenti that she does not need a man in bed but a man in papers.
-There exists a dispute between Natella Abashwili, the governor’s wife and her kitchen maid
Grusha Vashnadze. The dispute is about who is the real mother of Michael Abashwili.
This dispute arose during the time when the governor was overthrown and everybody was
running for their safety Natella Abashwili choose material things over her son, Michael.
Grusha escapes with Michael to the Northern Mountains, she sacrifices so much for him.
- This dispute is resolved in court and judge Azdak has to pass the ruling. A chalk circle is drawn
on the floor. Michael is placed at the center. The plaintiff Natella Abashwili and the
defendant, Grusha Vashnadze step up to the circle. Each gets the child by one hand and
the real mother of the child is the one who pulls him out of the circle Grusha lets go the
child for the two times that they are told to pull, for she declares that she cannot pull him
apart, having brought him up.
- At last Grusha is declared the true mother.
- There exists a dispute between the old couple. They would like to be divorced for they claim that since the beginning they have never liked each other.
- The dispute is supposed to be resolved in the court by judge Azdak. Unfortunately instead
of signing the divorce decree for the old couple, he divorces Grusha.
Disputes are apart of life. It is therefore important for the parties to try as much as possible
to come up with amiable resolutions. If not such disputes may lead to fatal states of either parties.
Accept any plausible conclusion.
Q3. It is only through a lot of strive that even the most humble people sustain their existence when faced with difficulties. Using Grusha as an example write an essay to justify this statement basing your answer on The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Bertloit Brecht. (20 marks)
honesty can achieve so much in such a short time.” Write an essay in support of this
statement drawing illustrations from “The Caucasian Chalk Circle” by Bertloit Brecht’s. (20 marks)
- Candidates must show that she/he understands the questions and tie it to the text.
- Two groups sit together in a circle.
- Members of the collective farms, mostly women and older men meet to resolve a dispute
over ownership of valley.
- A delegate from the city presides over the disputes.
- The goat herders report is presented by an old man on the right as follows:
- The cheese is no longer the same quality.
- Their goats do not like the new grass.
-the grazing land is not good.
- The land does not smell of morning in the morning.
- The two groups are told the valley belonged to the goat herders from eternity.
-the farmers respond through Kato, the agriculturalist. She says;
- When fighting in those hills, they discussed how they would build up their fruit
Culture ten times the original size.
- They will construct a dam across the mountain lake.
- They will water seven hundred acres of fertile land.
- They will establish vineyards.
Due to the honest atmosphere and mutual respect, the two groups agree, eat together and
get entertained together.
Q5. “A person controlled by greed has no sense of justice” drawing your illustrations from
The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Bertloit Brecht, write an essay supporting this statement. (20 marks)
It is true that intense and selfish desire for something especially wealth and power causes injustice in the society.
Accept any other relevant introduction.
- The princes of Grusinia who are drunk with power overthrow the Grand Duke and take over leadership. They kill the governor including Governor Georgi Abashwili. They beheaded him and hang his head at the centre of the door to his palace.
- Prince Kazbeki’s is hunting for the governor heir, the young Michael in order to kill him and prevent him from ever inheriting his dead father.
- The greedy prince sold the horses and food supplies meant for soldiers on the frontline thus causing the country to lose the war.
- Similarly, the corrupt corporal who pursues Grusha and Michael sells the two soldiers horses. They suffer and limp as a result and taunts them. They cannot move fast and thus are unable to catch up with Grusha whom they watch helplessly as she crosses the rotten bridge and waves from the far end.
- Natella Abashwili is so much interested in her fine dresses that she does not think about her son’s safety. She does not even want to travel on horseback. She prefers a carriage. When time runs out she abandons Michael, her son and saves her skin.
- It is evident that Natella’s desire to get access to Governor Georgi Abashwili’s estate that makes her claim back her son Michael. She ruthlessly snatched Michael from the chalk circle in an attempt to get him back. As a result she losses the case and the estate of her late husband go to the state and Grusha is given custody of the child.
-Governor Georgi Abashwili is so concerned about personal confront including constructing a new wing on the palace that he doesn’t care about his people’s petitions. He even ignores a government messages from the capital and shows no interest to what is happening in the front.
From the a fore going it is true that greed is the inventor of injustice,
Accept any other relevant conclusion
Q6. Write an essay on the effectiveness of any four songs used in Bertloit Brecht’s
“The Caucasian Chalk Circle.” (20 marks)
Songs are usually used to communicate as well as relieve tension in the audience during live performances. In the prologue, there is a conflict on the actual owner of the valley. It is through the singer, Arkadi with his song called, “the Chalk Circle,” that the conclusion is arrived at –Things will be given to those who can make use of them.
Accept any other relevant introduction
S(i) The first song begins on 13 -14, “ In olden times in a bloody time…………church”
- Introduces the main character and the conflict in the play.
- The governor though rich, is said to have many beggars and petitioners whom he ignores.
- The governor’s wife, as well as the baby are introduced in this song.
- This song makes the reader/audience anxious for the unfolding events.
S(ii) Another song introduces the reader to the events in the place. (Pages 18-20):
“The city is still, but why are there armed men… Noon was the hour to die.”
- This song prepares the readers/ audience for the coup and the death of governor Abashwili.
S(iii). Another song introduces the flight of Grusha with Michael. (page 30)
“ When Grusha Vashnadze left the city on the Grusinian highway …………… some milk”
-Grusha sings, “the song of the four generals which makes the reader aware of the
volatile political situation at that time. There was war in Iran and she was thinking of
Simon who was in the war.
- She alludes / compares Simon with Sosso Robarkidse and ends up concluding, “
He is our man” which shows her great love for Simon.
S (iv) “The song of the Rotten Bridge” (page 41) shows Grusha’s predicament with
Michael on her back and the angry ironshirts pursuing her.
- To save her live and Michael’s from the Ironshirts, she has to cross the bridge overhanging
a deep ravine.
“Deep is the abyss, son, I see the weak bridge sway……………… How big they will be.”
- The song outlines Grusha’s determination and selflessness in an attempt to save Michael’s live.
- The song makes the reader/ audience to sympathize with Grusha and laud her for her daring.
NB. Accept any 4 well illustrated and explained songs.
The songs done by different characters help to sustain the suspense in the play.
They give the inside information and prepare the readers for what lies ahead
NB. Accept any other relevant conclusion.
Q7. “Azdak is justified in giving Grusha Vashnadze the custody of Michael.”
Using illustrations from the play The Caucasian Chalk Circle, discuss this statement. (20 marks)
1. -Grusha is not the true mother of Michael.
- During a coup when the child’s father is beheaded, Grusha picks the child and keeps him
company through out the night.
- She is in great danger-no one else is ready to touch or get near the child.
2. Natella Abashwili, who is Michael’s mother, leaves Michael behind.
- She is in a hurry to flee the city.
- She is only interested in her clothes and shoes.
3. Grusha flees with the child to her brothers in the Northern Mountains.
- On the way she faces a lot of hardships.
- The iron shirts are pursuing her looking for Michael.
- Buys the child milk with the only money she had equivalent to a weeks’ pay.
- Carries the child who is heavy on her back.
- Risks closing a dangerous bridge.
- Enters an arranged marriage for the sake of Michael.
4. When before Grusha agrees that she is not the biological mother of the child but she
had taken a lot of care for him.
- She refuses to pull Michael from the chalk circle.
-Natella pulls twice.
- It emerges that Natella wants to have Michael for financial gains.
- One of her lawyers’ divulges that Natella can’t meet the financial obligations since
the estate is attached to the child.
- Natella is eager to pull the child but Grusha lets go off the child’s hand.
-Grusha says she can’t bring him up only to tear him apart.
- She is given the child and ordered to live in the city.
Q8. “The conflicts and suffering witnessed in The Caucasian Chalk Circle is due to bad governance.” Justify this statement. (20 marks)
Leaders who don’t responsibly and competently carry out their leadership role are likely to spark off serious conflict and subsequently cause a lot of suffering to the people. Similarly the conflicts and suffering witnessed in Caucasian chalk circle is essentially caused by leadership failure.
Accept any other plausible introduction.
(i) As the play begins we are introduced to a conflict pitching two groups of farmers where each claims a stake in the ownership of a particular piece of land. There is a heated argument as each side justifies why it should posses the valley. Eventually a delegate from the state construction commission arbitrates the conflict and the land is awarded to the fruit growing farmers.
(ii) The incompetency and inefficiency of the Grand Duke and governor Georgi Abashwili in the Grusinian state of Georgia. People suffer a lot. The governor’s way to the church is lined up with beggars and petitioners who carry emaciated children, and war has left people in crutches. Ironshirts mercilessly brutalise people to prevent them from issuing petitions to their governor. The governor even intends to bring down the slums to create rooms for his garden. The princes and Prince Arsen Kazbeki easily stage a coup. Their poor governance is the source of suffering to this people.
(iii) Poor governance also encourages people to be cruel and inhuman. When Arsen Kazbeki topples his brother, he beheads him. The head is fastened on the wall with nails. The old milk man is indifferent to Michael’s hunger and demands exorbitant prices. The peasant woman discloses to the iron shirt that Grusha is the owner of the child despite the danger of such information. These incidents show that people lack moral conscience due to poor governance.
(iv) Incompetence and inefficiency gives birth to socio-political as well as economic instability. Coup and counter coups are common phenomena. These coups perpetuate suffering of people since they are forced to relocate to other places as internally displaced people. This is witnessed when the Grand Duke escapes arrest and has to be hosted by Azdak. Natella has to be whisked away to safety by the adjutant while Grusha and Michael relocate to the Northern Mountains for safety. The princes are also dethroned by the Grand Duke with the assistance of the Shah of Persia. It is said that the Grand Duke has to reinstate an incompetent person- Azdak- as the judge in Grusinia.
[Accept other plausible well developed points
Therefore it is evident that poor governance causes suffering and pain to people as it is illustrated by what leads to suffering in The Caucasian Chalk Circle.
Accept other plausible conclusion.
Q9. “Human weaknesses affect characters negatively”. Write a composition in support of the above statement drawing your illustrations from The Caucasian Chalk Circle. (20marks)
Human beings have various types of weaknesses which have had negative effects on their living in society as shown in the play.
Accept any other relevant introduction.
W1. Natela Abashwili’s weakness on adoring things.
Eliminates his brother to get his power,
WIII – The governor’s lack for concern for his subjects.
He oppresses his subjects forcing people to go to war, charging high taxation.
He loses his life and power.
WIV- Lavrenti and his wife undermines family values.
Fails to give Grusha a warm welcome though she comes from town where war has broken out tired and sick
WV The self righteous nature of Aniko shown through her hypocritical actions
WVI. Natella’s hatred for the poor. She undermines Grusha during the court case feeling that Grusha is too poor to keep the child.
She finally loses the child to the poor Grusha due to her arrogance.
In conclusion, people should learn to appreciate others and avoid putting their interests first.
Q10. “What there is a hall go to those who are good for it”. With illustrations from the play The Caucasian Chalk Circle, write an essay in support of this statement. (20 marks)
The statement means that if someone has to be given something, it should be on the basis that they are best suited for it or must have shown similar ability
(Accept any other relevant introduction, general or contextualized, making reference to the text
c. i) in the prologue, the valley is given to the fruit governors
It is clear from above that those who emerged victories deserved the victory (Accept any other relevant conclusion
Q11. Drawing illustrations from what Grusha goes through in order to save and adopt Michael, write an essay on the challenges of being a good person in a rotten society. (20 marks)
Even in a rotten society, it is possible to come across a good person. In the Caucasian Chalk Circle, such a person is Grusha. Grusha goes through many challenges in order to save and adopt Michael. Some of these challenges are discusses below.
Accept any other relevant introduction
(C)(i)She sacrifices the little she has in order to sustain Michael. She buys milk expensively.
(ii)She is forced to come up with a ingenuine way of eluding the iron shirts who are after him. She knocks one of them down with a piece of wood, enduring her life in the process.
(iii) She crosses of dangerous bridge, endangering her life and Michael’s
(iv) She has to contend with a society that frowns upon single motherhood. She is forced to accept marriage to an invalid called Jussup in order to normalize her status
(vi) Her relationship with her fiancée, Simon , is endangered.
(vi) She is force to go through a court processes in order to gain custody of Michael.
Accept any valid conclusion.
Q12. “True motherhood is not necessarily biological” Write an essay illustrating this statement using Bertloit Brecht’s, The Caucasian Chalk Circle”. (20 marks)
You need not be a biological mother to become motherly. Strangers can act more responsibly than real mothers. This is clearly illustrated by Grusha, a kitchen maid, in the play, The Caucasian Chalk Circle as shown below;
- Natella Abashwili, the biological mother of Michael abandons the child as she flees the city .She is more interested in her fine linen and shoes as well as horse carriages
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COURTESY OF ATIKA SCHOOL
Kahu faces a lot of rejection but eventually saves her people. Write an essay expounding on this rejection experienced by Kahu.
Most people who volunteer to save the society encounter obstacles and hardships on the way. One of these challenges is one of rejection not only by the society but also by those close to them. This makes their work quite difficult. In The Whale Rider, Kahu is rejected right from birth even though she is the one who finally saves her people.
(Accept any other relevant introduction, 2mks.
Should only be in the first paragraph.
Do not accept a mere definition or restatement of the question.)
(i) She is rejected from birth for being a girl. The grandfather rejects her when the phone call reveals that she is a girl. “A girl”, Koro Apirana, our grandfather said disgusted. “I will have noting to do with her. She has broken the male line of descent in our tribe.” He even blames his wife for Kahu’s birth. “It’s your fault. Your female side was too strong.” P10.
(ii) Her name is rejected. She is given a boy’s name. Kahutia Te Rangi is not only a man’s name but it is the name of the ancestor of their village. Koro Apirana feels that naming a girl child after the founder of their tribe is belittling Kahutia Te Rangi’s prestige. P14
(iii) Her birth causes cultural conflict. Koro Apirana cannot reconcile his traditional beliefs about Maori leadership and rights with Kahu’s birth. By Maori custom, leadership was hereditary and normally the mantle of prestige fell from the eldest son to the eldest son.
(iv) She is rejected as an orphan particularly by Koro Apirana. Porourangi brings Kahu’s mother back to the village where the funeral was held. When Rehua’s mother asked if she and her people can raise Kahu, Nani Flowers objects strongly.
(v) She is rejected when she comes for holiday. She is put in Koro Apirana’s hands but he says no though it is surprising how Kahu and Koro Apirana resemble each other with the only difference being that she loves him but he does not love her. When he gives her back to Nani Flowers, she starts to cry, reaching for him but he turns away and leaves the house. P25.
Expect any 4 well developed areas. Mark 3:3:3:3. Total 12 marks.
Kahu’s rejection must clearly be seen; if not mark out of 2 for each point.
Grammar and presentation score pegged to content score as shown.
It is indeed true that ‘prophets are rarely recognized in their homes.’ This is true even from religious writings but the same people become saviours of the very same communities who rejected them.
Accept any other relevant conclusion 2 mks
Should only be in the last paragraph.
Score should be tied to the content score as shown in question 2.
Drawing examples from the novel, show how women are discriminated against in the Maori society
Q4 WHALE RIDER
Introduction – 2 marks
It must introduce the question appropriately it can be either be generalized or contextualized.
This must be a summary of the main argument(s)
Introduction – 2 marks
Content (any four well ill. 3 marks) 12 marks 3:3:3:3
Linguistic competent – 4 marks
(TOTAL 20 MARKS
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COURTESY OF ATIKA SCHOOL
‘The Whale Rider’ by Witi Ihimaera.
Point out four aspects of Maori culture portrayed in The Whale Rider and relate them to cultures of East Africa communities.The Novel
Mark 4:4:4 = 12 marks
Language = 4 marks
Using illustrations from Witi Ihimaera’s “The Whale Rider”, write an essay to show how “Leadership is passed from generation to generation” (20Marks) .
How leadership is passed from generation to generation in Maori community.
It is customary for leadership of Maori people to pass from male descendant to the next.
The first born child of the heir apparent ought to be a boy for this lineage to progress.
Body / content - 12 mks (3: 3: 3: 3)
Conclusion - 2 mks
Language - 4 mks
The natural and the supernatural are in mutual co-existence in The Whale Rider by Witi Ihimaera. Write an essay in support of this statement.
INTRODUCTION Most communities believe in the harmonious co-existence between the living and the departed between the humans and other creatures whom they are closely linked. In Witi Ihimaera’s novel, The Whale Rider this is quite evident.
Any other relevant introduction 2mks
From the above illustrations, we see that both the natural and supernatural co-exist / are in harmony.
Accept any other relevant conclusion.
“What a man can do, a woman can do even better”.
Write a composition to support this statement basing your discussion on the novel,
OPTIONAL TEXT: WITI IHIMAERA: The Whale Rider
The society in the Whale rider is clearly a patriarchal one. It believes in the supremacy of boys over girls / men over women. When Kahu is born, her great grandfather is not excited that the child born is a girl. He keeps telling her that she is of no use to him. But she grows to prove herself true to her calling.
- From her childhood Kahu is marked and shows the potentials of a leader. This is not so with boys of her age. But there are few who cannot recognize this. Like her great grandfather Koro – who believed that the next chief must be male as has been the tradition.
- Kahu is a bright and capable child. She proves herself up to any task. She is willing to learn about her culture and steals herself to hear Maori lessons – traditionally meant for men /boys. Here she learns better than the boys do.
- Kahu excels at school in both academics and cultural events.
- She has talent and skill. She is capable of doing what no one else in this community can do; she speaks to the Whales – this makes her special even above male counterparts through Koro, her great grandfather can’t see this.
- The author believes that children, regardless of gender, should be mentored into leadership as leadership comes from both men and women and this fact ought to be accepted by all.
Governance systems which are under the control of men exist across the world. Cases of women rising to leadership are still few as women are still denied the opportunities to realize their full potential as human beings. Witi Ihimaera explores the idea that women can hold positions of responsibility and do it well.
- Society should accept women as equal in ordinary life and support them.
Compare and contrast the character of Koro Apirana with that of Nani flowers
To compare is to pinpoint the similarities and to contrast is to identify the differences which exist between Koro Apirana and Nani flowers. (2marks)
i) They are both loyal to their family and tribe.
Koro Apirana goes to great lengths to protect and identify members of the tribe by starting school sessions to teach boys and men the Maori customs and language. He fiercely protects the age old tradition of only boysinheritng the mantle of leadership. He rejects Kahu, his great grandchild, because she is a girl.
Nani flowers love for Kahu is evident in the things she does to ensure that she remains among her people. She buries her birth cord in Whangara near the meeting house in the sight of the stature of Kahutia Te Rangi the founder of the tribe.
ii) They are both stubborn
Koro Apirana adamantly refuses to love Kahu because he prefers a boy child to inherit the chieftaincy from Porourangi. He does not allow her to participate in the lessons he gives the boys on the wisdom of the tribe. He even fails to recognize that Kahu is the chosen one because he is blinded by chauvinism.
Nani flowers also stubbornly refuses to let Koro Apirana have his way where Kahu is concerned. She does all she can to ensure that Kahu remains among her people. She cites her Muriwai lineage when Koro Apirana thinks she is stubborn and uncooperative.
iii) They are both loving
Nani Flowers loves Kahu right from the beginning without caring whether she is a girl. Koro Apirana however, loved her at the end of the story when it is no longer in doubt that she is the chosen one.
(i) Nani flowers is humorous and full of life while Koro Apirana is said to be grumpy. Nani’s threat to divorce Koro Apirana is comical because she does not carry out her threat. She chases after her husband when he goes out to sea to sulk and calls him endearing names as she does so.
It is evident that inherent similarities and dissimilarities exist between Nani Flowers and Koro Apirana (2marks)
Expect 2 well brought out similarities and 2 differences
Mark S: 3: 3 = 6marks
D: 3 : 3 = 6marks
Grammar = 4 marks
“Certain stereotypes about women are quite unnecessary.”
Write an essay that outlines how certain negative beliefs about women are discredited in the ‘The Whale Rider’ by Witi Ihimaera. (20 marks)
- Women being kept away from the training on cultural ways which are considered sacred and for men. Kahu proves them wrong when she becomes interested in the Maori culture and is destined to lead her people.
- Women are not allowed to assume leadership positions in the community. The chieftaincy is passed on from the eldest son to the youngest son. Kahu shatters this belief for she is poised to become the leader of the community. Nani flower’s ancestor, Muriwai was one of the greatest women chiefs in her time whose blood, Nani believes, throbs in Kahu’s vein.
- When men fail to make the ancient bull whale return to sea, it is Kahu who comes to the aid of the community and saves it from perishing.
- Even Koro Apirana is desperately looking for a male heir to the seat of Porourangia girl emerges as the chosen one.
(4 well illustrated pts. 3mks @ - 12mks)
Conclusion – (2mks)
Introduction – (2mks)
Body 3:3:3:3 – (2mks)
(Expect 4 well illustrated points)
Conclusion – (2mks)
(Marks should be tied to the points) – (4mks)
Total – (20mks)
It requires a strong character to survive in a male dominated world. Assess the truth of this statement with reference to Nani Flowers in “The Whale Rider” by Witi Ihimaera.
- Nani Flowers is portrayed as a character who can not be put down under any circumstances. In a community that is patriarchal in nature, she opts to defend herself and other females in her household and society.- She goes out of her way to defend her great grandchild against Koro Apirana’sprejudice. She defends Porourangi’s decision to name her ‘Kahu’ despite it being a man’s name. She hits the narrator for overworking the girl and taking her to the moves. She also refuses to allow Koro Apirana to alienate the girl and encourages Kahu to pester him for attention. Despite her obvious disapproval of Koro Apirana’s mannerisms, she truly loves him and fondly calls him ‘Old Paka’.
- She is assertive, and independent minded as a wife and grandmother. She tells Koro Apirana occasionally that she will divorce him to marry Waari if he continues to annoy her. She pulls his boat back to the beach after he sulks after quarreling with her she insists on bringing back to the community. Kahu’s afterbirth and birth cord despite Koro Apirana’s opposition. She demands that women should be allowed to participate in meetings and saving the ancient bull whale.
- She is strong-willed and courageous. She says she belongs to the Muriwai people whose fierceness is legendary. Indeed Koro Apirana agrees with her and says her Muriwai’s blood is too strong thus it has led to the birth of a girl as an heir in the family. She defends the decision to name Porourangi’s child, Kahu and quarrels and challenges Koro Apirana on almost everything. It is said she is always stepping out of line.
- She is foresighted. She is able to notice the extraordinary abilities and qualities in Kahu. That’s why she buries her afterbirth and birth cord in front of the tribe’s meeting house. She encourages the girl to attend the men’s meetings by threatening Koro Apirana whenever he sends Kahu away. She notices that Kahu is no ordinary girl while she is retrieving the curved stone from the floor of the ocean. She also notices that the girl is communicating with the Dolphins and she bids her time waiting for the right signs of what is to come.
Should have a conclusion, the candidate should tie up his/her argument using a short paragraph.
(Use the format of making question 2 to mark this one).
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The Novel: “The whale Rider” – Witi Ihimaera
“Although the Maori are patriarchal society it is the women who dominate the menfolk” with close reference to Witi Ihimaera’s – “The whale Rider” write an essay to show the validity of the above statement
It is ironical that a society that is patriarchal in nature has its women taking charge of situations. In the Novel, The Whale Rider the women characters come out stronger that the men
She retires the cared stone from the deepest ocean – while boys that Koro had been training fails to.
Witi Ihimaera, The Whale Rider
“Ihimaera uses the novel to show that certain stereotypes about women are quite unnecessary” Write an essay to show how certain negative beliefs about women are discredited in The Whale Ride.
Since time immemorial the woman has been regarded as a weaker sex (gender). Society has been having certain stereotypes about women. For instance there are certain jobs or even foods that women are not allowed to have. This is an unfortunate state of affairs which has been overtaken by events and is unnecessary as outlined below.
(Accept any other relevant introduction)
Content – points to consider
(Accept any relevant point)
Witi Ihimaera’s ‘The Whale Rider’
‘The world would be a better place if women were given equal opportunities.” Basing your illustrations on Witi Ihimaera’s ‘The Whale Rider,’ argue in favour of this assertion.
Discrimation against women is baseless and unwarranted. A society that discriminates against them wastes a lot of potential and subjects the women to unnecessary suffering. In Witi Ihimaera’s The Whale Rider this is clearly seen through Kahu and Nani Flowers.
Nani Flowers comes to the aid of Kahu when she is born. Koro Apirana is so desperate for a baby boy that when a girl is born he simply brushes her aside saying ‘ I have nothing to do with her.’ For the burial of the afterbirth, it takes Nani Flowers firmness to have it buried in her paternal home. This is despite opposition from Koro Apirana. Thereafter, she protects her from Koro who keeps growling at her. She therefore presents herself as a voice of reason.
Secondly, Kahu emerges the best in the school break-up ceremony despite all odds. She writes a winning speech in the Maori language. This is similar to the cultural preservation that Koro has been working for.
Kahu also comes to the rescue of the community when its livelihood is threatened. This is the case when the whales come to the shore to protest the invasion of their kingdom. After the effort of all the men bore no fruit, a mere girl, who happens to be the subject of Korosis the one who makes the whole difference.
To the utter surprise of Rawiri and the boys, there is a white lady wading off whale hunters who are cashing in on the stranded whales. Her wails and call for help draw the boys to her and together they manage to save the stranded whales.
Lastly, symbolically, the Whale Mother comes out as a voice of reason when she convinces the Bull Whale,that the rider is not Kahutia Te Rangi. This is despite the Bull Whale's conviction. So, when it turned out that the rider was really a girl, the Whale Mother takes the day as a female.
NB: ACCEPT ANY OTHER RELEVANT POINTS THAT PORTRAY THE WOMAN POSITIVELY.
From the discussion above, it is sufficient to conclude that the woman occupies a special position which has been undermined for a long time.
Mark 3:3:3:3 = 12
Introduction = 2
Grammar = 4
Conclusion = 2
‘The society looks down upon women.’ Write an essay in support of this statement drawing your illustrations from The Whale Rider by Witi Ihimaera.
Expect 4 well illustrated points.
Mark 3:3:3:3 = 12 marks
Both boys and girls have equal rights to leadership in the society. Write an essay supporting this statement basing your answer on Witi Ihimaera’s novel,
Intro: Any but appropriate
‘Societies use traditions to justify their suppression of women.’ Using illustrations from Witi Ihimaera’s the Whale Rider, write and essay supporting this statement.
THE NOVEL: THE WHALE RIDER
- it is indeed true that society uses cultural practices to deny women opportunities. This is clearly brought out in the novel ‘the whale rider.’ or
- contextual or general introduction highlighting implications of gender disparity to women.
(Accept any other relevant introduction)
Ci the naming of the girl after her male ancestor Kahutia i.eRangi is vehemently opposed by her great grand father Koro Apirana, aha thanks that it would be a contemptuous act since kahu is a girl , who was believed to be of no use in this male dominated society. He felt naming the girl-child afther the founder of the tribe was belittling kahutiai.erangi’s prestige.(pg 14-16)
Cii in this text the tradition do not allow a girl to take over a leadership mantle. The news of kahu annoyed koro so much that he started to desperately search for someone in fact a boy – a man that will succeed him.
Ciii kahu’s straggle to assert her leadership potential was brutally rejected by the traditions through koro. The girl naively bites koro’ toe , searches and obtained his cover stone and addition crayfish that the boy had failed to retrieve did not appeal to him because she is a girl.
Civ in this society the traditions restricts woman from the attending men’s lessons. Koro is upset when kahu intrudes into the room where lessons on language were going on.
Cv traditionally it is a taboo for a man to get in contact with kahu. The fact that porourangi fails to protect the girl because of the traditional order.
Cvi the culture practice had a bad effect to woman in school. Despite kahu doing well by topping in every item in school, koro fails to attend the ceremony.
(Accept any other relevant point)
Expect any 4 well developed points, mark 3:3:3:3= 12mks
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COURTESY OF ATIKA SCHOOL
The River Between
Ngugi wa Thiong’o, The River Between.
‘Change is inevitable.’ Support the statement drawing illustrations from Ngugi wa Thiongo’s The River Between. (20mks)
- Can be general or specific.
- Must show the correct interpretation of the question i.e. the candidate should show; what changes, how it changes, and the inevitability of change.
(i) The white man’s invasion was inevitable. The people did not listen to the seers warning. Mugo warned the people of ‘people with clothes with butterflies’. Chege also warned of the establishment of the mission at Siriana. The people did not heed the warnings and the prophecy came to pass. The white man builds a government post at Makuyu, hut tax was introduced and land annexed.
(ii) Form of education changes from informal to formal. As his fathers advice Waiyaki attends Siriana Mission School. He had to gain to white man’s wisdom and use it as a weapon to drive him out. This leads to Waiyaki initiating Marioshoni Independent Schools after his expulsion. The school attracts a good number of children. This change was unavoidable if Waiyaki was to achieve his goal of setting the people free from the white man and reconciling the ridges.
(iii) Change in people’s loyalty to Waiyaki was unavoidable since they had put their trust on the ‘Messiah’ – the teacher. Thus the people get disappointment when he is alleged to be associating with the white man and Joshua. Matters are not made any better when Nyambura is brought forth as evidence. The people are dejected – Waiyaki on his part could have done nothing less for his mission to reconcile the ridges had possessed him.
(iv) Change in religion – the coming of the white man generates both the conversation from traditional religion to Christianity. Joshua and Kabonyi fall out of traditional religion. Joshua takes the fervent vigor of Livingstone in condemning traditional practices. This further widens the right between the ridges. The change is inevitable after the conversation of Joshua and Kabonyi – they bring in more converts.
(v) Kabonyi’s change of loyalty to the Whiteman’s religion is inevitable. Kabonyi is dissatisfied when Siriana Mission decides to eject students aligned to circumcision. Kabonyi decamps and joins the traditionalist and vehemently attacks Christianity. He initiates the formation of the Kiama to keep the purity of the tribe.
(Accept any other relevant point) (Expect 4 well developed points)
(Mark 3:3:3:3 = 12 marks
Conclusion – 2mks
- A summary of the essay.
- A saying / proverbs that sums up essays.
- An opinion that sums up essay.
Ngugi wa Thiong’o, The River Between.
Parents behavior greatly influences their children’s behavior.
Using illustrations from the novel ‘Parents have a big influence on their children’s behaviour. Children tend to take up what their parents do, say about others. They actually imitate their parents.
NOTE: introduction can either be contextualized (specific) or generalized. Accept any other relevant introduction.
(i) Chege was naturally considered a leader among the elders who consulted him. He knew everything; herbs, cure, ceremony, ritual etc.
His son also takes a natural leadership position from early age e.g. is able to command Kamau and Kinuthia to stop fighting.
(iii) Kabonyi has great hatred, jealousy for Waiyaki just like his son Kamau.
- Did not like Waiyaki when he (Waiyaki) commanded him to stop fighting Kinuthia.
- Hated him because he had become secretary of the Kiama.
- Never liked him for being the head teacher.
- Plots downfall of Waiyaki by associating him with Nyambura / competition for Nyambura.
(iv) In his youth, Joshua rebelled and joined Christianity. His daughter Muthoni later rebelled against him and Christianity and underwent circumcision.
- Nyambura also runs away from him; rejecting his authority.
(v) Miriam, a woman of God is circumcised and yet still a strong Christian. Muthoni decides to challenge this and get circumcised.
Conclusion: It is true that children always take after their parents.
Q3. Ngugi wa Thiong’o The River Between
‘It can be argued that leaders should notice and avoid distracters in order not to be derailed in their mission to serve the people.’
Write an essay in support of this statement with reference to Waiyaki in the novel The River Between by Ngugi wa Thiong’o (20 mark)
‘It can be argued that leaders should notice and avoid distracters in order not to be derailed in their mission to serve the people.’
Write an essay in support of this statement with reference to Waiyaki in the novel The River Between by Ngugi wa Thiong’o Compulsory set – text
It is true that anybody on a mission towards achieving a set goal is likely to face many challenges but should remain focused in order to achieve their goal. For instance, peer pressures, drugs, unhealthy relationship with the opposite sex are distracters that come in the way of students to derail them from the goal of excelling in academics. However, the steadfast ignore such and study hard and achieve their success.
In the novel, Waiyaki, the black messiah faces many challenges that hinder him from ridding the ridges of the white man’s rule. These include wrangles for leadership, conflicts, and his relationship with Christian girls and his obsession with education. He finally does not accomplish his mission.
To begin with:
- Waiyaki sets up schools and people respect him – referred to as ‘The Teacher’
- The people see him as their saviour – he is made secretary of the Kiama, and in accordance with the ancient prophecy.
- Kamau, his compatriot, and Kabonyi are against the idea of his being the prophesied savior and start to oppose him.
- He is accused of associating with Christians – being seen in Joshua’s church, going to Siriana and intending to marry an uncircumcised girl, and touching a dead woman’s body without getting cleansed.
- The people are divided and the gap between Kameno and Makuyu is widened by Christianity.
- Waiyaki is distracted or slowed down in his mission to save the people and the white man goes on entrenching himself into Kikuyu land and advancing his control through taxation and land alienation.
Obsession with education:
After being expelled from Siriana, Waiyaki opens Marioshoni Primary School to offer education to non-Christian children.
- He only dreams about education and opening schools everywhere.
- He believes education, the white man’s magic, will save the ridges and forgets ‘action now’ as Kabonyi’s opposition group advocates.
- When he goes to Siriana to look for teachers, Kabonyi’s group accuses him of working with Rev. Livingstone – selling the people
- He concentrates on education at the expense of Kikuyu land, taxation on the people as white rule grows stronger. He loses focus of his goal.
Mixed up approach;
- Waiyaki is educated and knows much about Christianity
- He is a traditionalist who is circumcised, member of the Kiama and has taken the oath to maintain the purity of the land.
- He believes in unity between Kameno and Makuyu, Christians and traditionalists
- He believes that the white man’s religion is not entirely bad only fanatics like Joshua make it appear so by mixing it up with the white man’s way of life.
- He wants to mix the two and so unite the people – goes to Joshua’s church – he is accused of breaking the oath betraying the Kiama
- He believes in the potency of the white man’s medicine since he suggests Muthoni be taken to Siriana hospital which he does among other youths do.
- This becomes his undoing as he was a member of the Kiama – he appears before the Kiama to defend himself on his intended marriage with Nyambura an uncircumcised Christian girl.
- He is rejected by Christians (chased out of Joshua’s church) and is rejected and unfairly judged by traditionalist.
- His fame as a saviour dwindles and his influence on the people is no longer as powerful as before since he is mixed up and his intentions questionable.
Love for Nyambura;
- Waiyaki and Kamau are members of the Kiama under oath to protect the purity of the Kikuyu customs – neither is expected to associate with Christians;
- The two compete for Nyambura’s love but she prefers Waiyaki to Kamau (The latter sees them hugging at Honia River)
- Waiyaki goes to look for Nyambura at church; he invites her to Marioshoni school and wanders out at night hoping to meet her.
- Nyambura is warned by her father against being seen with ‘that devil’ (Waiyaki)
- On hearing Kamau’s intended kidnap of Nyambura, he goes to the church to warn Joshua but he is sent away - the Kiama youth notice him as he leaves the church at night.
- Nyambura is disowned by her father and goes off with Waiyaki to his hut.
- He is thus accused of marrying her against the custom and is to be judged by the Kiama – this is Waiyaki’s final and greatest failure in his quest to save / lead the people.
- Waiyaki believes that without unity they cannot fight the white man – unity between the Christians and traditionalists, Kameno and Makuyu.
- Waiyaki’s problem is that he keeps postponing his good intentions of preaching unity to the people.
- He keeps saying ‘next time’ which never seems forthcoming.
- At the parent’s school meeting, he fails to preach unity ‘And with a fleeting feeling of guilt he remembered that he had forgotten to preach reconciliation.’(P95)
- It is during the final day of reckoning when he is being judged for betraying the community when he talks about unity but it is much too late
- The people desert him subject to the kiama’s decision.
In whatever we do and intend to accomplish, we must remain focused and try as much as possible to overcome obstacles. Only steadfastness would see us accomplish our goals, without turning to the left or to the right but forging forward
Q4. The Novel. “THE RIVER BETWEEN” – by Ngugi Thiong’o
“Joshua falls too far below our expectations of a true Christian” With illustrations from the novel write an essay tojustify the above statement.
The society in general expects that those who are Christians live exemplary lives by following the teachings of the bible. Any behavior to the contrary is frowned upon. In the novel ‘The River Between ’Joshua being a Christian convert fails in various ways in leading by example
a. Joshua is hypocritical
- Condemns his wife for having undergone circumcision, forgetting that both of them had been steeped deep in traditions before the advent of Christianity, keeps asking God to forgive him for marrying her.
- This is a selfish righteous altitude and unchristian
b. He is authoritarian
- Nyambura dreaded the moment her father would ask for Muthoni.
- Forces his wife to go out in the night in search of Muthoni after blaming her for Muthoni’s disobedience
-He forgets that she is equally his daughter and should shoulder responsibility as well
c. He is unforgiving
- Fails to forgive Muthoni and for travelling to Kameno and for getting circumcised
- After her death shows no emotion
- Eventually disowns her
- Disowns Nyambura too
d. Hot tempered
- When he calls for Muthoni after she had disappeared Nyambura had to run away from her father’s
- He was on her glaring at her shaking her all the time
e. Inability to love his enemies in accordance with Christian teachings
- Warns Nyambura against seeing the “young devil” Waiyaki
- Curses Waiyaki when he come to warn him of impending attack by the Kiama
- When Nyambura defends Waiyaki he condemns her
In conclusion Joshua does not satisfy the bone expectations of a Christian home should be
Mark any 4 well illustrated points
Content 3:3:3:3= 12
Q5. Compulsory set text: The River Between by NgugiwaThiong’o (20mks)
“Rivalry and hatred seem to be the driving force of the novel”, write a composition to support the truth of this statement. Illustrate your answer from the novel ‘The RiverBetween
Indeed Kameno and Makuyu are ridges steeped in rivalry, Kameno is regarded the home of traditionalist who want to keep the tribes customs pure, while Makuyu is the home of Christians represented by Joshua, Christians do not see eye to eye with traditionalists especially on the issue of circumcision. Similarly Waiyaki is said to have betrayed the tribe by attending Joshua’s church service and intending to marry a Christian girl who is uncircumcised. At the height of this rivalry a newly converted Christian’s hut is burnt down at Kameno.
(i) There is serious rivalry as to where leadership was left by the first man and woman – Gikuyu and Mumbi. Each ridge wants to lay sole claim to this leadership. This is symbolized by the fight between Kamau and Kinuthia. The fight sparks from the insults they hurl to each other. Kamau laughs at Kinuthia because his father died poor while Kinuthia calls Kamau’s father a convert to the Whiteman’s religion.
(ii) On another front, Waiyaki and Kamau are bitter rivals. Kamau has always hated Waiyaki since their childhood because he always up staged him. He even ordered him to stop fighting Kinuthia when they were children. Kamau had always felt humiliated since he was much older than Waiyaki. Kamau also feels he has lost Nyambura to Waiyaki. He claims to have loved her so much to the extent of hovering around her home even odd hours to find opportunity to declare his love. The only opportunity he gets at Honia river is snatched by his rival Waiyaki who comes unexpectedly. The fact that Nyambura and Waiyaki embrace cuts him deep like a sharp knife and he declares to himself that Waiyaki will remain a rival to death p. 104. similarly, Waiyaki beats him(Kamau) when he was appointed secretary in absentia in the Kiama – a respectable status. To make matters worse, Kamau’s father rebukes him for remaining resentful pg 94.
(iii) Waiyaki and Kabonyi are vying for the leadership of the ridges Waiyaki is leading people in the acquisition of the Whiteman’s education in order to prepare them to use their wits/ wisdom to fight back. But Kabonyi is more direct and forceful and feels he can use the newly formed Kiama to rise against the Whiteman. He tells the people (at a meeting in school) not to allow themselves to be led by the youth and poses the question. ‘Did the tail ever lead the head; the child the father or the cubs the lion?’ p93. Even when an inter – ridge committee is formed to oversee the building of new schools; Kabonyi is left out due to rivalry. Feeling humiliated the old man is led home by his son. Kamau loudly pronounces that he will kill Waiyaki. Kabonyi even opposes the construction of lavatories at Marioshoni school saying the bushes were just sufficient in a scheme of hitting back at Waiyaki. The last show down is do or die affair Kabonyi effectively utilizes the oath to completely rout his opponent (Waiyaki). Waiyaki refuses to publicly disown Nyambura, a woman he loves so much despite she being a Christian and uncircumcised. As a result the people he has led all through disown him and surrender him to the Kiama. Perhaps Kabonyi’s intense hatred for Waiyaki could be quenched this way and being the founder of the Kiama he will firmly deal with the teacher.
Albeit the rivalry in existence just as Waiyaki perceives things the only solution is to accommodate both tradition and modernity with equal measure. Without this integration/ blend it is difficult for the society to prosper. This explains the death of Muthoni and the denial of Waiyaki – a visionary leader
Expect all the three points x4 = 12mks
NgugiwaThiong’o: The River Between.
“No culture is superior to another”.
Discuss the validity of the statement with reference to NgugiwaThiong’o’s the River Between. The River between-NgugiwaThiong’o
Culture is the sum total of a people life, it ranges from how people worship, govern themselves, traditions among others aspects. In the novel, there are similarities between the Africans culture and that of Europeans and therefore none is superior to another as shown below.
i. Education-Both cultures have a system of educating their young ones. The Africans offer informal education like the one given to Waiyaki by his father on their way to the sacred hill. Taught medicinal herbs and poisonous ones, history of his tribe et.c.Initiates are also taught the ways the ways of the tribe after circumcision. The Europeans offer education in classes in language, writing, Arithmetic etc
ii. Religion-Both cultures have a way of worshipping their maker. Africans worship Murungu and offer sacrifices to him while the Europeans have Christianity as their mode of worship in churches. The religion professes one God who had a son(Jesus) through whom all will be saved.
iii. Government-The Africans have a kiama which rules the people and arbitrates disputes while the Europeans introduce a government post from where all people are governed.
iv. Medicine-Africans use herbs for treatment. E.g.Njeri uses them to treat Muthoni’s wound. Waiyaki is taught the medicinal herbs are poisonous ones by his father.Chenge also uses them during his illness. The Europeans uses modern medicine in Soriane Mission hospital.
v. Rites of passage-Africans have a second birth for their youth which precedes circumcision. The Europeans baptize their members to signify passage from paganism to salvation/Christianity.
In conclusion, the two cultures portray similar aspects of life and none should boast of superiority.
The river Between - NgugiwaThiongo (20 marks)
“Resistance to new ideologies often breeds disharmony.” Discuss the validity of this statement using illustrations from the novel, The River Between by NgugiwaThiongo.
“Resistance to new ideologies often breeds disharmony.” Discuss the validity of this statement using illustrations from the story The River Between by NgugiwaThiongo.
Life in itself is not a static phenomenon. Change occurs literally in all its aspects. However, as obvious as it sounds, not everyone readily does embrace it thus causing disagreements. In the text, The River Between, this is evident when Christianity, formal education and new administrative structures are introduced.
First, the introduction of Christianity to the ridges was a new idea. Some like Joshua and Kabonyi converted while others like Chege stuck to their traditional ways. The feeling by the people that no one would come from outside and make their way into the hills and Chege’s feeling that the converts were traitors was a sign of resistance. Joshua had even to flee to Siriana as the opposition built up. Further, develop hostilities brewed between Makuyu – the seat of Christians and Kameno – the stronghold of the traditionalists. The burning of a hut of the latest convert and the pending attack on Joshua’s house proves more the heightened animosity caused by the new religion.
Secondly, the missionaries also introduced formal education. Waiyaki, Kinuthia and Kamau are among the first beneficiaries. This took place at Siriana mission school. After the traditionalists’ children are sent away from Siriana, Waiyaki sets Marioshoni School. He calls upon the people to embrace education and induced the people had great thirst for the white man’s magic. Kabonyi, however, feels that the reawakening through formal education is too slow. He prefers an immediate solution. Something that would bring back their land and relieve the people from the burden of new buildings and teachers. He forms the Kiama in order to drive away the influence of the white man and instead restore the purity and the wisdom of the tribe. The difference in their ideology on education makes Waiyaki and Kabonyi constantly disagree.
Further, a new system of administration through the government post has been established. The people are now required to pay taxes. Joshua finds it is reasonable as he believes this was right. He understood what a government was. He calls upon the people to oblige by asking them to give unto Caesar what was Caesars” “On the contrary, the people of the hills blamed Joshua for all these. They became restless and felt it was interference. Kabonyi formed the Kiama to fight the white man’s ills among which were the hut tax being imposed on them. Kinuthia was convinced that above education, there was also need for political independence, a break from the colonial administration, if new opportunities had to be created. Waiyaki too later realises that her was need for political freedom. This in essence shows that the people we dissatisfied with the colonial administration.
There is also resistance towards the medical advancements. Waiyaki believes that Muthoni would get cared at the mission hospital and thus decides to take her there. However, when she dies, the conservatives believe that it is the white mans medicine that had killed her. That Chege would never hear of eating the white man’s medicine after this incident. He had sent Waiyaki to get a shrub that had been recommended by his father.
In conclusion, it is evident that people will wish to keep to what they know and understand well regardless of the demerits.
In conclusion, it is important that people remain open to new ideas since they often times can come with benefits.
The compulsory Set Text
NgugiwaThiongo,The River Between (20marks)
Waiyaki is a true reflection of the assertion that, Failure however small, becomes the evidence sought after by those who fundamentally believe in the inferiority of others;” write an essay in support of this assertion using illustration from the River Between.
Failure refers to the state of insufficiency or falling short of desired expectation. In The River Between, Waiyaki’s shortcomings become indictments used by his foes to vilify his character.
(Accept any other relevant introduction)
Expect any 4 well developed points, mark 3:3:3:3 = 12mks
- A recap of the discussed points
NgugiwaThiong’o, The River Between.
The River Between is about a society that has boundaries within which its members must operate or else they are doomed. With reference to NgugiwaThiong’o’s The River Between, write a composition highlighting the truth in this statement.
Every society has certain expectations that must be met by its members. To facilitate this, the society imposes certain sanctions that dictate the limits within which individuals must operate. Such is the case in the society in NgugiwaThiong’o’s. The River Between where the individuals must operate within certain limits dictated by society or else they face unpalatable consequences.
They worship Mwungu, Mwenenyaga, Ngai. They appease their god through sacrifice etc. The coming of the whitemen results in the introduction of Christianity. Converts like Joshua embrace this new religion. He becomes alienated. The traditionalists view him suspiciously. It is said that Muthoni’s death was a repercussion of Joshua’s beliefs of the new religion / defiance of his people’s beliefs.
As a leader society expects him to remain pure. However, Waiyaki betrays societal expectation through liaison with Nyambura. He ends up losing credibility as a leader, is branded a traitor and thus fails to live up to the expectation of both his father and the community 146, 147, 148.
Expect any 4 well explained points.