Crop Production I (Land Preparation) - KCSE AGRICULTURE NOTES, SCHEMES OF WORK, AUDIOVISUAL, OBJECTIVES, QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
CROP PRODUCTION I (LAND PREPARATION)
Reasons for Seedbed Preparation;
Operations in Land Preparation
Clearing of land is necessary when:
Operations in primary cultivation
Which can be drawn by;
Choice of Implement
Factors determining number of secondary cultivation:
The process of digging soil on a continuous line and heaping on one side to produce a furrow and a bund (ridge).
It is important for root crops, to allow root expansion and for soil and water conservation.
It is the compaction of the soil to produce a firm surface which increases seed-soil contact and prevents wind erosion.
Production of an even, uniform surface which promotes uniform planting.
This is deep cultivation into the subsoil layer to break up any hardpan which might have developed.
It is done for the following reasons:-
This is the application of a combination of farming practices with the aim of reducing the disturbance of the soil.
Examples of which include:
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By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
TOPICS/SUBTOPICS (7 LESSONS)
Operations in land preparation
Clearing land before cultivation
QUESTIONS ON TOPIC
FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT - KCSE AGRICULTURE NOTES, OBJECTIVES, SCHEMES, QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT (7 LESSONS)
Introduction to Farm Tools and Equipment
Farm tools and equipment perform specific jobs in the farm.
They make work easier and more efficient.
They can be classified according to their uses as follows:
Garden Tools and Equipment
Cutting and shallow cultivation, making holes.
Jembe / hand hoe
Cultivation, digging, shallow planting holes and trenches.
Cultivation, digging out roots, harvesting of root crops.
Collecting trash, breaking large clods, levelling, removing stones from a seedbed and spreading organic manure.
Scooping and carrying of soil, sand, concrete mixture and manure.
Scooping seedlings during transplanting and digging planting holes for seedlings.
Bending tall branches when pruning.
Cutting young stems and pruning branches.
Cutting big trees and roots and splitting logs of wood.
Making holes for fencing posts.
Digging hard soils
Watering plants in nursery bed
Transportation of soil, fertilizers, farm produce, tools and equipment.
For levelling a nursery bed
Cutting old wood stems and pruning big branches.
For conveying water from a tap to where it is need.
Knap sack sprayer
Applying agro-chemical by spraying.
Removal of small shoots.
Workshop Tools and Equipment
Administering liquid drugs to animals orally.
Bolus gun/dosing gun
Administering solid drugs or tablets to animals orally.
Cutting off wool from sheep.
Administering drugs by injection for example in vaccination.
Stirrup (bucket) pump
Application of acaricide by hand spraying.
Taking body temperatures of farm animals.
Used in bloodless method of castration.
Rope designed to restrain the animal.
Cutting short the overgrown hooves.
Stretching rubber ring during castration, dehorning and docking of lambs.
Applies heat on the horn bud to prevent growth of horns.
Fixed into the nose of a bull to restrain it.
Detecting mastitis in milk products.
Trocar and cannula
Relieving a bloated animal of gases particularly ruminants.
For scrubbing the floor.
Making ear notches in livestock.
For holding milk during milking.
For holding milk after milking.
Removing foreign particles from milk for example hairs and sediments.
Tying or tethering animals.
Used by the milker to sit on while milking.
Weighing milk after milking.
Removal of canine teeth of piglets soon after birth.
Cutting fodder into small bits.
Cutting grown horns.
Workshop Tools and Equipment
Tightening and loosening nuts and bolts.
Cutting small wires and thin metal and gripping firmly.
Sharpening tools, smoothening or shaping edges of metals,
Smoothening and shaping of wooden structures.
Making grooves in wood.
Cutting and shaping metal.
Driving screws in or out of wood or metal.
Cross cut saw
Cutting across the grain of wood.
Cutting along the grain of wood.
Hack saw/Bow saw
Tenon / back saw
Cutting branches of trees.
Cutting Joints on wood and fine sawing.
Cutting curves on thin wood.
Cutting either along or across the grain of wood especially when cutting key holes.
Cutting metal sheets.
Braces and bits.
Boring holes in wood. ,
Drill and bits
Boring holes in metal work and woodwork.
Driving in, removing and straightening nails.
Driving in nails, rivets and straightening metal. Also used on cold chisel, Mallet Hammering or hitting wood chisel.
Fine finishing of wood.
Smoothening curved surfaces of wood such as handles of jembes, axes.
Measuring short length
Measuring length angles and to ascertain squareness.
Marking parallel lines to the edge of wood.
Cutting wires, hammering staples when fencing.
Vice and clamps
Firmly holding pieces of work together.
Measuring horizontal or vertical levels.
Melting soldering rods when repairing or fabricating metal sheets.
Brushing rough surfaces.
Marking and laying out.
Marking the point of drilling.
Applying paint on surfaces.
Ramming hardware, breaking stones.
Tightening wires during fencing.
Fix rivets when joining pieces of metal.
Removing long nails from wood, straining fencing wires and digging fencing holes.
Plumbing and Masonry Tools
Pipe wrench Holding, tightening and loosing metallic pipes.
Cutting PVC pipes.
Levelling the floor during construction.
Placing mortar between construction stones and bricks.
Create a level surface on walls and floors.
Spreading screed over floors and walls.
Mixing and scooping concrete or mortar, measuring cement.
Care and Maintenance of Tools and Equipment
Reasons for Maintenance
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. List four maintenance practice carried out on a cross-cut saw
2. Identify the following tools and state their functions
Identify A, B, C, D
3. Study the illustration below and answer the questions that follow.
i) Identify the equipment represented by the illustration
ii) What is the use of the equipment?
iii) Name the parts labeled A and B
iv) What is the function of the part labeled A and B
4. What is the use of a garden fork?
5. Name the tool that a builder would use to check the vertical straightness of a wall during construction
6. Name the farm tool that can be used when removing nails from timber
7. Give two examples of equipment that a livestock farmer can use in administering oral anti helminthes
8. Diagrams M, N, P and Q represent some farm tools. Study them carefully and answer questions that follow.
a. Identify the tools M, N, P and Q (2 marks)
b. Give one use of each of the tools names above (2 marks)
c. State two maintenance practices that should be carried out on tool M (1 mark)
9. Name a tool used to perform the following functions on the farm;
(i) Drilling of small holes on metal
(ii) Bore holes on wood
10. State the common faults in the operation of Knapsack spray
11. (a) Name the three tools in castration of livestock
12. Name the most appropriate set of animal handling tools that a farmer uses for the following operations:-
(i) Restraining a large bull when taking it around the show ring
(ii) Cutting tail in sheep
13. a) Below are illustrations of farm tools
i) State the use of the tools
ii) Name the type of hammer that may be used for driving tool K during work
14. List two equipments used in handling cattle during an Agricultural exhibition
15. Mention the use of the following tools.
16. List four precautions that should be taken when using workshop tools and equipment.
17. i) Below is an illustration of a farm equipment. Study it and answer questions that follow
a) Identify the farm equipment illustrated above
b) What is the use of the equipment
c) Name the parts labelled W, X and
d) What is the functions of Y on the equipment
18. Use the diagram below to answer questions which follow
i) Identify the above diagram
ii) Name the parts labelled A and B
19. Below are illustrations of farm tools. Study them and answer the question that follows:
a) Identify P and M. (1mk)
b) State one advantage of P over Q. (1mk)
c) State the function of tool labeled N and M. (2mks)
d) Give two maintenance practices that can be carried out on tool P. (1mk)
20. The diagram below is of a farm implement study in carefully and answer the questions that follows.
i. Identify the implement. (1 mark)
ii. Label lparts A, B, C and D. (2 marks)
iii. State three maintenance practices carried out on the above implement. (1½ mark)
21. Study the farm tools shown below and answer the questions that follow.
i. Identify the tools labeled. (1½ marks)
ii. State one use for each of the tools B and C (2 marks)
iii. Give three maintenance practices that should be carried out on tool A. (1½marks)
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