Introduction to Water Supply, Irrigation and Drainage
Water is a very important natural resource.
It is necessary for both crops and livestock.
Uses of water in the farm;
Sources of Water in the Farm
Three major sources of water in the farm are:
Includes water from;
Includes water from;
This is water tapped in various ways such as;
Collection and Storage of Water
These are structures constructed across rivers and channels.
They collect and store water for use during the dry season.
These are structures constructed across rivers to raise the water level for easy pumping.
Unlike in the dams, water flows over the barrier created across the river.
These are structures made of concrete, stone, metal sheets and plastics.
They store water from rain or that which has been pumped from other sources.
Tanks should be covered to prevent contamination from dust.
Pumps and Pumping of Water
Pumping is the lifting of water from one point to another by use of mechanical force.
Water is pumped from the various sources and then conveyed to where it is required for use or storage.
Types of Water Pumps
Used to lift water from its source.
Piston or reciprocating pumps
Semi-rotary pumps and Hydram
Conveyance of Water
This is the process of moving water from one point, usually the source or point of storage to where it will be used or stored.
This is where water is moved through pipes such as;
Use of Containers:
In this case water is drawn and put in containers, drums, Jerry cans, pots, gourds, tanks and buckets .
Which are carried by animals, bicycles, human beings and vehicles.
Use of Canals:
In this case water is conveyed from a high point to a lower one along a gradual slope to avoid soil erosion.
Water conveyed through this way is mostly used for irrigation and livestock.
Raw water contains impurities which may be dissolved, floating or suspended in water.
These impurities are grouped into three categories, namely:
Importance of Treating Water
Methods of Treating Water
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