K.C.S.E Biology Q & A - MODEL 2016PP2QN07
Using a relevant example in each case, describe simple and conditional reflex actions.
Simple reflex action eg. withdrawal of finger from a sharp object/ hot object; its an automatic response to a specific stimulus; when the finger touches sharp object/ hot object, the pain receptors/ thermoreceptors in the skin are stimulants; and trigger off a nerve impulse; the nerve impulse is transmitted via the senses neurone; to the grey matter of the spinal cord/ CNS/ brain; the impulse is then transmitted via synapse; to the relay neurone; and then through another synapse; to the motor neurone; and then through another synapse; to the motor neurone; the impulse is then transmitted to the effector muscles in the hand; ace - efferent neurone for motor neurone Afferent neurone for sense neurone intermediate/ associative/ connector/interauncial neurone - for relay. The effector muscles/ biceps contract; and the finger is withdrawn from the hot object/ sharp object;
Conditioned reflex action - salivation in a dog/ human being (ace. any other relevant example) student in response to sound; it is an automatic response evoked from an animal by unrelated stimulus; substituted for the one which normally elicits the response; it develops from a past experience; and involves modification of behaviour/involves learning; it weakens with time; and must be reinforced by repeating the related stimulus; the dog/ student salivates when the bell (for meals) rings; because they have learnt to associate the ringing of the bell at meal time with food; everytime it rings (accept use of other relevant examples) they are offered food.
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