THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
a) The 1st pan-African conference, London, 1900. It was held at the WestminsterTownhall from 23rd to 25th July with 32 participants from Africa, USA, Canada and West Indies. The conference was sponsored by a Trinidad lawyer Henry Sylvester Williams who coined the term Pan-Africanism. The conference marked the entry of
Du Bois into Pan Africanism where he made his famous statement “The problem ofthe 20th c is the problem of colourline”
Objectives of the conference
b) The 2nd Pan-African Conference, Paris, 1919.The conference coincided with the Paris Peace conference. The conference was convened by William Du bois who had been sent to Paris by NAACP to investigate the allegations that African American troops stationed in France during world war I experienced racial discrimination and to represent the interest of the black peoples at the Paris peace conference.
The conference made the following recommendations;
d) The 4th Pan-African congress (London and Lisbon 1923.) it reiterated earlierresolutions and also demanded that black people be treated like human beings.
e) The 5th Pan-African Conference, New York 1927. It was mainly attended by African Americans and was partly sponsored by European Philanthropists. It discussed the attitude of the communists towards pan-Africanism.
f) The 6th Pan African conference, Manchester 1945.it coincided with the end of the World War II. It was convened by the Pan African Federation which had been formed in 1944 by 13 organizations representing students’ welfare and political groupings. Leaders of the federation were George Padmore, Ras Makonnen (Ethiopia). C.L.R Wallace Johnson and Jomo Kenyatta. The conference was greatly inspired by the liberation of Ethiopia in 1941 and Clause three of the Atlantic Charter (1941) (that USA and British governments would respect the right of all people to choose the form of government under which to live) which Winston Churchill claimed was not applicable to the Africans.
The conference was convened on 15th oct. 1945 and was attended by 90 delegates who included Du Bois(West Indies), Nkrumah(Ghana), Kenyatta(kenya), Padmore(Trinidad), peter Abrahams(south Africa), Ras Makonnen(Ethiopia) , Magnus Williams representing Azikiwa Nnamdi (Nigeria), Obafemi Owolowo (Nigeria) and Kamuzu Banda (Malawi) and 11 observer nations. Du bois chaired the conference while Nkrumah and Padmore were joint secretaries.
page 5 Uniqueness of the conference
Why the 1945 Manchester (Pan-African) Congress was a landmark in the history of Africa.
Why pan-African movement was not active in Africa before 1945
The role of Kwame Nkrumah in Pan-Africanism
Reasons why the pan-African movement became active in Africa after 1945
Performance of the Pan-African Movement:
Effects of the end of Cold War on Africa
- Some African countries that were formerly socialist are in problems following collapse of USSR in 1990. E.g. Somalia, Ethiopia, Angola and Mozambique.
- The end of the cold war has led to the removal of financial aid and military support for some African countries. Military or food aid is no longer rushed to countries experiencing problems because there is no more superpower competition. E.g failure to prevent the Rwanda genocide and failure to assist in the Somali crisis and the current Al-shabaab crisis.
- There was emergence of new world political and economic order. The end of war has led to emergence of USA as a ‘world policeman’ over developing nations. The countries must act according to USA wishes or suffer lack of aid and receive harassment from superpowers.
- It has led to marginalization of Africa in international affairs.
- There are conditional ties for getting aid from the western powers. Besides, Africa no longer has a choice of donors who comprise mainly of western world countries.
NAM STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION
The country that hosts the summit holds office until the next summit. Non-aligned countries place the onus of an administrative structure on the country assuming the chair. The country is required to create or designate an entire section of the ministry of foreign affairs to deal specifically with the Non-Aligned Movement.
The chair’s ambassador in the United Nations essentially functions as the ‘minister of Non-Aligned Affairs’.
NAM has also created contact groups, task forces and committees to facilitate the chair’s responsibility as follows;
The Coordinating Bureau
Working Groups, Contact Groups, Task Forces and Committees
Non-Aligned security Caucus
Joint coordinating committee
Coordination of non-aligned countries in the UN centres.
Panel of economists
- Conference of Heads of State and Government. This is NAM’s highest decision-making authority and meets once every three years. It has two committees, one on political issues and another on economic and social issues. The summit is held at least one month before the regular session of the UN General Assembly. During the summit, there is a formal ceremony for handing over the chair.
- Ministerial conference. Its task is to review developments and implement decisions of the preceding summit and also discuss matters of urgency. The conference meets 18 months after the summit.
- Ministerial meeting in New York during a session of the UN General Assembly. This is a meeting of foreign ministers annually in New York at the beginning of the regular session of the UN Assembly. The purpose of the meeting is to deliberate on the items of the Agenda of the General Assembly that are of major importance to the movement.
- Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau. The main task is to prepare for the summits, and where necessary, to consider issues of major importance to the movement.
- Meeting of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology. The attendance is by all NAM members and its meetings are held by the decision of the summit or the ministerial conference. The meetings are chaired by the chair of NAM.
- Meeting of the standing ministerial committee on economic cooperation. These meetings are meant to strengthen south-south cooperation, reactivate the dialogue between the developing and developed countries and enhance the role of the UN General Assembly, in international cooperation for development. The meetings are held frequently upon recommendation of the coordinating Bureau.
- Ministerial Meetings in various fields of international cooperation. They discuss issues like agriculture, information and external debt.
- Extraordinary Meetings of the Coordinating Bureau. They address exceptional cases that call for urgent consideration.
- Meetings of the Working Groups, Task Forces, Contact Groups and Committees. The meetings are held as often as necessary.
The growth of NAM
- The first summit, Belgrade, 1961. The attendance was by 25 non-aligned countries who met at a time when world peace was threatened seriously by the looming nuclear war. The meeting’s objective was to prevent the outbreak of a nuclear war in the world.
- The second summit, Cairo, 1964. The summit of October 1964 was attended by 47 Nations and 10 observers. There were 28 representatives from Africa. The conference mainly focused on problems facing NAM countries due to colonial inheritance, policies of former colonial powers and the rivalry between the great powers..
- The third summit, Lusaka, 1970. The attendance was by 53 members the meeting resolved that time was ripe for declaration on peace, independence, cooperation and democratization. The members were out to fight colonialism and racism. The main resolution was the members’ determination to achieve economic emancipation.
- The Fourth Summit, Algiers, 1973. It was attended by 75 members, eight observers,three guest nations and 15 liberation movements. The meeting was an attempt to transform the existing system of economic and financial relations in a manner that would liberate developing countries from a subordinate role into an equal position with industrialized countries. The members developed an action programme in the interest of economic cooperation.
- The fifth Summit, Colombo, 1976. It was attended by 86 members, who focused on the liberation of Zimbabwe and Namibia, the abolition of apartheid in South Africa as a way of promoting world peace.
- The sixth Summit, Havana, 1979. The conference was attended by 93 members, 12 observers, 8 guest nations and seven new members. The meeting declared that imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, racism, foreign aggression, expansion, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony, Great power bloc, Subjugation, dependency and pressures in international relations as enemies of non-alignment. The chairman of the summit was Fidel Castro who put forth his ideas that the socialist bloc is a natural ally of the movement.
- The seventh summit, New Delhi, 1983. It was attended by 96 members, 16 observers and 20 guest nations. The summit took place at a time when there was intense confrontation as the great powers continued to amass nuclear weapons. . Indra Gandhi appeared to be the moderate leader to host the conference and soften the impact of Cuban radicalism. The conference discussed peace, nuclear disarmament, development strategies for north-south Dialogue on a new world economic order, and the south-south cooperation for collective self-reliance.
- The eighth summit, Harare, 1986. It marked NAM’s silver Jubilee. The main concern was Namibia’s independence and apartheid in south Africa.. NAM emphasized its sanctions against the Pretoria (South Africa) regime. It drew an action plan to deal with the threat posed by South Africa. The summit came up with a special solidarity fund to help the frontline states.
- The Ninth summit, Belgrade, 1989.
- The tenth Summit, Jakarta, 1992.
- The eleventh Summit, Cartagena de Indias, 1995.
- The twelfth Summit, Durban 1998.
- The thirteenth Summit, Kuala Lumpar, 2003.
Performance of the Non-Aligned Movement
Reasons why NAM is still relevant
- NAM is the only forum that can articulate the voice of justice and sanity in the world in view of the unending Arms Race.
- NAM is the only forum through which the demand for a less unjust world economic order can be raised given the kind of hold the developed nations still have on developing nations.
- NAM remains the third world’s shield against the pressures of the superpower elephants that can easily trample on the grass of the lesser animals even after end of cold war.
- NAM can still play a role in addressing emerging world issues such as terrorism, environmental degradation, HIV/AIDS and racism.
Achievements of NAM
- It has helped speed up the attainment of freedom in states that were under colonial bondage.
- NAM has assisted its members in safeguarding their national security and territorial integrity.
- Non-aligned nations also worked to eliminate conflict between the superpowers. This helped in the promotion of peace and security for the non-aligned world. India for example played a role in solving the Korean War, the Suez crisis and Indo-Chinese conflict.
- NAM created a conducive environment for peace, justice, equality and international cooperation by contributing to the relaxation of international tension by keeping clear of the two military blocs, USA and USSR.
- The movement has strengthened African and Asian Countries diplomatically at a time when they lacked necessary physical strength. They were able to exert their voting power as Afro-Asian bloc to influence world affairs.
- NAM provided an international forum where members’ voices could be heard. It was able to work to dismantle apartheid by its two-third world community membership despite the Reagan administration’s opposition to sanctions against South Africa.
- The movement has given members freedom to put their national interests before those of the great power blocs.
- The NAM through the Cairo and Colombo Summits termed as World Disarmament conferences, played a key role in the disarmament process. The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco, signed by 22 states, set up a weapon Free Zone in Latin America.
- The Non-aligned states have helped in international crisis management since they are not committed to any course of military action. For example during the 1961 Berlin crisis, Nehru of India and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana went to Moscow for a peace mission, while Achmad Sukarno of Indonesia and Modibo Keita of Mali went to Washington DC to try and create a conducive atmosphere for managing the crisis.
- NAM has worked towards creation of new international economic order. Members of the movement are able to trade with both the great power blocs. Membership to the Group of 77 in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is drawn from the non-aligned nations. The non-aligned nations were open to aid from both blocs and also ready to expand their trade with both sides of the ideological divide.
- The Solidarity fund established during the Harare Summit of 1986 cushioned the frontline states against the economic sanctions imposed on apartheid South Africa.
- NAM has worked to create the new scientific and technological order. The members have demanded a new scientific and technological order by favouring access to the most advanced technology and scientific research available as a means of bridging the technological gap between the developed countries and developing ones.
Factors which have undermined the activities of the Non-Aligned Movement
- Political instability is frequently experienced by some member states. For example, civil wars and military coups in DRC, the Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, interstate wars like in the case of Iran and Iraq. This has undermined their contribution to the movement.
- Economic ties between the third world countries and their colonial masters had made it difficult for the member states to pursue an independent line.
- Border disputes between neighboring member countries has weakened the course of the movement. E.g. between morocco and Algeria, North Korea and South Korea, Vietnam and Cambodia, Ethiopia and Somalia, Uganda and Tanzania etc.
- Economic backwardness of some of the member states has made it difficult for them to meet their obligation in the movement as national needs come first in view of the meager resources of some of the nations.
- Ideological differences between member states have undermined their co-operation. Its large size of 116 members by 2004 has frustrated its ideological coherence and organizational solidarity. Whereas some countries are inclined towards the west, others are inclined to the east.
- Membership to other organizations like AU, commonwealth and the French community, has made it difficult for some states to participate actively in the affairs of the movement.
- Breakup of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War has destabilized the movement. As power bloc rivalry subsided, NAM appeared to become irrelevant.
- Conflicting national interests. Individual national interests have failed to agree with the objectives of the movement.
- Personality differences between leaders of member states have undermined the movement. For example, several leaders rejected the radical views of Fidel Catron of Cuba.
- Differences unrelated to the principles of NAM have developed among members. For example at the Colombo Summit of 1978, several Arab states were keen to see Egypt expelled from the movement on grounds that she had signed a separate peace treaty with Israel. This was not an agreement with a superpower and therefore had nothing to do with NAM.
- NAM lacks a permanent Army or a permanent institutional framework or machinery that can enable it carry out its activities effectively. For example, it failed to persuade iraq and Iran to end the 8 year long war from 1980.
THE COLD WAR
It was so called because it was fought not with weapons, but with words, propaganda, military and financial aid to enemies of the opposing sides.
Although there was no actual physical confrontation, Cold War was characterized by a conflict of the most serious and deadly kind.
Causes of the Cold War.
- Ideological differences. There was deep-seated fear and mutual suspicion between USA and USSR over the spread of their ideologies–capitalism and communism. E.g The establishment of the Soviet Union through acquisition of satellite states was a measure to contain capitalism.
- Disagreement over the issue of disarmament. The use of atomic bomb on Japan by USA towards the end of World War II alarmed USSR. The two sides failed to agree on an arms reduction plan and continued to stockpile atomic bombs.
- Economic rivalry. In 1947, the USA President Harry S. Truman introduced the Marshal Plan, a scheme to assist western European countries that had been devastated by war. The USSR in turn formed Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), an economic cooperative plan for Eastern Europe. This further heightened the hostility between the west and the east.
- Formation of military alliances. In April 1949, the USA, western European countries and Canada formed a military alliance through the signing of the North Atlantic. Treaty in Washington D.C. (NATO). The formation of NATO ended USA’s isolationist policy. Russians responded by signing the Warsaw Pact, in May 1955, a military alliance of communist countries. These alliances fostered hostility between countries.
- The use of Russian veto powers in the UN. Russia used her veto powers to defeat UN proposals, which she accused of being pro-USA. The struggle by the two powers to dominate the UN increased tension between them.
- Disagreement over the future of Germany as a whole. Western allies wanted a strong Germany to assist in the economic prosperity of other nations. Russia was keen on a politically and economically weak Germany to safeguard against another invasion. NB- in 1961, the USSR built the Berlin Wall, thus dividing East Berlin from West Berlin.
- USA’s military advancement. By 1945, the USA was the only country that possessed atomic weapons. This created fear.
Judicial authority and legal system.
Principles that guide Judicial Authority in Courts and Tribunals in Kenya.
- Justice must be done to all, irrespective of status.
- Justice shall not be delayed.
- Alternative forms of dispute resolution must be pursued including reconciliation, mediation, arbitration and even traditional dispute resolution mechanism.
- Justice shall be administered without undue regard to procedural technicalities.
- The purposes and principles of the constitution must be protected and promoted.
Ways in which the traditional Dispute resolution is limited in Kenya.
- The mechanisms used in traditional dispute resolution should not contravene the Bill of RIGHTS.
- The traditional court should not operate in a way that is repugnant to justice and morality or results in outcomes that are repugnant to justice or morality.
- The operations of the traditional courts should not be inconsistent with the constitution.
The structure of the judicial system in Kenya.
- The seriousness of the cases the courts handle.
- The punishment they give out
- The geographical area of operation.
Difference between original and appellate jurisdictions.
- Original jurisdiction refers to the ability of a court to hear cases brought to a court for the first time.
- Appellate jurisdiction is the powers of a court to hear appeals brought in from a lower court.
The Head of the Judiciary is the Chief Justice with the Deputy Chief Justice as the Deputy Head of the Judiciary.
Chief Registrar of the Judiciary is the chief administrator and accounting officer of the Judiciary. The System of courts is as follows
1. Superior Courts
Appointment to the Supreme Court requires the following qualifications;
- Degree in law from a recognized university or an advocate of the high Court of Kenya.
- At Least fifteen years experience as a superior court judge or a distinguished academic, judicial officer, legal practitioner and or other relevant legal field.
- High moral character, integrity and impartiality.
Functions of the Supreme Court of Kenya.
- The Supreme Court has exclusive original jurisdiction to hear and determine disputes relating to the elections to the office of President.
- It has appellate jurisdiction to hear and determine appeals from the Court of Appeal; and any other court or tribunal.
- The Supreme Court gives an advisory opinion at the request of the national government, any State organ, or any county government with respect to any matter concerning county government.
- It has of right in any case involving the interpretation or application of the Constitution.
- All courts, other than the Supreme Court, are bound by the decisions of the Supreme Court
2. Court of Appeal
The court of appeal does not have original jurisdiction except on an application for a stay of execution pending appeal to it on contempt proceedings.
Function of the Court of Appeal in Kenya.
3. High Court
Functions of the high court of Kenya.
- The High Court has unlimited original jurisdiction in criminal and civil Matters.
- It has jurisdiction to determine the question whether a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated, infringed or threatened.
- It has jurisdiction to hear an appeal from a decision of a tribunal appointed to consider the removal of a person from office. For example, appeals from the courts martial, Business and rental Tribunals on matters related to the constitution.
- It has jurisdiction to hear any question respecting the interpretation of the Constitution including the determination of the question whether any law is inconsistent with or in contravention of this Constitution;
- It determines any matter relating to constitutional powers of State organs in respect of county governments and any matter relating to the constitutional relationship between the levels of government.
- The High Court has supervisory jurisdiction over the subordinate courts and over any person, body or authority exercising a judicial or quasi-judicial function, but not over a superior court
- It listens to appeals from the lower courts when the parties involved are not satisfied.
- It deals with disputes that take place outside Kenya's territorial waters/maritime.
- It hears appeals from decisions made by professional disciplinary tribunals involving advocates of the high court and other members of the profession.
- It acts as a constitution court by determining whether a case brought before it is constitutional or unconstitutional.
- It listens to appeals from special courts when the parties are not satisfied with the decision made.
- It corrects/amends the irregularities in decisions made by lower courts.
- It hears cases that carry death sentences / involve large sums of money.
- It deals with cases that concern land/succession disputes.
- It hears election petitions.
- It exercises divorce jurisdictions in matrimonial matters,
- It hears appeals from tribunals E.g. Rent Restrictions, Business Premises Rent Tribunal.
Termination of the services of a judge from office.
- Inability to perform the functions of the office arising from mental or physical incapacity.
- A breach of a code of conduct prescribed for judges or superior courts by an act of parliament.
- Gross misconduct or misbehavior.
Such a process is initiated by the Judicial Service Commission on its own initiative or on petition of any person to it based on any of the dismissal grounds.
The commission, if satisfied with the petition or initiative, forwards the matter to the president, who will suspend the said Judge, within Fourteen Days after receiving the petition and on advice of the Judicial Service Commission.
A tribunal is then appointed to determine the case. If the Judge is aggrieved by the decision of the Tribunal, he/she may appeal to the Supreme Court within ten days after the tribunal has made its recommendation.
The president will finally act in accordance with the recommendation of the tribunal.
4. Subordinate courts.
Its jurisdiction in both Civil and criminal cases is limited to geographical areas. However the courts have unlimited Jurisdiction in proceedings concerning claims under
customary law such as dowry, divorce, legitimacy, inheritance and the administration of estates of the deceased person.
They have unlimited jurisdiction in dealing with matters related to land, adultery and inheritance.
These are the courts responsible for sentencing persons who have broken law of the land. Reasons why a person who has broken the law should be sentenced by a court.
- To deter the criminal from future crimes.
- To deter others from committing similar offences since they would have known the punishment for breaking the law.
- To secure for the public a period o protection from the offender who is in prison.
- To reform the criminal through counseling and corrective training
- To satisfy the demands of the people for retribution through punitive justice.
The courts are headed by a Chief Kadhi and not fewer than three Kadhis Qualifications for appointment as a Kadhi.
- One must profess the Muslim religion.
- One must possess such knowledge of the Muslim law applicable to any sects of Muslims. The jurisdiction of the Kadhis Court is limited to the determination of questions of Muslim Law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all concerned parties profess to the Muslim religion.
- The Courts Martial.
There is no right to appeal to the high court against the decisions of the courts martial unless they involve constitutional cases. Industrial Court Juvenile Court
The Judicial Service Commission.
- The Chief Justice who is the Chairperson of the Commission.
- One Supreme Court judge elected by the judges of the Supreme Court. c) One court of appeal judge elected by the judges of the court of appeal.
- One High Court Judge and one magistrate, of whom one must be a woman and one a man elected by members of the association of judges and magistrates.
- The attorney General.
- Two advocates , one woman and one man each with at least fifteen years of experience, elected by members of the statutory body responsible for the professional regulation of advocates (LSK)
- One person nominated by the public Service Commission.
- One woman and one man to represent the public, not being a lawyer, appointed by the president with the approval of the national assembly.
- The chief registrar of the Judiciary, who will be secretary to the commission.
Functions of the Judicial Service Commission
- The Judicial Service Commission promotes and facilitates the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice.
- It recommends to the President persons for appointment as judges.
- It reviews and makes recommendations on the conditions of service of judges and judicial officers, other than their remuneration; and the staff of the Judiciary.
- It appoints, receives complaints against, investigates and removes from office or otherwise discipline registrars, magistrates, other judicial officers and other staff of the Judiciary.
- It prepares and implements programmes for the continuing education and training of judges and judicial officers.
- It advises the national government on improving the efficiency of the administration of justice.
The concept of “Independence of the Judiciary” in Kenya.
- In the exercise of judicial authority, the Judiciary is subject only to the Constitution and the law and not to the control or direction of any person or authority.
- The office of a judge of a superior court cannot be abolished while there is a substantive holder of the office.
- A member of the Judiciary is not liable in an action or suit in respect of anything done or omitted to be done in good faith in the lawful performance of a judicial function. The Judicial Act protects Judges and Magistrates against any form of victimization and molestation.
- There is a separate system of command for the judiciary unlike other government departments.
- Appointment of the magistrates is done independently by JSC, which is independent of PSC. The president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission appoints the Judges.
- The judges are bound by the Oath of Allegiance to perform their duties without fear or favour.
- Judges enjoy security of tenure.
- Statutes fix salaries and allowances of Judges.
Challenges facing the judiciary in Kenya.
- There is constant Conflict between the three arms of government. This hinders the just operation of the judiciary. Too much interference from the Executive has undermined the independence of the Judiciary.
- The long court processes have always delayed dispensation of justice in Kenya.
- Corruption. This is common among the Judges who sometimes compromise their integrity due to greed/ Public doubts of its impartiality due to rampant corruption
- Inadequate personnel. There are few qualified judges. For example in 2002, there were 47 judges serving a population of 30 million people. This causes delay in hearing of cases.
- There is constant termination of cases by the Attorney General thereby denying justice to some genuine cases.
- Poor co-ordination within the court system
- Incompetence of some judicial officers. E.g. poor and inconsistent judgments. This has been attributed to flawed appointments and promotion procedures.
- Lack of adequate funds to cater for the needs of the judiciary. This has led to inadequate court structures and facilities such as equipment, chairs, libraries etc.
- Lack of continuous legal education to keep them a breast of the latest legal development and skills in information technology.
- There is a lot of ignorance among the public in Kenya on judicial affairs and their legal rights/ignorance on the legal rights. Members of the public fear the courts and the court language.
- Information on the judiciary has not been made available to the public and it appears to be a preserve of a few.
- Litigation fees are high limits public’s access to the courts.
- There has been increased legal education given to officers and members of the public by the judiciary and other bodies like Kituo Cha Sheria, which releases information booklets and offers free legal advice to people.
- The terms and conditions of service for judges and other officers were improved in 2002 in order to make them work better.
- The government also set up a committee led by Justice Aaron Ringera in what was famously referred to as Judicial Surgery, to investigate the conduct of judges. Those who were adversely mentioned in the report were suspended.
- The government has recruited more legal officers to reduce the backlog of cases in courts.
- The passing of the Vetting of Judges and Magistrates Act, 2011 (VJM Act) In March 2011, established the Judges and Magistrates Vetting Board, chaired by Sharad Rao ,which is carrying out the vetting exercise to restore public confidence in the Judiciary.
- The suspension of Deputy CJ Nancy Baraza and her final resignation for harrassing an innocent security guard.
- Dropping of President of the Kenyan Appellate Court Justice Riaga Omollo for political bias and authoritarian demeanor while carrying out his activities on the bench.
- Dropping Judge Samuel Bosire for condoning torture of suspects during Coup trial in 1982.
- Dropping of Court of Appeal Judge Emmanuel Okubasu for being unsuitable to continue holding office. Joseph Nyamu
- Justice Mohammed Ibrahim, though Praised as impartial and immune to corruption, was dropped for having an overflowing in-tray of cases
- Appellate judge Roselyn Nambuye was kicked out due to delays in delivering more than 270 judgements and being too wordy in her ruling.
The Rule of Law.
Meaning of ‘the Rule of Law’.
In Kenya, all citizens and residents are subject to and governed by the same law irrespective of their status, race and religion
Elements of the rule of law.
- The principle of legality. The state can only exercise those powers granted to it by the law. It should be a government of laws and not of men.
- Separation of powers of the three arms of government. This refers to the practice of dividing the powers of government into the executive, legislature and judicial functions equally and putting in place a system of checks and balances to ensure they control each other. The three functions are to be independent of each other.
- Equality before the law. Everyone should be treated equally under the law.
- The judiciary must work without favour or the fear of intimidation in the administration of justice.
The principles of the Rule of Law.
- All laws should be prospective and open. A new law should only apply in future.
- Laws should be durable and not changing every other day.
- No centre of power, and specifically parliament, should enjoy monopoly right in making laws for citizens of a country, the judiciary should scrutinize parliament.
- The independence of the judiciary should be protected.
- The principal of natural justice should form an important element in the judicial system of a country.
- There must be easy accessibility to the courts of law. They should neither be expensive nor intimidating.
- The security forces should not use force in contravention of the law.
Meaning of the concept of Natural Justice.
Two principles govern the Concept of Natural Justice.
- The person affected by an impending decision must have the right to a fair hearing prior to the decision being made.
- The person or body hearing the case should act in good faith and without Bias. The right to fair hearing
- The accused must be given prior notice of the case against him and given a chance to respond.
- The accused must be given chance of knowing the case against him and stating his own case.
- The person charged should have opportunity to consider, challenge and contradict any evidence, being fully aware of the allegations leveled against him.
- The person has a right to legal representation by a legally qualified person.
- All legal decisions should have reasons within the law..
The rule against Bias.
A person is presumed innocent until proven otherwise and the police have no right to beat up suspects.
Meaning of the executive.
The National executive comprises;
a) The president.
b) The deputy president.
c) The cabinet.
d) The attorney general.
e) The director of public prosecutions
f) The public service.
He holds office for a five year term from the date of being sworn in to office and the term expires when the next candidate elected as president is sworn in. the constitution gives a two-five year term as the maximum period for the president’s position.
Qualifications for election as President in Kenya.
- A person qualifies for nomination as a presidential candidate if the person is a citizen by birth
- The person must be qualified to stand for election as a Member of Parliament.
- He or she must be nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate and is nominated by not fewer than 2000 voters from each of a majority of counties.
A candidate must also attract 25% of the votes cast in more than half of the counties in kenya in order to qualify to be a president.
Disqualifications one from vying for election as a president in Kenya
- If the person owes allegiance to a foreign state.
- If he is a public officer, or is acting in any State or other public office.
Assumption of office of the president.
- The oath of affirmation of allegiance
- The oath of affirmation for execution of the functions of office.
Importance of a presidential election.
- The citizens get a chance to exercise their democratic right. It is the essence of democracy in a government. The people have a choice to elect a president directly, freely, and fairly.
- It is a means through which the people of Kenya give the president the mandate to rule the country and act on their behalf.
- It helps to check dictatorship. The president becomes responsible and accountable to the electorate. He cannot go against public opinion.
- The president enjoys legitimacy of power because it is derived from the people
Powers and functions of the president of Kenya as derived from the constitution of Kenya.
- a) As the Head of State, he performs the following functions;
- -He represents the government and the people of Kenya both locally and internationally.
- -He receives foreign diplomatic and consular representatives.
- b) He is the head of Government.
- -He nominates a deputy president to deputize him.
- -He nominates and, with the approval of the national assembly, appoints or dismisses cabinet secretaries, the attorney general, the Director of Public Prosecutions, the secretary to the cabinet, Principal secretaries, High Commissioners, Ambassadors, and diplomatic and consular representatives, the chief justice and the deputy and all the judges in line with the recommendations of the Judicial Service Commission
- c) He is the Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces
- -He has powers to declare a state of emergency, declare war with the approval of parliament.
- -He is the chairperson of the National Security Council of Kenya.
- d) The President has the duty to safeguard the Constitution, ensure the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the rule of law, safeguard the sovereignty of the republic, promote and enhance unity of the nation and promote respect for diversity.
- e)The President has legislative powers to address the opening of each newly elected Parliament. He also addresses a special sitting of parliament once every year and any other time.
- f) The President chairs Cabinet meetings and assigns responsibility for the implementation and administration of any Act of Parliament to a Cabinet Secretary.
- g) He presides over national holidays during which he expounds on government policy.
- h) He confers honours in the name of people and republic on men and women of Kenya for outstanding achievements. E.g. OGH, OBS, DSM, HSC and EBS.
- i) He may, on petition of any person, exercise mercy powers in accordance with the advice of the advisory committee. E.g.;
- -Grant a free or conditional pardon to a person convicted of an offence.
- -Postpone execution of any punishment for an offender , for a specified period, or indefinitely
- -Substitute a less severe form of punishment.
- -Remit all or part of a punishment.
- j) The President ensures that the international obligations of the Republic are fulfilled through the actions of the relevant Cabinet Secretaries.
The process of Removal of President by impeachment.
- A gross violation of a provision of the Constitution.
- President commits a crime under national or international law.
- For gross misconduct.
The President continues to perform the functions of the office pending the outcome of the proceedings.
Within seven days, the Speaker of the Senate convenes a meeting of the Senate to hear charges against the President.
A special committee appointed by the senate investigates the matter; and report to the Senate within ten days.
If the special committee reports that the particulars of any allegation against the President have not been substantiated, further proceedings shall not be taken
If any of allegations against the President have been substantiated, the Senate, after according the President an opportunity to be heard, votes on the impeachment charges.
If at least two-thirds of all the members of the Senate vote to uphold any impeachment charge, the President shall cease to hold office.
Reasons that may lead to a presidential by-election in Kenya.
- The president’s election may be nullified by court due to election offences.
- The serving president may die while in power.
- The president may resign.
- If the president becomes physically /mentally incapacitated.
- Parliament may pass a vote of no confidence in the president /government.
- If the serving president deserts/defects from the party that sponsored him to parliament.
- If the serving president ceases to be a Kenyan citizen.
THE DEPUTY PRESIDENT
The process of Electing and swearing in of a Deputy President in Kenya.
- A candidate, (qualified for nomination for election as President) is nominated by each candidate in a presidential election.
- The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission then declare the candidate nominated by the person who is elected as the President as the Deputy President.
- The swearing in of the Deputy President-elect is before the Chief Justice or, in the absence of the Chief Justice, the Deputy Chief Justice and in public.
- The Deputy President-elect assumes office by taking and subscribing;
- The oath or affirmation of allegiance.
- The oath or affirmation for the execution of the functions of office.
Under the following circumstances, one can cease to hold the office of the Deputy President
- At the end of term of office when the person next elected President at an election is sworn in.
- When the Deputy President assumes the office of President.
- On resignation, death or removal from office of the Deputy President
Functions of the Deputy President in Kenya.
- The Deputy President is the principal assistant of the President and shall deputize for the President in the execution of the President’s functions.
- The Deputy President performs the functions conferred by the Constitution and any other functions of the President as the President may assign.
- When the President is absent or is temporarily incapacitated, and during any other period that the President decides, the Deputy President shall act as the President.
The composition of The Cabinet in Kenya.
- the President;
- the Deputy President;
- the Attorney-General; and
- Not fewer than fourteen and not more than twenty-two Cabinet Secretaries.
A Cabinet Secretary should not be a Member of Parliament.
Secretary to the cabinet.
The office holder is nominated and appointed by the president, with the approval of the national assembly. He/she has the following responsibilities;
- Taking charge of the cabinet office.
- Arranging the business of the cabinet subject to its directions.
- Keeping minutes of the cabinet.
- Conveying decisions of the cabinet to the appropriate persons or authorities.
- Serving other functions as directed by the cabinet.
This office is an office in the public service.
General Functions of the cabinet.
- The cabinet Advises and assists the president in governing the country.
- The cabinet Discusses matters of national and international concern with the president.
- The cabinet Formulates government policies and programmes. During parliamentary debates, the secretaries defend the same policies, interpret them to the people and ensure their implementation.
- The cabinet initiates new bills and table government bills in the National assembly.
- Cabinet secretaries on their individual capacity give direction to operations within their ministries.
- The secretary for finance formulates and prepares the national budget which he/she then presents to the National Assembly.
The principle of collective responsibility of the cabinet.
- The cabinet does not work in the light of day. Cabinet must abide by oath of secrecy.
- It requires that the cabinet must act together as a team. The cabinet must speak together with one voice on all matters of government policy.
- All cabinet members are collectively responsible to parliament and to the people through parliament. One act of a cabinet secretary is taken to be an act of all the members of the cabinet.
- A minister would resign if in his conscience he cannot abide by the principle of collective responsibility.
The functions of the Attorney-General in Kenya.
- The Attorney-General is the principal legal adviser to the Government.
- He represents the national government in court or in any other legal proceedings to which the national government is a party, other than criminal proceedings.
- He performs any other functions conferred on the office by an Act of Parliament or by the President.
- The Attorney-General has authority, to appear as a friend of the court in any civil proceedings to which the Government is not a party.
- The Attorney-General has duty to promote, protect and uphold the rule of law and defend the public interest.
The Director of public prosecutions.
He/she does not require the consent of any person or authority for the commencement of criminal proceedings. His/her powers may be exercised in person or by subordinate officers acting under general or special instructions.
A person qualified to be appointed a DPP should have the qualifications to be appointed a judge of the High Court.
The functions of the Director of Public Prosecutions.
- The Director of Public Prosecutions has power to direct the Inspector-General of the National Police Service to investigate any information or allegation of criminal conduct.
- The Director of Public Prosecutions exercises State powers of prosecution and may institute and undertake criminal proceedings against any person before any court (other than a court martial) in respect of any offence alleged to have been committed.
- He has powers to take over and continue any criminal proceedings commenced in any court (other than a court martial) that have been instituted or undertaken by another person or authority, with the permission of the person or authority.
- He has powers to discontinue at any stage, before judgment is delivered, any criminal proceedings instituted by the Director of Public Prosecutions or taken over by the Director of Public Prosecutions.
THE PUBLIC SERVICE
Values and principles of public service
- High standards of professional ethics.
- Efficient, effective and economic use of resources.
- Responsive, prompt, effective, impartial and equitable provision of services.
- Involvement of the people in the process of policy making.
- Accountability of administrative acts.
- Transparency and provision to the public, of timely, accurate information.
- Fair competition and merit as the basis of appointments and promotions
- Representation of Kenya’s diverse communities.
- Providing adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and advancement at all levels of the public service, for women and men, members of all ethnic groups and persons with disability.
The Public Service Commission.
The commission consists of a chairperson, a vice chair person and seven other members appointed by the president with the approval of the National Assembly.
The commission has a secretary who is the CEO and is appointed by the commission for a term of five years and is eligible for re-appointment.
The following persons do not qualify for appointment to the commission;
A person who in the proceeding five years, held office, or stood for elections as;
- A member of parliament or the county assembly.
- A member of the governing body of a political party.
- If the person holds any state office.
- A holder of an office in a political organization that sponsors or supports a candidate for election as Member of Parliament or county assembly.
Functions and powers of the Public Service Commission.
- The Commission is responsible for establishment and abolishment of offices in the public service.
- It appoints persons to hold or act in Offices in the public service and confirm appointments.
- It exercises disciplinary control over and removes persons holding or acting in public offices.
- It promotes the values and principles throughout the public service.
- It investigates monitors and evaluates the organization, administration and personnel practices of the public service.
- It has the duty to ensure that the public service is efficient and effective.
- It develops human resources in the public service.
- It reviews and makes recommendations to the national government in respect of conditions of service, code of conduct and qualifications of officers in the public service.
- It evaluates and reports to the President and Parliament on the extent to which the values and principles that govern public service are complied with in the public service.
- It hears and determines appeals in respect of county governments’ public service.
Offices in the public service that are exempted from the regulation and control of the public service commission;
- State offices.
- An office of high commissioner, ambassador or other diplomatic or consular representative of the republic.
- An office or position subject to:
- The Parliamentary Service Commission.
- The Judicial Service Commission.
- The Teachers Service Commission
- The National Police Service Commission.
- An office in the service of a county government, with the exception of powers to create and establish offices.
Ways in which a public officer is protected by law while in service.
- A public officer shall not be victimized or discriminated against for having performed the functions of office in accordance with the Constitution.
- He/she shall not be dismissed, removed from office, demoted in rank or otherwise subjected to disciplinary action without due process of law.
Organs of national security.
Principles that promote and guarantee national security in Kenya.
- National security is subject to the authority of the constitution and parliament.
- Operations of national security must be consistent with the law and must respect the rule of law, democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- In performing their functions and exercising their powers, national security organs must respect cultural diversity of the communities within Kenya.
- Recruitment by the national security organs must reflect the diversity of the Kenyan people in equitable proportions.
National security organs in Kenya.
- The Kenya Defence Forces.
- The National Intelligence Service.
- The National Police Service.
National Security Council
Composition of the National Security Council
- The President.
- The Deputy President.
- The Cabinet Secretary responsible for Defence.
- The Cabinet Secretary responsible for foreign affairs.
- The Cabinet Secretary responsible for internal security.
- The Attorney-General.
- The Chief of Kenya Defence Forces.
- The Director-General of the National Intelligence Service.
- The Inspector-General of the National Police Service.
Functions of the National Security Council in Kenya.
- It exercises supervisory control over national security organs.
- It has duty to integrate the domestic, foreign and military policies relating to national security in order to enable the national security organs to co-operate and function effectively.
- It makes assessment and appraisal, the objectives, commitments and risks to the Republic in respect of actual and potential national security capabilities.
- The Council reports annually to Parliament on the state of the security of Kenya
- With the approval of Parliament, The Council is responsible for deploying national forces outside Kenya for regional or international peace support operations; or other support operations.
- It approves the deployment of foreign forces in Kenya.
The Kenya Defence Forces.
- The Kenya Army, established in 1963 and which protects the country against external land-based aggression.
- The Kenya Air force, established in 1963, disbanded in 1982 and renamed 82 Air force. It helps in the control of locust invasion.
- The Kenya Navy, based in Mombasa and created in 1964, patrols Kenya’s territorial waters and is always on the alert for sea-borne invasions, and for illegal landings and departure, and unauthorized fishing by foreign vessels in Kenyan waters.
Functions of the Kenya Defence forces.
- The Defence Forces are responsible for the Defence and protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic.
- They assist and cooperate with other authorities in situations of emergency or disaster.
- They may be deployed to restore peace in any part of Kenya affected by unrest or instability only with the approval of the National Assembly.
- The forces also assist in the preservation of internal security. For example the handling of the attempted coup by the Kenya Army in 1982.
- They participate in nation building activities such as road and bridge construction.
- The military also assists the public during emergencies and calamities such as floods, famine, fire outbreaks, landslides and other disasters. For example during the El Nino rains-construction of mobile bridge on Mombasa-Nairobi highway.
- The Navy specializes in detecting and fighting off criminals who use water masses like the Indian Ocean to commit crimes within the Kenyan territory. E.g. Somali Pirates.
- The Kenya Army takes part in peacekeeping Missions, such as the United Nations peacekeeping operations in different parts of the world and also the African Union and Commonwealth.
The Kenya Defence Council.
- The cabinet secretary responsible for defence is the chairperson.
- The Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces.
- The Three Commanders of the defence forces.
- The Principal Secretary in the ministry responsible for defence.
It is responsible for the overall policy, control and supervision of the Kenya Defence Forces.
Challenges facing the Kenya Defence Forces.
- There has being cases of indiscipline, such as the abortive coup attempt in 1982.
- There have been rampant cases of corruption facing some members of the Kenya Defence Forces, especially on matters of recruitment of new members into the defence forces, purchase of military and police equipment and deployment of officers on specialized duties.
- Tribalism, regionalism and nepotism have also been experienced in the Kenya Defence Forces, thereby demoralizing hardworking officers who are left out unfairly during promotions.
- Sometimes the Kenya Defence Forces faces the problem of lack of adequate funds to equip the forces with good equipment to facilitate their work.
- The majority of the military personnel are not provided with opportunities to acquire further education.
- Piracy and militia attacks and raids at the Kenyan Borders also present a major security challenge to the Defence Forces.
- Invasion of Kenya’s territorial waters by foreign fishermen and foreign fishing vessels from the big nations challenges the ability of the Kenya Navy to curb illegal fishing.
- The location of Moi Airbase at Eastleigh presents a big challenge to the air force. The Airbase was built by Britain in 1964 when the population in the area was scarce. Today the area has human congestion
- The defence forces also face challenges related to allegations on violations of human rights. After the 2008 elections violence, the Kenyan Army was deployed to restore peace in Mt. Elgon, where they were accused of violating human rights by killing people, destroying property, and sexually assaulting women.
The National Intelligence Service.
Function of the National Intelligence Service
- It is responsible for security intelligence and counter intelligence to enhance national security.
- It liaises with the National police CID to investigate some of the threats that have criminal implications e.g. terrorism. And lay the appropriate charges.
- Information gathered by the NIS assists the government in decision –making and planning.
- The NIS in its operations protects human rights issues and the individual freedoms.
Challenges facing the National Intelligence Service.
- Lack of trust from Kenyan citizens. The citizens are reluctant to provide information to NIS as they view it not to be any different from the former Special Branch which was known to be a tool of oppression and torture.
- The body lacks financial credibility and political independence. The extent to which NIS is Neutral in its handling of sensitive affairs is questionable.
- Lack of a clear distinction between accountability and necessary secrecy has sometimes brewed tension. It is difficult to audit the activities of the Body just like any other government organization, due to the nature of its tasks.
- The growing volumes and complexity of communications presents a significant security challenge for national intelligence and government agencies that seek to intercept, process monitor and analyze it.
- External and internal threats for example Al-shabaab militia from Somalia, Merille Warriors from Ethiopia and Al-Qaeda attacks. Internally, the refugees hosted in Kenya and the illegal migrants from Somali and Sudan are also a threat. The problem of drug trafficking is also a threat.
- Continuous capacity building training is a necessity, given the complexity of the task. However this remains a challenge.
- Limited financial and human resources since inadequate funds are allocated to the service. This limits its operations. Sometimes even the staff employed is incompetent.
- Political interference- with the aim of using the service to gain political mileage.
- Ignorance of the Kenyan people on the kind of tasks the service undertakes and the advice it gives to the government. For example, anytime the country has been faced with tension or violence as was the case in 2008, the public seem not to understand the role of NIS.
- The organ does not have implementation powers and is limited in terms of the ability to follow up an implementation of the advice given to the government.
The National Police Service.
It is headed by the Inspector-General who appointed by the president with the approval of the parliament.
He / She exercises independent command over the national police service The National polices Service Consists of;
- The Kenya Police Service, headed by a deputy inspector general also appointed by the president in accordance with the police service commission recommendations.
- The Administration Police Service, headed by a deputy inspector general also appointed by the president in accordance with the police service commission recommendations.
Functions of the National Police Service
- The National Police Service is responsible for the operations of the Kenya police service and the Administration police service in Kenya.
- It has the duty of ensuring the highest standards of professionalism and discipline among its members.
- It has the duty to prevent corruption and promote and practice transparency and accountability.
- It has the duty to ensure that organs operating under it comply with constitutional standards of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- It ensures that the staff is trained to the highest possible standards of competence and integrity and to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms and dignity.
- It fosters and promotes relationships with the broader society.
Functions of the police service (Kenya police service and administration police service).
- The police maintain law and order to ensure that those who break the law are arrested.
- The police protect the law in order to safeguard both life and property.
- It investigates crime and prosecutes offenders in the court.
- The police confines suspected criminals in remand as they await the hearing and judgment of their cases in the court.
- The police regulate traffic and arrests traffic offenders. They also check for defective or unroadworthy vehicles on the road in order to safeguard life.
- Provides assistance and relief services to victims of natural calamities such as floods, fire outbreaks and other emergencies.
- Takes part in national projects such as road construction, bridges, hospitals and other national facilities.
- The police take a leading role during public holidays. They control the crowd and entertain people.
- They liaise closely with international police (Interpol), in order to investigate and arrest international criminals such as terrorists and notorious Somali pirates.
Challenges facing the National Police Service
- The police lack adequate transport and communication equipment necessary to discharge their duties. Lack of facilities such as radios, motor vehicles etc.
- Frequent road accident and congestion on roads add pressure to police work.
- Many members of the public in Kenya have Negative attitude towards the police making it difficult for them to discharge duties.
- Poor conditions of work and remuneration demotivates the police force.
- The police force has been accused of Corruption, sometimes demanding for money from the public. This undermines the maintenance of law and order.
- Easy access to dangerous and sophisticated weapon by criminals makes police work more difficult.
- Terrorism is a serious challenge to the police in Kenya. Some of the terrorists have targeted members of the police force.
- Political interference in the work of the police compromises the integrity of the police force.
- Modernization and advancements in ICT also some with major challenges for the police. Incidents of cyber crimes have escalated in the world, including kenya.
- Lack of regular – in service training for police officers to cope with emerging challenges. This challenge is even compounded by the problem of recruiting of people with low academic qualifications into the force and who can’t deal with sophisticated cases.
The National Police Service Commission.
The structure of the National Police Service Commission.
- A person who is qualified to be appointed as a High Court Judge, and who is appointed by the president.
- Two retired senior police officers, each of whom is appointed by the president.
- Three persons of integrity who have served the public with distinction, each of whom is appointed by the president.
- The Inspector-General of the National Police Service.
- Both Deputy Inspectors-General of the National Police Service.
Functions of the National Police Service Commission
- The Commission recruits and appoints persons to hold or act in offices in the service.
- The commission confirms appointments, and determines promotions and transfers within the National Police Service
- It observes due process, exercises disciplinary control over and removes persons holding or acting in offices within the Service.
Possible solutions to challenges facing the national security organs.
- The security organs have acquired modern telecommunication equipment and vehicles to improve transport and communication in the security force.
- Introduction of the post of public Relations Officer/ Spokesman in the organs to coordinate and disseminate information.
- Raising of qualification requirements for anybody aspiring to join the security organs. This has paved way for employment of university graduates in the forces.
- Introduction of professional training programmes for officers with the aim of improving the effectiveness of the organs of national security.
- The terms and conditions of service for the members of the security organs have been improved
- Community policing has-been introduced to help the security forces to get information from the public through hotlines and suggestion boxes.
- There is increased patrolling by the Kenya navy as far north as Somali border to address maritime defence more seriously.
- The aviation experts have recommended the relocation of Moi Airbase from its current location which id congested.
In 1963 the Prisons Act was enacted to harmonize the treatment and conditions of offenders in
Kenya’s penal institutions. The Act’s milestone provisions were;
- Youth corrective training centres
- Extra-mural and penal employment
- Provision for organization, discipline, power and duties of prisons officers. Correctional services in Kenya are provided by the former Kenya Prisons Service.
- Interactive collaboration with all stakeholders in the administration of criminal justice such as courts of law and members of the National Police Service.
- Improvement in the management and conditions of the prisons, including rehabilitation programmes, with a view to empower prisoners with knowledge and skill, hasten their reintegration into society and empower them to be law abiding citizens upon release.
The functions of Correctional Services in Kenya.
- They Rehabilitate/correct criminals through counseling.
- They deter known criminals from committing other crimes.
- They administer Punishment to sentenced criminals as prescribed by the court rulings-implement the decisions of the courts regarding treatment of prisoners.
- They confine prisoners convicted by the courts of law to ensure that the rights and freedoms of the public are protected.
- They provide vocational training for prisoners in fields that they make them productive citizens of the country at the end of their jail term.
- They keep watch over he behaviors of suspected criminals whose cases are still pending in the law courts.
- They take care of the welfare of prisoners by providing them with the necessary medical attention.
- They confine suspected dissidents who are a threat to state security.
Challenges facing correctional services in Kenya
- The challenge of overcrowding in prisoners on the rise, overcrowding in correctional facilities has been inevitable. This results in poor living and sanitation conditions for inmates.
- Disease outbreak is a very common problem in our prisons mainly caused by inadequate and congested facilities. HIV and AIDS is rampant in prisons
- Mistreatment of inmates by warders. This has once happened at Kingongo when some inmates were allegedly tortured and killed by warders when they attempted to escape.
- Food shortage, inadequate medical facilities and poor clothing further compound the situation in prisons.
- Improvement in the quality of food, medical services and living conditions for prisoners.
- Provision of sufficient beddings and clothing.
- Introduction of extra-mural Penal employment for petty offenders to ease congestion in the prisons.
- There has been supply of new and comfortable motor vehicles for efficient transport in the correctional services department.
- Petty offenders have been constantly released to ease congestion in prisons. For example the release of a record 11,500 prisoners in December 2003. Death row inmates who have also been in jail for over ten years have been released.
- Easing of access to prisons/visits by members of the public/relatives.
- Introduction of public Relations office to disseminate information.
- Streamlining the hearing of cases with a view of keeping prisoners in remand for a short period before sentencing them.
- The national government has also become directly involved the affairs of those receiving correction services.
The two components of the Kenyan Parliament/legislature are;
- The National Assembly.
- The Senate.
The Composition and membership of the National Assembly.
- Two hundred and ninety members, each elected by the registered voters of single member constituencies.
- Forty-seven women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency.
- twelve members nominated by parliamentary political parties according to their proportion of members of the National Assembly to represent special interests including the youth, persons with disabilities and workers.
- The Speaker, who is an ex officio member.
Membership of the Senate
- forty-seven members each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency
- Sixteen women members nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected.
- Two members, being one man and one woman, representing the youth.
- Two members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities.
- The Speaker, who shall be an ex officio member.
Office of parliament.
Speakers and deputy speakers.
Two Speakers, ex-officio member, one for each of the two houses.
Each is elected by members of the respective house from among persons who are qualified to be elected as members of parliament but are not MPs. A deputy speaker is elected from among members of each of the houses by the mps.
Their offices become vacant when;
- A new house of parliament first meets after an election.
- When he/she resigns, dies.
- When a house resolution of two-thirds removes him/her from office.
The speaker has no vote in parliament and in case of a tie, The question is lost. The six speakers in Kenya since independence include;
- 2013-present - Justin Muturi.
- 2008-2013- Kenneth Marende.
- 1993-2007- Francis Ole Kaparo
- 1991- 1992-Professor Jonathan Ngeno
- 1988- 1990-Moses Arap Keino
- 1970 – 1987- Frederick Mbiti Mati.
- 1964-1969-Humphrey Slade became the first speaker of the single house.
- 1963- Muinga Chokwe (speaker of the upper house)
- 1963- Humphrey slade (speaker of the lower house).
Role of the speaker.
- He/she presides over the proceedings of the house and ensures that they are conducted in accordance with the rules of procedure. He enforces standing orders in the house.
- The speaker disciplines members of the house who violate standing orders by ordering such them to leave the house or be barred from attending three house consecutive sittings.
- Maintains order during debates and enforces rules which govern conduct of the house. The speaker interprets the rules of the house.
- He/she gives the MPs chance to contribute towards house debates to ensure that the minority are given a fair hearing before the will of the majority prevails.
- He/she represents and protects the authority of the house.
- He/she organizes and determines the business to be conducted in the house by receiving Bills, motions and questions for discussion in the house, and then prepares an order paper.
- He/she adjourns sittings if the house lacks a quorum.
- He/she keeps and maintains the attendance register and grants permission to MPs to be absent from sessions. MPs going out of the country must inform the speaker of their absence from Kenya.
- He/she heads the National Assembly department and takes charge of its general administration and welfare. He/she is responsible for preserving dignity and order and for the comfort and convenience of the members and staff within parliament buildings.
- He/she chairs the speaker’s committee, the committee of powers and Privileges and the standing Order Committee.
- The speaker issues orders and makes rules for the regulation of visitors to parliament and represent parliament in its relations with foreign countries.
- The speaker chairs the branches of the commonwealth Parliamentary Association, Inter-Parliamentary Union and the Union of African Parliaments. He/she represents Parliament at the commonwealth speaker’s conference.
- He/she declares parliamentary seats vacant and issues writs for general elections and by-elections.
- He/she receives and accepts letters of resignation from members of parliament.
- He/she swears in members of parliament before participating in the House deliberations.
- He, summons parliament to a new when parliamentarians are on recess.
- As part of parliament officers, there is the leader of the majority party and leader of minority party.
- The majority party leader is the person who is the leader in the national assembly of the largest party or coalition of parties.
- The minority party leader is the person who is the leader in the national assembly of the second largest party or coalition of parties.
Role of party leaders.
- They promote and uphold national unity through party activities.
- They enforce adherence to principles of good governance, democracy and upholding human rights and fundamental freedoms and gender equality and equity.
- The leaders work to advance the goals of the party and ensure their programme is carried out to the satisfaction of the party.
- The leader of the majority party has to ensure and maintain support for legislation.
- The leader of the minority party has to protect the rights of the minority.
- The leader of the majority party has to ensure accountability and transparency in the party. And the government.
Functions of parliament in Kenya.
- The elected members of parliament Represents the will of the people, and exercises their sovereignty.
- Parliament considers and passes amendments to the Constitution
- It has powers to alter county boundaries as provided for in the Constitution.
- Parliament has the duty to protect the Constitution and promote the democratic governance of the Republic.
- Parliament is the sole body that has the power to make provision having the force of law in Kenya
Functions of the National Assembly in Kenya.
- The national assembly represents the will of the people and expresses their sovereignty since it represents people from the 290 constituencies and special interest groups.
- The National Assembly deliberates on and resolves issues of concern to the people in the Constituencies and special interest groups.
- The National Assembly enacts legislation that affect the nation-not the county government. For example the money bill may be introduced only in the national assembly.
- The National Assembly determines the allocation of national revenue between the levels of government/it controls revenue and expenditure in the republic.
- It appropriates funds for expenditure by the national government and other national State organs/ it exercises oversight over national revenue and its expenditure.
- The National Assembly reviews the conduct in office of the President, the Deputy President and other State officers/It may initiate the process of removing them from office.
- The National Assembly approves declarations of war and extensions of states of emergency.
Functions of the Senate in Kenya
- The Senate represents the counties, and serves to protect the interests of the counties and their governments.
- The Senate participates in the law-making function of Parliament by considering, debating and approving Bills concerning counties.
- The Senate determines the allocation of national revenue among counties/It exercises oversight over national revenue allocated to the county governments.
- The Senate participates in the oversight of State officers by considering and determining any resolution to remove the President or Deputy President from office.
The process of law making in Kenya.
This is the process of enacting new laws or amending the existing ones.
The two conditions for the start of a law making process are
- The presence of a speaker or his deputy.
- A quorum of fifty members of the national assembly.
- A quorum of 15 members of the senate.
- A bill is a proposed piece of legislation (law). Bills originate in the National Assembly.
- A Bill not concerning county government is considered only in the National Assembly, and passed in accordance with the Standing Orders of the Assembly.
- A Bill concerning county government may originate in the National Assembly or the Senate, and is passed in accordance with the Standing Orders of the Houses.
a) Public Bill- these deal with matters of public policy that affect all citizens of Kenya. They are also categorized into two;
- Government Bill-introduced by cabinet secretaries.
- Private member’s Bill.-introduced by back-benchers in the national assembly
This a bill that has provisions dealing with taxes, payment of charges by public, appropriation , receipt ,custody or issue of public money, raising or guaranteeing of any loan, its repayment or other matters relating to such monies.
- The government departments and public offices to be affected by a bill consult first before it is drafted. A bill is then drafted by the government draftsman (the parliamentary counsel) in the attorney general’s chambers.
- When the cabinet is satisfied with the draft, it is published in the Kenya gazette at least fourteen days before it is introduced to parliament. The main purpose of this is to give the public chance to view and criticize the Bill. The draft proposal is also presented to parliament to give members chance to research on it on preparation for a debate in the future.
- A Bill is first introduced by any member or committee of the relevant House of Parliament, but a money Bill may be introduced only in the National Assembly.
- Before either House considers a Bill, the Speakers of the National Assembly and Senate jointly resolve any question as to whether it is a Bill concerning counties and, if it is, whether it is a special or an ordinary Bill.
- When any Bill concerning county government has been passed by one House of Parliament, the Speaker of that House refers it to the Speaker of the other House.
- If both Houses pass the Bill in the same form, the Speaker of the House in which the Bill originated shall, within seven days, refer the Bill to the President for assent.
- The National Assembly may amend or veto a special Bill that has been passed by the Senate only by a resolution supported by at least two-thirds of the members of the Assembly.
- Within fourteen days after receipt of a Bill, the President assents to the Bill; or refer the Bill back to Parliament for reconsideration by Parliament, noting any reservations that the President has concerning the Bill.
- Parliament may amend the bill in light of the president’s reservations or pass the bill a second time without amendments.
- If parliament amends the Bill after consideration of the president’s reservations, the speaker must resubmit the bill to the president for assent.
- Parliament could pass the bill without amendments or with amendments that do not fully accommodate the president’s reservations if supported by;
- Two-thirds of the members of the national assembly, and
- Two-thirds of the delegations in the senate, if the bill requires approval of the senate.
- The bill then has to be submitted by the appropriate speaker to the president for assent within seven days.
- If the president fails to assent the bill within seven days, the bill will be considered acted upon and therefore considered null and void.
The process of the bill coming into force as a law.
Sections of it may also be published in the local dailies so as to publicize the law to all residents in the country.
The Act of parliament then comes into force as a law on the fourteenth day after its publication in the Kenya Gazette unless the Act specifies a different date or time when it will come into force. The law then binds everybody in the country.
Special Bills concerning county governments.
Ordinary Bills concerning counties.
A mediation committee refers to a committee comprising equal number of members from both houses appointed by the speaker with the task of formulating a version of the Bill that both Houses could pass.
Both houses will then vote to pass or reject the formulated version. The Bill is considered rejected if the committee fails to reach an agreed version within 30 days.
If the second House passes it in an amended form, the bill must be taken back to the originating house for consideration. If the originating house passes it as amended; it is referred to the president for assent within seven days. If it rejects it, it is referred to the mediation committee.
Meaning of parliamentary supremacy
How parliamentary supremacy is upheld in Kenya.
- It is the only Body that makes and repeals laws. Technically, a constitutional court can overrule an act of parliament, but parliament can change the law to prevent that from happening.
- Parliament can remove the president from office by impeachment. A member of the national assembly, with the support of at least a third of all the members, may move an impeachment motion.
- Parliament through an amendment of the constitution, can limit the powers of the executive. It can also pass a vote of no confidence in the government, compelling the president and his/her cabinet secretaries to resign.
- Cabinet secretaries are accountable to the parliament for their activities in the ministries under their control. They have to answer questions in parliament about their ministries.
- Bills prepared by the cabinet have to be legislated by parliament, which is a law making body.
- Parliament has to approve government expenditure. The Cabinet secretary in charge of Finance annually presents the budget to parliament for approval by MPs. - the public accounts committee scrutinizes government expenditure. The Auditor and controller-General check the expenditure of all ministries and reports to parliament.
Ways in which parliamentary supremacy in Kenya is limited.
- Parliament cannot make laws that contradict traditional customs and practices of the people, unless people want change.
- Parliament cannot pass a law that contradicts the constitution. /the supremacy of the constitution is upheld.
- Increased power of the cabinet can reduce parliament’s authority. If the cabinet is too powerful, it may influence parliamentary decisions.
- The president can limit the supremacy by making independent decisions. For example, the president has emergency powers which sidestep parliamentary supremacy. State of Emergency does not follow parliamentary directions.
- Parliament supremacy can be limited by the application of international laws. Parliament may be forced to ratify a law out of necessity; failure to ratify an international law may invite punitive actions on the country.
- Delegated legislation may also limit its powers, i.e. the operation of the county government by-laws may limit parliamentary supremacy although national legislation prevails over county legislation.
- Referendum may be used to decide important issues as opposed to parliamentary decisions.
Merits of parliamentary supremacy/parliamentary system.
- It increases harmony, since the legislature and the executive work together. This is realized when MPs, who represent the electorate, bring their views to the executive (cabinet secretaries) in the legislature.
- This system allows ordinary citizens to participate in the governing process by electing their representatives to articulate their views on issues of national interest.
- It ensures a responsible and responsive government since the cabinet is controlled by parliament in its actions. Cabinet cannot ignore public opinion, since people choose the MPs. Such could risk a vote of no confidence.
- It instills a sense of responsibility in the executive since cabinet secretaries have to sit and answer questions in the house.
- The system legitimizes actions taken by the government, particularly when such actions originate from recommendations passed by the MPs- the people’s representatives.
- A parliamentary system gives citizens a chance to participate in national political leadership through presenting themselves for election as members of parliament or county assemblies.
- It provides for regular elections, giving the electorate the chance to reject non-performing MPs and elect others who can perform.
- Parliament is a training ground for effective leaders; the system enables Kenyans of ability and experience to prove their worth in parliamentary debates.
Demerits of parliamentary supremacy.
- It only works well where there are two parties; with one ruling while the other in opposition. In a case where there are more than two parties. A coalition government may be formed and this form of government is sometimes weak and unstable. Also where the legislature is dominated by one party, the cabinet tends to be dictatorial.
- Such government may not be effective in times of emergencies. The head of government has to consult with the cabinet and the legislature before acting.
- It weakens the executive. It compels the cabinet secretaries to spend most of their time in parliament instead of dealing with matters of their ministries.
“Terminative Role of Parliament” in Kenya.
Functions of the Parliamentary Service Commission
- The Commission is responsible for providing services and facilities to ensure the efficient and effective functioning of Parliament
- It is responsible for constituting offices in the house.
- It prepares annual estimates of expenditure of the parliamentary service and submitting them to the National Assembly for approval, and exercising budgetary control over the service.
- It is responsible for undertaking, singly or jointly with other relevant organizations, programmes to promote the ideals of parliamentary democracy.
- It performs other functions necessary for the well-being of the members and staff of Parliament; or prescribed by national legislation.
a) The parliament and the legislative assemblies in the county assemblies.
b) The national executive and the executive structures in the county government.
c) The judiciary and independent tribunals.
The process of National government formation.
The three arms of government operate independently and work on checks and balances
The executive is responsible for running the country by developing and implementing policies that lead to national development.
Even after dissolution of parliament after its expiry, the cabinet exists until a new one is appointed. This is to ensure that there is no power vacuum and that government operations continue.
Role of government in Kenya
- Government ensures that social and economic development is undertaken – by putting in place policies to improve schools, hospitals, agriculture, trade, housing and industry.
- It upholds human rights and freedoms and ensures that all citizens live in peace and harmony through the administration of justice and maintaining law and order.
- Government organizes an effective defence force to protect the country from internal and external aggression.
- It also has a duty to establish sound foreign policies to promote international cooperation with other countries by setting up foreign embassies and high commissions.
- It has a duty to foster national unity by recognizing diversity and ensuring equitable sharing of national and local resources.
- Government protects and promotes the interests and rights of the minorities and marginalized communities.
A county government consists of;
- Members (one member per ward) elected by the registered voters of the wards in a general election in Kenya.
- The Speaker, who is an ex officio member.
- Members appointed by the county governor, with the approval of the county assembly, from among persons who are not members of the assembly.
The election of a county governor.
Each candidate for election as county governor nominates a person as his/her running mate to be the deputy governor.
Removal of a County Governor from office.
- Gross violation of the Constitution or any other law.
- When the county governor commits a crime under national or international law.
- When the governor abuses office or is accused of gross misconduct.
- When he/she suffers from Physical or mental incapacity that hinders performance of the functions of office.
- Resigns, in writing, addressed to the speaker of the county assembly.
- Is convicted of an offence punishable by imprisonment for at least twelve months.
- Ceases to be eligible to be elected as a county governor.
- Is removed from office under the constitution.
THE COUNTY ASSEMBLY
A county assembly consists of
- Members (one member per ward) elected by the registered voters of the wards in a general election.
- Members of special seats (no more than two-thirds of the membership of the assembly is of the same gender.)
- Members of marginalized groups, including persons with disabilities and the youth.
- The Speaker, who is an ex officio member.
The functions of a county assembly.
- County assemblies make laws for the effective performance of the county government.
- It acts as a watchdog over the county executive committee.
- It receives and approves plans and policies for managing and exploiting the county’s resources, and, developing and managing the infrastructure and institutions.
Conditions that must be met by a person seeking for election to a County Assembly.
- The person must be a registered as a voter in his/her county.
- The person must have been a Kenyan citizen for atleast ten years before the elections.
- The person must be able to read and write in English and Kiswahili.
- He or she must be of sound mind.
- The person must be of unquestionable morals and ethics
- If a public officer, he/she must relinquish his/her public work.
- The person must be nominated by a political party
- If he/she is an independent candidate, must be supported by at least five hundred registered voters in the Ward concerned.
- The person must not have been declared bankrupt.
- The person must not have served a sentence of imprisonment of more than six months.
- The person must not have misused or abused a State or public office.
Vacancy in the office of member of county assembly may happen if the member;
- Is absent from eight sittings of the assembly without permission, in writing, of the speaker of the assembly and is unable to offer satisfactory explanation for the absence.
- Resigns, in writing, addressed to the speaker of the county assembly.
- After being elected to the assembly as a member of a political party, he/she resigns from the party, or is deemed to have resigned from the party, or after being an independent candidate, the member joins a political party.
- Gets to the end of the term of the assembly
- Becomes disqualified for election after the court rules in favour of an election petition made against him/her.
Speaker of County Assembly
Structure and functions of the national government.
THE ELECTORAL PROCESS:
Role of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission in Kenya.
- The Commission is responsible for conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any elective body or office.
- It is responsible for continuous registration of citizens as voters and regular revision of the voters’ roll.
- It Prescribes and reviews electoral boundaries in constituencies and wards at intervals of not less than eight years, and not more than twelve years. The constitution provides for 290 constituencies established under the following considerations;
- Community of interest, historical, economic and cultural ties
- Geographical features and urban centres
- Means of communication
- It is responsible for regulation of the process by which parties nominate candidates for elections.
- The commission is responsible for settlement of electoral disputes, including disputes relating to or arising from nominations. However it does not handle election petitions and disputes subsequent to the declaration of election results.
- The registration of candidates for election.
- Educate/informs the public on the requirements for voters and contestants
- Facilitation of the observation, monitoring and evaluation of elections.
- It is responsible for regulation of the amount of money that may be spent by or on behalf of a candidate or party in respect of any election.
- Identifies, appoints and trains election officials.
- Verifies and announces election results
- Prepares ballot papers and other election materials.
- Identifies and recommends polling stations.
Types of elections.
- General elections. These are elections held after every five years. Initially they were meant to be held on the second Tuesday in August on the fifth year. But this has since been altered due to the delay in new constitution implementation process
- By elections. These are elections of new leaders to fill vacant seats left following deaths of occupants, resignation or annulment of their election through successful petition in court.
- Re –run elections- this are elections held exactly one month after the general elections involving only two presidential candidates in case of no clear winner in the general election.
Why Kenyans elect their representatives to parliament every five years.
- It is a constitutional requirement that Kenyans elect MPs after every five years.
- The elections give Kenyans a chance to practice their democratic right of choosing their representatives.
- It enables Kenyans control their elected representatives i.e. the fear of losing election ensures that elected representative serve the electorate well.
- It enables Kenyans choose between representatives and between parties that express the policies that they agree with.
- Through periodic elections, Kenyans are able to participate in activities of their government The following methods have been used in elections in Kenya.
- Mololongo (queuing)
- Secret ballot.
THE 2007 ELECTIONS IN KENYA
The Kreigler commission that was formed to look into the causes of the 2008 violence reported the following weaknesses.
- Irregularities in the voter register which excluded 30% of the potential voters the register contained names of deceased persons. Women who had attained the voting age were found to be under represented.
- Imbalanced distribution of registered voters among constituencies. Some constituencies like Embakasi had over 200, 000 registered voters while others like Mandera East had less than 20,000 registered voters.
- Rampant cheating where in some cases the votes cast were more than 100% of the registered voters.
- Existence of exclusive strongholds with some electoral areas being out of bounds for some political parties.
- There was a defective system of voter tallying and relaying of information. Some of those declared winners finally lost their seats through election petitions.
- Incompetence of the ECK officials with even the chairman stating clearly that it was impossible to establish who won the elections.
- The results relayed sometimes faced integrity queries. Some officials relayed cooked results.
- The composition of the ECK raised suspicion especially among the opposition.
The principles that govern the electoral process in Kenya.
- All citizens have the freedom to exercise their political rights
- Not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender.
- Persons with disabilities must receive fair representation.
- There must be universal suffrage based on the aspiration for fair representation and equality of vote.
- The elections should be free and fair and will be by secret ballot, free from violence, intimidation, improper influence or corruption.
- The elections will be conducted by an independent body, transparent; and administered in an impartial, neutral, efficient, accurate and accountable manner.
Legislation on Elections.
- The constitution of Kenya-that is a sovereign state and republic with the people owning all sovereign power directly or through democratically elected leaders.
- The national assembly and presidential elections Act- it outlines the steps to be followed in the registration of voters, nomination of candidates, polling and counting of votes and other related processes.
- The local government act- it gives the procedure and rules for conducting elections for county, municipal and town councils.
- The electoral offences Act. – it lays out the election offences like bribing of voters, threatening voters, voting more than once or causing violence on polling day or during campaigns.
- One must be an adult citizen at least 18 years old.
- He/she must be a Kenyan citizen in possession of an identity card or passport.
- He/she must be a registered voter.
- He/she must been registered at only one registration centre
- One must not be an insane person.
- He/she must have been convicted of an election offence during the Preceding five years.
Voter and civic education.
Civic education is aimed at conveying knowledge to the citizens about the country’s political system and context. For example, information about the system of government, the nature and powers of the elective offices, to be filled in an election.
Nomination of candidates.
- Party nominations
- IEBC nominations
- The person should not be a member of a registered political party and should not have been a member for at least three months immediately before the date of elections
- He/she must be a registered voter.
- He/ she must satisfy the educational, moral and ethical requirements as per the constitution or act of parliament.
- In case of national assembly elections, he/she must attract the support of at least 1000 registered voters in the constituency.
- In case of the senate, one must attract the support of at least 2000 registered voters in the county.
Conditions that must be met by one wishing to be elected Member of Parliament.
- A person is eligible for election as a Member of Parliament if the person is registered as a voter.
- If the person satisfies any educational, moral and ethical requirements prescribed by the Constitution or by an Act of Parliament.
- if he is nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate who is supported in the case of election to the National Assembly, by at least one thousand Registered voters in the constituency; or in the case of election to the Senate, by at least two thousand registered voters in the county.
Disqualifications for one from being elected a Member the National Assembly.
- If the person is a State officer or other public officer, other than a Member of Parliament.
- If a person has, at any time within the five years immediately preceding the date of election, held office as a member of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission.
- If a person has not been a citizen of Kenya for at least the ten years immediately preceding the date of election.
- If a person is a member of a county assembly.
- If one is of unsound mind.
- If one is declared bankrupt.
- Is subject to a sentence of imprisonment of at least six months, as at the date of registration as a candidate, or at the date of election.
- If one is found, in accordance with any law, to have misused or abused a State office or public office.
An elected MP may lose his/her seat in parliament under the following circumstances.
- When he/she ceases to be a Kenyan citizen.
- He /she receive a jail sentence exceeding 6 months or death penalty from a court of law.
- When he/she resign, through writing to the speaker, from the national assembly.
- When he/she is declared bankrupt by a court of law.
- When he/she is found to be of unsound mind.
- When he/she resigns from the sponsoring political party or as an MP.
- When he/she fails to attend 8 consecutive sessions during the life of a particular parliament without permission from the speaker.
- When he/she defects from one party to another.
- When he/she having been elected to parliament as an independent candidate, decides to join a political party.
The returning officer, the election officer in the constituency then tallies the total votes from all the polling stations and announces per candidate in the constituency. He/she declares the elected mp for the constituency and councilors of each ward. He announces the number of votes per candidate for the presidential elections.
The IEBC then declares the validly elected candidates for the presidential, National Assembly and Senate.
Factors likely to interfere with free and fair elections in Kenya.
- Ethnic loyalties/polarization/Party loyalties. People may be compelled to vote along tribal lines, in total disregard of the leadership records or accomplishment of those they elect.
- Illiteracy of some voters. This curtails their ability to mark the ballot papers correctly.
- Inadequate civic education. The lack of adequate sensitization of the voters can lead to ineffective election process.
- Violence. Harassment of voters by rival groups/ Insecurity/fear instilled in candidates. All forms of chaos makes accessibility to voting stations by voters difficult.
- Corruption of candidates and their supporters. This is through bribing of voters to vote for certain candidates.
- Incompetent election officials. Some election officials are partisan and therefore unable to preside over elections competently.
- Rigging. On many occasions aspiring candidates or their agents have complained of rigging.
- Transport difficulties. The electoral process in Kenya has been faced with the problem of Inaccessibility of some polling stations
- Communication problems. During the voting day, some remote areas experience communication problems between the headquarters’ and the polling stations.
- Extreme weather conditions. Delivery of polling materials has sometimes been affected by bad weather.
- Gender insensitivity. For a long time, women have not been given a fair share in the electoral process in Kenya.
- Use and misuse of mass media. Some politicians own some media houses, sometimes they have subjected them to misuse. There has been also the problem of imbalance when it comes to media coverage of elections.
Electoral guidelines and regulations that may help minimize irregularities.
- Whatever voting method is used, the system must be simple, accurate, verifiable, secure, accountable and transparent.
- The votes cast must be counted, tabulated and the results announced promptly by the presiding officer at each polling station.
- The results from the polling stations must be openly and accurately collated and promptly announced by the returning officer.
- Appropriate structures and mechanisms to eliminate electoral malpractices must be in place, including the safekeeping of electoral materials.
- Electoral petitions, other than in a presidential election, must be filed within 28 days after the declaration of the election results by the IEBC.
- Service of a petition may be direct or by advertisement in a newspaper with national circulation.
- District election coordinators. - Officials responsible for all electoral matters at district level. They act as a link between people at the grassroots level and the IEBC headquarters.
- Registration officers. –they register voters in each constituency and issue them with voter’s card.
Returning officers. – are in charge of elections in a constituency which has several polling stations. They perform the following functions:
- They set up polling booths in each polling station.
- They receive nomination papers from prospective candidates
- They distribute ballot papers and boxes to polling stations.
- They supervise the voting and counting of votes in the constituency.
- They appoint the presiding officers in each polling station.
- Announcing the results of the elections.
Presiding officers. –in charge of polling stations. And perform the following duties;
- They conduct the polls in an orderly, free and fair manner at the polling station.
- They ensure that every eligible voter votes only once.
- They help illiterate voters mark ballot papers.
- They seal the ballot boxes and transfer them to a central point in the polling station where the votes will be counted.
- They maintain law and order at polling stations and report any irregularities to the returning officer.
- They ensure that there is impartiality in conducting.
- Polling clerks. On the polling day, they assist and guide voters, particularly those who are illiterate.
- Security personnel. –police officers maintain law and order during the polling and counting of votes.
- Counting clerks. –they sort out ballots and then count the ballots per candidate.
- Party agents. – they represent candidates or political parties in a polling station or counting hall to ensure that the polling and counting procedures are transparent , orderly , free and fair.
- Observers. –these are neutral persons who make observations and write reports on the polling and counting exercise to indicate if the elections were free and fair or not.
Jomo Kenyatta was born Kamau wa Ngengi to Ngengi wa Muigai and Wambui in Gatundu, Kiambu on 20th October 1891. His father died while Kamau was very young was adopted by his uncle Ngengi, who inherited his mother. When his mother died during childbirth, young Kamau moved from Ng'enda to Muthiga to live with his medicine man grandfather Kũngũ wa Magana.
He joined the Church of Scotland Mission (CSM) at Thogoto, as a resident pupil. In 1912, having completed his mission school education, he became an apprentice carpenter.
In 1914, he converted to Christianity, assuming the name Johnstone Kamau. He left the mission later that year to seek employment as an apprentice carpenter on a sisal farm in Thika. To avoid forced recruitment as WWI soldier, he lived with Maasai relatives in Narok, where he worked as a clerk for an Asian contractor. He took to wearing a traditional beaded belt known as a 'Kenyatta', a Swahili word which means 'light of Kenya'.
In 1922 Kamau adopted the name Jomo Kenyatta, and began working for the Nairobi Municipal Council Public Works Department as a store clerk and water-meter reader.
Marriage and family.
In 1942, he married Edna Clarke and Peter Magana was born in 1943. In 1951 Kenyatta married Ngina Muhoho, daughter of Chief Muhoho and was independent Kenya's First Lady, when Kenyatta was elected President.
Kenyatta and politics.
He also made a presentation on Kikuyu land problems before the Hilton Young Commission in Nairobi in the same year.
In February 1929 Kenyatta was dispatched to London to represent the KCA in discussions with the Colonial Office. He wrote several letters and in the letter published in The Times in March 1930 set out five points:
- The security of land tenure and the return of the land taken by European settlers.
- Improved educational opportunities for Black Africans.
- The repeal of Hut and poll taxes.
- Representation for Black Africans in the Legislative Council.
- Freedom to pursue traditional customs (such as female genital mutilation)
Kenyatta and pan-Africanism.
Kenyatta and the struggle for independence.
From 1948 to 1951 he toured and lectured around the country. He also published My People of Kikuyu and The Life of Chief Wang'ombe, a history shading into legend.
The Mau Mau Rebellion began in 1951 and KAU was banned, and a state of emergency was declared on 20 October 1952. Kenyatta was arrested in October 1952 and indicted with five others (Bildad Kaggia, Fred Kubai, Paul Ngei, Achieng Oneko and Kung’u Karumba).
At Kapenguria trials lasting 5 years, Rawson Macharia who was the main prosecution witness later confessed that he had been bribed to give false information about Kenyatta. The defense was led by British barrister D.N. Pritt. The court led by Judge R.S. Thacker, sentenced Kenyatta and his team on 8 April 1953 to seven years imprisonment with hard labour and indefinite restriction thereafter.
Kenyatta remained in prison at Lokitaung in north western Kenya until April 1959, after which he was detained in Lodwar.
On 14 May 1960, he was elected KANU President in absentia. In 1960, Ambu Patel, a follower of Mahatma Gandhi formed the ‘Release Jomo Kenyatta Committee’. On 23rd march 1961, Kenyan leaders visited him in Lodwar. On 11 April 1961, he was moved to Maralal with daughter Margaret. On 14 August 1961, he was released.
Elections were then held in May 1963 and KANU beat KADU by winning 83 seats out of 124. On 1 June 1963, Kenyatta became prime minister of the autonomous Kenyan government. On 1 June 1964, Kenyatta became an executive President following amendment of the Constitution to make Kenya a republic.
His marriage of Colonial Chief's daughters, his post independence Kikuyu allies mainly being former colonial collaborators, and his short shrift treatment of former Mau Mau fighters after he came to power, all strongly suggest he had scant regard for the Mau Mau
Kenyatta and nation building
In the 1969 elections, Kenyatta banned the only other party, KPU led by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, detained its leaders, and called elections in which only KANU was allowed to participate. Kenyatta made use of detention, ethnic loyalties, and careful appointment of government jobs to maintain his commanding position in Kenya’s political system.
Kenyatta was again re-elected unopposed as President in 1974. He remained president until his death four years later in 1978.
Sickness and Death
On 14 August 1978, he hosted his entire family, including his son Peter Magana who flew in from Britain with his family, to a reunion in Mombasa. On 22 August 1978, he died in Mombasa due to ‘old age’. He was buried on 31 August 1978 at a mausoleum on Parliament grounds.
Kenyatta’s tenure as president featured the following problems.
- There was a great split within KANU due to his land policy. Kenyatta compromised with the whites over their property. The Land-buying companies formed to buy European farms favoured one community.
- From the onset of independence, KADU advocated for Majimboism and therefore opposing national unity.
- The 1966 term featured border conflicts with Somalia, and more political opposition. He made the Kikuyu-led KANU practically the only political party of Kenya. He placed several of his Kikuyu tribesmen in most of the powerful state and security offices and posts.
- Increasing loss of confidence in his government suspected of complicity in murders of Pio Gama Pinto, Tom Mboya and J.M. Kariuki. MP and Lawyer C.M.G. Argwings-Kodhek and former Kadu Leader and Minister Ronald Ngala.
- Poverty, ignorance and disease were serious problems in Kenya in the early years of independence.
- There was shortage of manpower since the inherited educational policy left Africans ill-equipped for skilled employment.
- Kenya did not have adequate funds to provide for is development needs.
- There was a serious problem of poor transport and communication.
- The existence of Banditry (Shifta Menace) in north-eastern kenya also shifted attention from economic development.
- Mzee Jomo Kenyatta is credited with leading Kenya to independence and setting up the country as a relatively prosperous capitalist state.
- He oversaw a peaceful land reform process, oversaw the setting up of the institutions of independent Kenya, and also oversaw Kenya's admission into the United Nations.
- During his reign, the country was reasonably well governed, peaceful and stable, the economy developed and grew rapidly and attracted high levels of foreign investment, and a black Kenyan professional and business middle class was established.
- Kenyatta failed to mould Kenya, being its founding father, into a homogeneous multi-ethnic state. the country remains a de facto confederation of competing tribes.
- His resettlement of many Kikuyu tribesmen in the country's Rift Valley province is widely considered to have been done unfairly.
- His authoritarian style, with elements of patronage, favouritism, tribalism and/or nepotism drew criticism and dissent, and set a bad example followed by his successors.
- He had the Constitution radically amended to expand his powers, consolidating executive power.
- He was also been criticized for ruling through a postcolonial clique of his relatives, mainly African Kikuyu colonial collaborators from Kiambu, while giving scant reward to the real fighters for Kenya's independence.
- Kenyatta has further been criticized for encouraging the culture of wealth accumulation by public officials their office influence, thereby deeply entrenching corruption in Kenya.
- His policies are also criticized for leading to a large income and development inequality gap in the country favouring mainly Nairobi and the Country's Central Highlands, over others.
In 1955, he attended Ruskin College, Oxford, where he studied industrial management. In 1956, he returned to Kenya and joined politics at the height of Mau Mau uprising.
In 1960, Mboya together with others formed KANU. As Secretary General of KANU, Mboya headed the Kenyan Lancaster House delegation.
After Kenya's independence on 1 June 1963, Mboya was elected as an MP for Nairobi Central Constituency (today: Kamukunji Constituency) and became Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs.
As Minister for Economic Planning and Development, he wrote "Sessional Paper 10" (adopted by Parliament in 1964), which provided a model of government based on African values.
He was gunned down on July 5, 1969 on Moi Avenue, aged 38 years.
Mboya left a wife and five children. He is buried in a mausoleum located in Rusinga Island which was built in 1970.
Ngala was born in 1922 at Gotani in Giriama country. In 1929 the family moved to Vishakani near Kaloleni, which was to be Ngala's home for the rest of his life. Ngala attended Alliance High School and Makerere University College where he gained a teaching diploma. He worked as a teacher and later became headmaster of Mbale Secondary School in Taita-Taveta. In 1952 he was transferred to Buxton School in Mombasa where he served as the principal.
Ngala was elected to the Legislative Council in 1957 to represent the Coast Rural constituency. He formed the African Elected Members Organization (AEMO) together with other elected African MPs.
at a meeting held on May 14, 1960 in Kiambu he was elected as the KANU's treasurer, a position he declined to take. At a meeting held in Ngong on June 25, 1960, the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) was formed with Ngala as its leader, in opposition to KANU.
At the 1961 legislative council elections Ngala formed the first African government. Ngala became Leader of Government Business and later Prime Minister.
On 12 November 1964 The leaders of KADU, including Ronald Ngala, Masinde Muliro and Daniel arap Moi decided to dissolve KADU and join KANU.
Ngala in the post independence period
Ronald Ngala was made Minister of Cooperatives and Social Services in the Kenyatta government. He went on to become one of KANU’s vice-presidents at the 1966 Limuru Conference. Ngala remained active in the government until he died in a road accident in 1972. The circumstances of Ngala's death in 1972 were suspicious.
Daniel Arap Moi
Daniel Arap Moi was born on 2nd September, 1924 in Kurieng'wo in Sacho Location of Baringo County, raised by his mother Kimoi Chebii following the early death of his father. his elder brother Tuitoek played a guardian role, influencing him to go to school at an early age.
In 1934, Moi joined African Inland Mission School, Kabartonjo. On October 20th 1936 he was baptised Daniel. In 1938, he transferred to African Inland Mission, Kapsabet and later to Government African School, Kapsabet where he was a school captain and a captain of the football team. He attended Tambach Teachers Training College. He worked as a teacher from 1946 until 1955. He was posted as a Head teacher at Kabarnet where he studied privately and passed London Matriculation Examinations. He was promoted in 1949 to the rank of P2 and transferred to Tambach Government African School as a Teacher Trainer.
President Moi married Helena (Lena) Bommet in 1950 and they were blessed with 8 children; 3 daughters and five sons, (Jennifer, Doris and adopted daughter June; Jonathan, Raymond, John Mark, Philip and Gideon). But they separated in 1974, before his presidency.. Lena died in 2004.
Moi’s long political career.
In October 1955 the Electoral College selected Moi from a list of eight nominated candidates to fill a vacancy left by Joseph ole Tameno who resigned from the unofficial benches of the legislative council. In 1957, when elections were held, for LEGCO, Moi won with a landslide against Justus Ole Tipis and later joined AEMO. In 1959, he led AEMO members to visit Jomo Kenyatta in detention in Lodwar.
In 1960 he founded the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) with Ronald Ngala to challenge the Kenya African National Union (KANU) led by Jomo Kenyatta.
Moi was among the Kenyan delegation under the auspices of KADU who went to the London Constitutional talks of June 1960.
Moi was elected to the Kenyan parliament in 1963 from Baringo North. Since 1966 until his retirement in 2002 he served as the Baringo Central MP and only served as a vice-president from 1967 until 1978 when he became the president.
In 1976, the Kiambu Mafia, tried to infamously change the constitution to prevent the vice-president automatically assuming power in the event of the president's death. However, Kenyatta withstood the political pressure and safeguarded Moi's position.
When Jomo Kenyatta died on 22 August 1978, Moi became president. Political realities dictated that he would continue to beholden to the Kenyatta system which he had inherited. On 1 August 1982, fate played into Moi's hands when forces loyal to his government defeated an attempted coup d'état by Air Force officers led by Hezekiah Ochuka.
Moi took the opportunity to dismiss political opponents and consolidate his power reducing the influence of Kenyatta's men in the cabinet. He appointed supporters to key roles and changed the constitution to establish a de jure single-party state.
Moi, his regime now faced an economy stagnating under rising oil prices and falling prices for agricultural commodities, singlehandedly convinced the KANU delegates at a conference at Kasarani in December, 1991 over the restoration of a multi-party system
in 1992 and 1997, marred by political violence and absence of an effective and organized opposition, Moi had no difficulty in winning, skillfully exploited Kenya's mix of ethnic tensions. Mwai Kibaki was elected President on 29 December 2002 and Moi handed over power to him.
Moi After retirement.
After leaving office in December 2002, Moi lived in retirement but still retained some popularity with the masses. He spoke out against a proposal for a new constitution in 2005. On 25 July 2007, Kibaki appointed Moi as special peace envoy to Sudan.
On 28 August 2007, Moi announced his support for Kibaki's re-election.
Moi owns the Kiptagich Tea Factory, established in 1979, which in 2009 the factory was under threat of being closed down by the government during the Mau Forest evictions.
Challenges and achievements
The major test to His leadership was in August 1982 when a detachment of Airforce soldiers attempted to overthrow his government but they were crushed.
- Moi served as Chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) for two consecutive terms - 1981 and 1982.
- He has also been involved in mediation between various conflicting sides in Uganda, Congo, Somalia, Chad, Sudan, Mozambique, Eritrea/Ethiopia, Rwanda, and Burundi etc.
- He served as Chairman of Preferential Trade Area (1989-1990), COMESA (1999-2000), E.A. Co-operation (1996- 2002) and Inter-Governmental Authority on Development IGAD (1993 - 1998).
- He has travelled widely, being called upon as a president to provide peace keeping forces in troubled parts of the world like Chad, Uganda, Namibia, Mozambique, Iran/Iraq, Kuwait, Yugoslavia, Liberia, Morocco, Angola, Serbia/ Croatia, D.R. Congo, Sierra Leone and East Timor.
- Moi has supported the formation of regional economic bodies to increase trade and as a means for the developing countries to have a united voice in the global economy.
- On 30th December 2002, Moi handed over power to Mwai Kibaki in a peaceful transition that followed the Narc victory over Kanu in the December 2002 General Elections.
- Currently, Moi is setting up a foundation through which he hopes to participate in solving conflicts in the horn of African and the Great Lakes Region as well as help rehabilitate street children and those orphaned by HIV/aids.
Jaramogi Ajuma Oginga Odinga (Oct.1911 – Jan 20, 1994).
Oginga Odinga was born at Nyamira Kang’o, in Sakwa location in Bondo, in October, 1911. Christened Obadiah Adonijah, he later renounced his Christian names and became known as Ajuma Oginga Odinga.
Young Odinga began his formal education in 1926, at Maranda. He sat for his common entrance examination in 1929. He Attended Maseno School where he sat his STD 8 exams in 1934. He enrolled at Alliance High School in 1935 upto, finishing his formal education with a diploma in education from Makerere University College in 1939. From 1940 to 1942 Odinga taught mathematics at the Church Missionary Society school, Maseno. From 1943 to 1946 he was headmaster of the Maseno Veterinary School.
Odinga and Economic and social independence
In 1944, he quit teaching and formed the Bondo Thrift Association in 1945.
In 1947, he founded the Luo Thrift and Trading Corporation for commercial and political purposes, serving as its managing director until 1962. LUTATCO build their first shop, Maseno Store, posho mills at Ngiya, Bondo and Dudi. The company owned Ramogi Press in Nairobi in 1947, publishing a Dholuo newspaper, Ramogi, edited by Achieng Oneko, Odinga’s student in
Maseno School. They also published Nyanza Times, Radioposta, Sauti ya Mwafrika and
Mumenyereri. Between 1956 and 1957, they built Ramogi House and Africa House Kisumu. He helped to form the Luo Union, which brought together all the Luo people. His efforts
earned him admiration and recognition among the Luo, who revered him as Ker – a title previously held by the fabled classical Luo king, Ramogi Ajwang, who reigned 400 years before him. Odinga became known as Jaramogi (man of the people of Ramogi).
Odinga travelled across the major towns in East Africa raising funds that resulted in the building of the Ofafa Memorial Hall in Kisumu in 1957 which became the headquarters of the Luo Union.
Odinga’s political contributions (1948-1963)
In 1947, he won the central Nyanza African District Council elections. In 1948 he joined Kenya African Union (KAU) having been influenced by a Luo Union and KAU leader, Ambrose Ofafa. In 1957 and became the political spokesman of the Luo. The same year, he was elected member of the Legislative Council for the Central Nyanza constituency. He became the chairperson of AEMO formed by the eight African elected Members of the LEGCO. He with Mboya and Kiano formed the Kenya Independence Movement after AEMO began to disintegrate.
After the 1960 Lancaster House Conference, attended by a unified African delegation, Odinga emerging as one of the radical group leader, dissatisfied Africans with the conference decisions. Odinga and other members of the legislative council formed the Kenya African National Union (KANU). Odinga's KANU used its strong showing in the 1961 general elections to help gain Kenyatta's release.
Odinga after independence.
Kenya gained independence in Dec 1963, and Odinga was appointed minister for home affairs.When Kenya became a Republic in 1964, he was its first Vice-President. As Vice-President he did not agree with Jomo Kenyatta's government, and he resigned his post and quit KANU in 1966 to form the Kenya People's Union (KPU). He openly challenged the government's use of private and foreign investment capital and its close ties with the West.
Within KANU, a coalition formed against Odinga and in 1966 a KANU reorganization conference abolished his post of party vice-president. In October 1969, Odinga together with Achieng Oneko and other KPU members were jailed by the government. The KPU was banned, and he stayed in prison for 15 months. Odinga remained an opposition leader throughout the1970s.
After Kenyatta's death in 1978, the new president, Daniel Arap Moi, tried to bring Odinga back into KANU. Moi, appointed Odinga as chairman of the Cotton Lint and Seed Marketing Board where he did not last long, because he was still outspoken against Kenyatta's policies. When Odinga was reinstated into the party in 1980, he attacked Moi and Kenyatta as corrupt and protested U.S. military presence in Kenya.
Odinga attempted to register a political party in 1982, but his plans were foiled when Kenya was made a de jure single-party state in 1982, KANU party again banished Odinga.Throughout the 1980s, Odinga remained vocal in calling for democracy. In 1984, he tried to launch and register the Ramogi Development Trust (RADET) but the government denied it registration
Odinga and the Struggle for multi-partyism in the 1990s
In 1991, Odinga founded the National Democratic Party, but the government refused to recognize it and briefly jailed Odinga. Later that year Odinga and five other opposition leaders formed the Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD). But FORD split in 1992, and Jaramogi formed FORD-K finishing fourth behind Moi, Matiba and Kibaki.
In 1993, Odinga's reputation suffered when he admitted taking a campaign contribution from a bank accused of bribing government officials. In the months before his death in January 1994, Odinga tried to reconcile his branch of FORD with KANU, but without success.
Maathai was born on April 1, 1940 in the Ihithe village, Nyeri County, in the central region to Muta Njugi, a farm labourer on a white owned farm in the rift valley. In 1950, she joined Ihithe Primary School for primary education in 1951, Maathai moved to St. Cecilia's Intermediate Primary School at the Mathari Catholic Mission in Nyeri where she studied for four years. During this time, she converted to Catholicism, taking the Christian name Mary Josephine.
In 1956 she joined Loreto High School Limuru.
She was chosen to study at American universities in September 1960 under the Kennedy Airlift or Airlift Africa. In 1964, she joined the University of Pittsburgh to study for a master's degree in biology.
In January 1966, upon her return to Kenya, Maathai dropped her Christian name, preferring to be known by her birth name, Wangari Muta. In April 1966, she met Mwangi Mathai, whom she later married in 1969 and had three children with him.
In 1971, she became the first Eastern African woman to receive a Ph.D., (in Anatomy) from the University of Nairobi. She was a member of the Nairobi branch of the Kenya Red Cross Society, becoming its director in 1973.
In 1979, her husband, Mwangi Mathai divorced her, saying she was too strong-minded for a woman and wife and accusing her of adultery with another Member of Parliament.
Wangari Maathai as political activist.
In 1979, Maathai ran for the position of chairman of the National Council of Women of Kenya (NCWK). She lost, but was chosen to be the vice-chairman of the organization. In 1980, Maathai was elected chairman of the NCWK unopposed. However NCWK was left virtually bankrupt, as Future funding by government was channeled to Maendeleo Ya Wanawake a pro-government splinter group.
In 1982, she resigned from the University of Nairobi to campaign for a Parliamentary seat in her home region of Nyeri. However, she was disqualified from vying.
On February 28, 1992, Maathai and others took part in a hunger strike in Uhuru Park, to pressure the government to release political prisoners. The protest continued until early 1993, when the prisoners were finally released.
After the first multi-party election of Kenya, in 1992, Maathai traveled with friends and the press to areas of violence in order to encourage them to cease fighting. After her friend and supporter Dr. Mukanga was kidnapped, Maathai chose to go into hiding.
During the elections of 1997, Maathai ran for parliament and for president as a candidate of the Liberal Party. She lost the election.
On July 7, 2001, shortly after planting trees at Freedom Corner in Uhuru Park in Nairobi to commemorate Saba Saba Day, Maathai was again arrested. Later that evening, she was again released without being charged.
Maathai again campaigned for parliament in the 2002 elections, this time as a candidate of the National Rainbow Coalition; she won with an overwhelming 98% of the vote. In January 2003, she was appointed Assistant Minister in the Ministry for Environment and Natural Resources and served in that capacity until November 2005.
In December 2007, choosing to run as the candidate of a smaller party Maathai was, defeated in the parliamentary election.
The life of Wangari Maathai as an environmental conservationist.
Following the establishment of the Environment Liaison Centre in 1974, Maathai became the chair of the board. In 1974, with her husband as the MP for Lang’ata constituency, Maathai founded the Envirocare Ltd., a business that involved the planting of trees to conserve the environment. This led to the planting of her first tree nursery, in a government tree nursery in Karura Forest.
On June 5, 1977, marking World Environment Day, Maathai led the NCWK in a procession from Kenyatta International Conference Centre to Kamukunji Park where they planted seven trees in honor of historical community leaders.
This was the first "Green Belt" planted by what became the Green Belt Movement.
In 1982, she was approached by Wilhelm Elsrud, executive director of the Norwegian Forestry Society. Who partnered with the Green Belt Movement and offered her the position of coordinator. In 1987, Maathai stepped down as chairman of the NCWK and focused her attention on the newly separate nongovernmental organization.
In October 1989, Maathai learned of a plan to construct the 60-story Kenya Times Media Trust Complex in Uhuru Park. Her protests, some leading to her being harassed, led to the foreign investors to cancel the project in January 1990
In June 1992, both Maathai and President Arap Moi traveled to Rio de Janeiro for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) where she became a chief spokesperson despite government protest.
In 1998, Maathai protested against the privatization of large areas of public land in the Karura Forest. In August 16, 1999, when the president announced that he was banning all allocation of public land.
On October 8, 2004, Maathai became the first African woman, and the first environmentalist, to win the Nobel Peace Prize for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.
On March 28, 2005, she was elected the first president of the African Union's Economic, Social and Cultural Council and was appointed a goodwill ambassador for an initiative aimed at protecting the Congo Basin Forest Ecosystem.
Achievements of Wangari Maathai.
- As a member of the Kenya Association of University Women, she was on the forefront in campaigning for equal benefits for the women while at the university and also as a member National Council of Women of Kenya (NCWK).
- she succeeded in stopping the government from encroaching on a public utility at Uhuru park to construct the 60-story Kenya Times Media Trust Complex.
- She succeeded in pressurizing the government to release political prisoners through painful hunger protests at Uhuru Park. The prisoners were released in early 1993.
- Maathai was the first African woman, and the first environmentalist, to win the Nobel Peace Prize for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.
- Maathai has been very instrumental in environmental protection through the Green Belt Movement.
Chapter 13 Social
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Christian Missionaries In East Africa
Colonial Period In Kenya
Contacts Between East Africa And The Outside World Up To The 19th Century
Democracy And Human Rights
Development Of Industry
Dev. Of Early Agriculture
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
European Invasion Of Africa
Form 3 Level
Functions Of Governments
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
Pre-Colonial East Africa
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
The Electoral Process
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UP TO THE 19TH CENTURY
THE SECOND WORLD WAR