ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN SOCIETIES.
Despite the high amount of decentralization of African communities in the 19th century, there existed a few who were centralized. For example, Buganda, Ethiopia, Buganda, Asante, Mandinka, Ndebele and shona among others
The Shona were a Bantu-speaking people who comprised the Rozwi, Kore kore, Zezuru and Manyika sub-groups. The first stone buildings in Zimbabwe are believed to have been the work of the Shona. Their capital was at Mapungubwe, south of the confluence of the Limpopo and Shashi rivers.
About 1450 AD, the Rozwi Groups gained dominance and established a centralized political system. They established the Mwene Mutapa Empire which ruled until the time of the Ngoni invasion in the 1830s.
Political organization of the Mwene Mutapa Empire
The emperor was the head of the state and government. Succession of authority was hereditary. Important emperors included Chikura, Nyatsimba, Mutota and Matope. Religion played a role in government and united people. The emperor was a semi-divine religious leader, a military leader and the chief priest. He was the only one who could communicate with the spirits of the ancestors. It was believed that when Mwene Mutapa died, he became a Mudzimu and automatically qualified to be worshipped as a national ancestral spirit.
The ancestral spirits (Vadzimu) communicated people’s problems to god. Religion also influenced laws.
The priests were used as spies and link between the emperor and the people.
Another unifying factor in the kingdom was the royal fire. It was from the continuous fire that each vassal chief carried a flame to his chiefdom that he kept burning as a symbol of national unity.
The empire was divided into provinces namely Guruhaswa, Mbire, Utere, Banua, and Manyika each headed by a lesser chief. The most important chiefs in the empire sent their sons, with tribute in form of cattle, gold, slaves and ivory, each year to pay homage to the Mwene Mutapa as goodwill ambassadors.
There was a standing army of warriors which was used for defence and expansion of the kingdom. Revenue from trade was used to run the army and sustain the empire.
The position of importance held by Mwene Mutapa led to the creation of a complex Style of administration around him.
The government officials included the court steward, treasurer, commander-in-chief of the army and Mbokurumme (king’s sister-in-law). Others were the queen mother, the emperor’s sister and nine principal wives, the doorkeeper and the chief cook and head drummer. At the lower level were the lesser chiefs who paid tribute to the king by providing cattle, labour and agricultural produce.
Economic organization of the Shona
The Shona country enjoyed ample rainfall with fertile soils thus enabling them to engage in the following economic activities;
Social organization of the Shona
Among the shona, Mwene Mutapa was regarded as a divine king and was therefore venerated. When he was well, the nation was also well.
The shona religion was based on the Mwari cult. They believed in the all powerful God, Mwari/Murungu. His worship was done through several priests who were mainly produced by the Rozwi clan.
The priests presided over religious functions in sacred places of worship, shrines where sacrifices were offered.
The shona believed in ancestral spirits. They had two kinds of spirits, Vadzimu or family spirits and Mhondoro or clan spirits. The spirits communicated though an intermediary, Svikiro, a departed family or clan spirit
The shona had a national spirit Chamiruka who settled clan disputes and also protected the people against injustice in the government.
The shona had a kinship system which was patrilineal (inheritance through the father) The shona were divided into clans whose names were coined from animals like leopard, monkey, elephant etc. it was a taboo to consume meat from such animals.
They were a polygamous community which was viewed as a means to enable the family to have enough members to provide labour.
The shona lived in stone buildings. Their skill in masonry is associated with the ruins of Mapungubwe found in Zimbabwe.
Importance of Studying History
Importance of studying government
CAUSES OF THE SCRAMBLE FOR EAST AFRICA.
Factors that contributed to the scramble and partition of East Africa.
The process of Partition.
The Berlin conference failed to fully resolve the rivalry between the Germans and the British in East Africa. The activities of Karl Peters and Harry Johnstone for the Germans and the British respectively in the Mount Kilimanjaro region depicted intense rivalry which almost led to war. The two signed treaties with local chiefs as a way of legalizing their arbitrary declaration of their spheres of influence. Karl peters even declared german protectorate over Ungulu, Uzigua, Usagara and Ukami. These activities together with those of Sir William Mackinnon of the Imperial British East Africa Company became the immediate cause of the partition of east Africa.
The partition of East Africa was sealed through the following two treaties.
Terms of the Heligoland Treaty of 1890.
BRITISH OCCUPATION OF KENYA
Methods used by the British to occupy Kenya.
The Imperial British East Africa Company of Sir William Mackinnon was given the royal charter in 1888 and thus had the following new powers;
Achievements of the IBEAC.
Reasons why Britain used the IBEA Company to administer her possession.
Achievements of the IBEAC.
Why company rule had failed by 1895.
Factors facilitated the establishment of the British control over Kenya during the 19th century
KENYA PEOPLES’ RESPONSES BRITISH INVASION OF KENYA
The Nandi Resistance (1895-1906)
Reasons why the Nandi resisted British occupation of their land.
Course of the Nandi rebellion.
Why the Nandi offered the longest and strongest ever resistance to the British intrusion in Kenya.
Why the Nandi were defeated in the hands of the British.
Results of the Nandi resistance.
A Bantu speaking group inhabiting the coastal region, their reaction to the British invasion was motivated by the reaction of the Mazrui Arabs and the Swahili who rose up against the British in 1895. The Agiriama reaction began as an offer of support to the Mazrui Arabs, with whom they had long trading links, during their conflict with the British over succession to the Takaungu Sheikhdom. The Agiriama was also hitting back against the Busaidi Arabs who were encroaching on their territory. The British had supported the Al Busaidi collaborators throughout succession conflict. The British reacted by bombarding Rashid’s Headquarters at Mweli forcing the Agiriama and the Mazrui to resort to guerilla warfare. While the Mazrui Arabs later surrendered, the Agiriama now resorted to full scale résistance against the British encroachment in 1914.
Causes of the Agiriama resistance.
Course of the resistance.
The Agiriama resistance was inspired by a Giriama prophetess, Mekatilili wa Menza. She was joined by an Elder, Wanje wa Madorika in mobilizing people to a mass resistance against the British rule. The immediate course of their reaction was the forced military recruitment into the KAR. To provoke the British to war, they barred their young men from moving outside their villages to work. Mekatilili and Wanje called on the people to return to their ancestral shrine at Kaya Fungo and offer sacrifices and denounced all appointed puppet rulers in favour of the traditional council of elders. The two administered traditional oaths to unite and inspire the people to war. I.e. the Mukushekushe oath for women and the Fisi oat for men. When a state of emergency was declared by the British over the Agiriama, they resorted to Hit-and-run warfare. They attacked the homes of loyalists, Europeans and collaborators forcing the missionaries to seeker refuge at Rabai. The British countered the hit-and-run warfare with burning villages and crops and driving away livestock. The resistance only subsided when Mekatilili and Wanje were arrested and deported to Kisii. The Arabs, under Fadhili bin Omari, mediated between the Agiriama and the British, marking the end of the war under the following terms;
Role of Mekatilili in the Agiriama resistance.
Results of the Agiriama resistance to the British
Reasons why the Bukusu resisted the British rule.
Course of the resistance.
The Bukusu resistance began with the ambush of a trade caravan heading to Ravine through Bukusuland. The Bukusu stole all the rifles. When they were commanded to surrender all the guns in 1894 and declined, the British sent a punitive expedition which however was defeated. The British administrator at Elureko, Charles Hobley sought for reinforcement from Major William Grant of the Ugandan protectorate. In 1895, at the battles of Lumboka and Chetambe, the Bukusu were summarily defeated.
Methods used by the Bukusu to resist the British.
Effects of the Bukusu resistance.
The Somali resistance.
The Somali resistance was a reaction to the British declaration that Jubaland was a British protectorate. They were led by their leader Ahmad bin Murgan.
Causes of Somali resistance.
Course of the resistance.
The British initially reacted minimally to the Somali aggression on their Kisimayu neighbourhood in 1898 due to the following reasons;
Results of the Somali resistance.
In Kenya, the Maasai, Wanga and a section of the Agikuyu, Akamba, and Luo collaborated.
The Maasai collaboration.
In the 19th century, the Maasai community changed from a once feared community to one marred by succession disputes and natural calamities. The Disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo over succession of Mbatian after he died weakened the Maasai community to the level of merely collaborating with the British intruders. Sendeyo moved with his followers to northern Tanzania leaving behind Lenana’s group who chose the path of collaboration.
Reasons for the Maasai collaboration with the British.
The process of Maasai collaboration.
The attempt by Lenana to secure assistance against Sendeyo was the beginning of his collaboration with the British. The Kedong massacre incident (Maasai warriors attacked a caravan of Swahili and Agikuyu traders travelling from Ravine) and the resultant death of 100 Maasai at the hands of three white men (Andrew Dick and two French companions) made the Maasai the immediately seek for collaboration with the British. They cooperated with the British in establishment of colonial administration. The provided mercenaries in the British punitive expedition against the Nandi, Kipsigis and Kikuyu. Maasai were rewarded with cattle acquired from uncooperative peoples e.g. The Nandi and Agikuyu They exchanged gifts and used British manufactured goods. Lenana was made a paramount chief. Between 1904 and 1923, a fair proportion of the Maasai agreed to be moved from one grazing land to another to pave way for British settlement. They signed the first Maasai agreement in 1904 by which they moved into two reserves, one to the south of Ngong and the railway and the other up on the Laikipia plateau. A corridor of five kilometres was set aside in Kinangop for the Eunoto ceremony that accompanied circumcision. The second Maasai agreement of 1911 implied the Maasai abandon the Laikipia plateau to rejoin others in the enlarged southern reserve.
Results of the Maasai collaboration.
Nabongo Mumia, the Wanga leader from 1880, was an ambitious and shrewd leader who had the desire to expand his Kingdom through collaboration with British intruders and soliciting their military assistance.
Reasons for Wanga Collaboration.
Process of Wanga Collaboration.
Mumia’s contact with the outside world began when he befriended the Swahili and Arab caravan traders and later the IBEA Company merchants when they visited Wangaland. They built a fort and a trading station at Elureko, his capital, which was to remain the headquarters of the British administration in western Kenya until 1920.
Ways in which Nabongo of Wanga collaborate with the British.
Results of the Wanga collaboration with the British.
The communities that exhibited mixed reaction were the Akamba, Agikuyu and Luo.
The Akamba Reaction.
The arrival of the British traders threatened to destabilize the prominence enjoyed by the Akamba as middlemen during the long distance trade. The British even tried to stop the Akamba from organizing raids on their Oromo, Agikuyu and Maasai neighbours.
Why the Akamba decided to resist British administration?
Course of the Akamba resistance.
Why a section of the Akamba collaborated with the British.
Reasons for the Akamba defeat.
Consequences of the Akamba reaction.
The Agikuyu reaction.
The Agikuyu was also a highly segmented nature lacking in territorial unity. This explains why they had mixed reaction against the British.
Explain the causes of Agikuyu resistance.
Reasons why some Agikuyu collaborated.
Organization of the Agikuyu reaction.
When captain Lugard established a fort at Dagoretti in 1890, he began relating with Waiyaki wa Hinga who was in charge of the area. Wayaki’s people supplied Lugard’s men with food. However, when Wilson took over from Lugard who had left for Uganda, his soldiers began looting food and livestock from the Agikuyu.
The Agikuyu reacted by setting the Dagoretti fort on fire. Waiyaki was arrested by the forces sent by Sub-commissioner Ainsworth, and died enroute to Mombasa. It is alleged that he was buried alive at Kibwezi after provoking his captors. Kinyanjui wa Gathirimu, a collaborator, succeeded Waiyaki at Dagoretti. In 1899, Fort Dagoretti was closed down due to a series of raids. Francis Hall opened another Fort at Murang’a (renamed Fort Hall after his death in 1901) after the locals were subdued and forced to accept the British Colonial rule. British trader John Boyes forged an alliance with Karuri wa Gakure, the Agikuyu leader at Fort Hall, which enabled him to subdue the resisting Agikuyu groups. He also made contacts with Wang’ombe of Gaki (Nyeri) who together with Gakure supplied the British with mercenaries in exchange for confiscated loots from resisting groups. Meinertzhagen, who succeeded Francis Hall in 1902, subdued the Muruku and Tetu section (led by Chief Gakere) of the Agikuyu. Chief Gakere was murdered and his associates deported to the coast after they wiped out the entire Asian caravan on the slopes of the Aberdares. The Agikuyu of Iriani (Nyeri) were defeated in 1904 and their Aembu and Ameru allies sought for peace in 1906, having seen the effects of resisting. By 1910, British rule had been established in the entire Mount Kenya region. With the Agikuyu settling peacefully in the reserves upto 1920s when they began to agitate again.
Results of the Agikuyu mixed reaction.
The Luo reaction.
The resisters were the Luo of Sakwa, seme, Uyoma, Ugenya and Kisumu. The collaborators were the Luo of Gem and Asembo, led by Chief (Ruoth) Odera Akang’o.
Reasons for the resistance against the British by the Luo of Ugenya.
Course of the Luo resistance.
The Luo of Ugenya set off the resistance by attacking the Wanga in an attempt to expand. They vandalized British key installations like the telegraph wires and administrative stations. In 1896, the British sent an expedition against them and 200 people were killed. When the British attacked the Seme Luo for cattle and Grains, they were provoked into revolting. They attacked the Asembo Luo who had collaborated with the British. The British invaded them in 1898 with devastating effects in terms of property and life loss. The Luo of Kisumu rose up in 1898 attacking a British Canoe party on Winam Gulf for taking their fish without paying. They were however overcome. The Gem and Asembo Luos led by Ruoth Odera Akang’o supported the British throughout all these confrontations.
Results of the Luo reaction.
International Relations refers to the cooperation or interaction between individuals or groups of nations of the world
Benefits of international relations
Ways in which nations relate internationally.
There are two types of international organizations;
Role played by International Governmental Organizations.
THE UNITED NATIONS
The UN was founded after world war Two as an organization of independent states with the following objectives;
Formation of the United Nations
The signing of the Allied declaration in London on 12th June 1941 marked the first step in the formation of the UN. On 14th August 1941, Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA and Winston Churchill of Britain, meeting in USA, proposed a set of principles for international collaboration in maintaining peace and security. This was the Atlantic Charter. The charter pledged respect for human Freedom, Allowed all nations the freedom to choose the form of government they preferred and provided that no territory should change hands after war without consent of its people.
On 1st January 1942, representatives of Allied nations meeting in Washington signed the
‘Declaration by United Nations’ and proclaimed support for the Atlantic Charter This marked the first official use of the term ‘United Nations’ as suggested by President Roosevelt in reference to the 26 nations
The first Blueprint of the UN was prepared at a conference held at Dumbarton Oaks Estate, Washington from 21st September to 7th October 1944. Representatives of USSR, USA, UK and China agreed on the aims, structure and functions of a world organization. On 11th February 1945, the Yalta Conference held by US president Roosevelt, UK PM Churchill and Russian PM Stalin declared the resolve to establish an international organization to maintain peace and security.
On 25th April 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, USA attended by delegates from 50 nations. It drew a 111-Article Charter which was adopted on 25th June 1945.
The UN began its official functions on 24th October 1945 after ratification of the charter by USSR, USA, Britain, China and France.
Organization of the UNO
Membership to the UN is open to all peace-loving nations that accept the obligations of the charter. By 1945, only 51 states had signed the charter. Kenya Joined on 16th December 1963. By April 2003 membership had grown to 191 states.
To achieve its aims, the UN spelt out in its charter the following principles;
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
This is the main deliberative organ of the UNO, but which cannot enforce action on members. It comprises all member states.
Functions of the UN General Assembly
To help in its operation, the general assembly has the following committees;
The political and security committee, the special political committee, the economic and financial committee, the committee on social ,humanitarian and cultural issues, the trusteeship committee , the administration/budget committee and the legal affairs committee.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
It has 15 members from 15 countries. Ten of these are non-permanent. It also has five permanent members namely china, France, USA, Russia and UK.
Its main function is to maintain world peace and security.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Its membership is 54. 18 are elected each year for a term of three years.
Its function is to coordinate the economic and social work of UN and its specialized agencies. E.g. in trade, status of women, Population, science and technology
It inherited the work of the Mandates Commission of the former League of Nations. It had responsibility over the territories under colonial rule-. - To promote social, economic, political and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories.
Consists of five permanent members and six additional ones appointed by the General Assembly
The head of the secretariat is the secretary general. It has its headquarters in New York. Its staff members come from 139 countries. Its work covers all areas outlined in the UN Charter.
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
It has its headquarters at Hague. It is the principal judicial body of the UN. It gives advisory opinions on legal questions. It has 15 judges.
These are separate specialized agencies which are autonomous organizations related to the UN by special agreements. (REF TO PAGE 49 OF EVOLVING WORLD)
Past Secretary Generals of the United Nations Organization since its inception
Achievements of the United Nations Organization
Problems facing the United Nations Organization in its operation
Pre-historic sites in Kenya
Stages trough which man evolved
- Dryopithecus africanas (proconsul)
- Kenyapithecus (ramapithecus)
- Homo habilis
- Homo erectus
- Homo sapiens
- Homo sapiens sapiens
- He was an ape like skull found in the faiyum depression in Egypt
- He means an Egyptian shape
- The teeth was closer to that of a herbivore
- He was small about 4 kgs
- He lived in the forest and looked like a monkey
- Had stereoscopic vision (sharp)
- He had enclosed eye sockets
- He had 32 teeth
- Had a tail
- Walked on four limbs
- Used his hand to swing from one tree to the other
Drypithecus africunus (proconsul)
- The skull was found at Rusinga Island in Lake Victoria
- He lived in the east African forests
- He lived between 20-25 million years ago
- He moved on all four limbs
- He was small in size and looked like a chimpanzee
- He had long teeth
- He had a smooth forehead
Ramapithecus / kenyapithecus / woodland ape
- The skull was discovered at fort tenan near kericho by Louis Leakey in 1961
- He lived between 12-14 million years ago
- He lived in open savannah
- He had 32 teeth and he had smaller canines than earlier apes
- He had a brain size of 400cc
- He had massive jaws
- He weighed between 18-36 kgs
- He occasionally walked one two legs
Australopithecus / zinjanthropus / southern ape
- He lived between 1-7 million years ago
- The skull was first discovered at taung in Botswana in 1924
- Dr Louis and Mary Leakey discovered similar fossils at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and Lake Turkana in 1959
- Similar fossils were found in omo valley and hadar in Ethiopia
Types of austropithecus
- This is the latest fossil found at kanapoi and allia bay of Lake Turkana by dr meave Leakey
- Lived between 4-3 million ago It was found at afarensis afar depression (hence it name)
- It was found at koobi fora and taungi makapansgat bterkfontaini in South Africa
- Found in South Africa
- East Africa at olduvai gorge in Tanzania and was called the bosei.
- Also called zinjantropus
- Walked on two legs
- He was hairy, short and strong
- He has a low forehead and deep-set eyes
- His brain capacity was 450-550cc
- They had sharp vision
- They had massive jaws with large molars and smaller canines
- They did not make tools
- Homo means man habilis means ability. It means man with ability
- He was the first species of man
- His remains were discovered by Jonathan Leakey at Olduvai Gorge in 1964
- He developed elementary speech
- His brain capacity was between 500-800cc
- He was a tool maker (oldowan)
- He developed the thumb
- He was about 1.8 m in height
- His skull was shaped like modern man
- His teeth were in the same position on the jaws as ours
- The word means upright man
- His remain were found at afar triangle, hadar valley in Ethiopia and Lake Victoria region
- They walked in an upright posture
- They had a more advanced speech than his predecessors
- He was 5 feet tall
- He had a brain capacity of between 775-1250cc
- They were the first people to use fire
- They were omnivorous
- He made more advanced tools (Acheulian)
- It means thinking man or intelligent man
- His remains were found near Lake Turkana, kanjera, omo valley and Lake Victoria
Types of Homo sapiens
- Was discovered in modern Zambia hence the name Rhodesian man
- Was found in the neander valley in German in 1856
- He was heavily built, with a thick skull, broad shoulders and eyebrows like an ape
- He was a nomad gathering and hunting deer, wild pigs and wild sheep
- Other remains were found in Asia and other parts of Europe e.g. France, Belgium, gilbraitar, Italy and former Yugoslavia
- He cooked with fire and made improved tools
- He was hunter-gatherer, painter and lived in caves
- He was about six feet tall
- He had long straight legs for swift movement
- He had small teeth with a steep was round four head
- He was a fisherman
- He was a religious
- He made tools that were refined (microliths)
- Modern man
- He lived from 10000 years ago
- He is curious. Intelligent and plans ahead
- He made boats
- He developed agriculture
- He has a brain capacity of about 1400
- He lived in settlements
- He has invented which have made life more
The culture of early man and economic practices
This periods includes:
- Old Stone Age
- Middle Stone Age
- New Stone Age
Old Stone Age/ early / lower Paleolithic tools and weapons
- Stone Age refers to a period in time when man widely used stone as materials to make tools, weapons and artifacts
- These tools are found at Olduvai Gorge, koobi fora, omo valley in Uganda and kariandusi in Kenya
- The tools are associated with Homo habilis and austalopithecus. They are referred to as oldwan or peeble tools
- They represent the first phase of Old Stone Age
- Other tools were at acheul valley in France and are known as Acheulian tools
- Fist hatchet
- Hand axes
- Spear heads
- Arrow heads
- Cutting meat and vegetables
- Grinding tough vegetables
- Skinning animals
- Digging roots
- Scrapping skins
- Defense and hunting
- They sheltered in stone caves during the day and at night they slept on trees to avoid animal attacks
- They ate raw meat, fruits, vegetables, eggs, insects and roots
- The climate is coldest than it is now
- Man had hairy body and didn’t wear clothes
- They lived in small groups of about 20-30 people. They had small families
- Man used gestures growling and whistling to communicate
- There was division of labour as women were involved in gathering and men hunted animals
- Chasing and throwing stone and spears at the animals
- Digging large on the paths through which animals went to drink water and covering the pit with delicate stones and grass
- Chasing animals over steep cliffs and forcing them to fall over and break their limbs
- Driving the animals in the swampy areas where they stuck
- Waiting for animals near watering points
- Man killed animals that were injured by others
Middle Stone Age period / middle paleolithic
- The period is associated with Homo erectus who continued to use smaller, thinner, lighter and sharper tools known as Acheulian
- He used wood together with stone and this reduced the weight and size of tools
- Some of these tools were named sango bay of Lake Victoria and were named sangoan
- It become warmer leading to heavier rainfall
- They ate meat. He also ate vegetables, fruits, insects, eggs and fish
- He cooked his food
- Man started wearing animal skin, necklaces and he his body with red ochre and oil
- He made waist belts using skins
- Man started living in cares and rock even at night
- The entrance of the cave was covered to keep out wind and rain
- At night they kept fire burning at the entrance of the care to scare away wilds
- They lived in groups of 50 people had a leader
- They helped each other in times of hardship
- They moved in groups for security reasons
- They developed a language of communication which strengthened their social bonds
- They used clicks and grants
- Man painting pictures of the animals he with arrow piercing them would their hunting expectations great rules
- Cave painting also shows a keen observation of life
- They painted to decorate their caves
- Cave painting helped to develop mans writing skills
- Man preserved his cultural heritage through painting
Invention of fire
- Man learnt to make and use fire
- Warming himself during the cold nights
- The flames of fire gave him light
- Fire provided man with protection by keeping away dangerous animals at night
- He used fire to cook and soften his food
- Fire was used to harden the tips of his tools
- He used fire to hunt by scaring wild animals towards muddy or swampy areas at night
- He used fire to preserve his food e.g. meat and fish by drying it
- Fire was used as means of communication
- Fire made it possible for man to move out of the warm savannah to other cold parts of the world
New Stone Age – upper PALEOLITHIC
- They are associated with Homo sapiens
- The types of tools were known as microliths. They were very small.
- The tools were found in qadan site in the Nile valley and gamble caves in Kenya
- Fishing harpoons
- Saw blades
- Arrow heads
- Bone needles
- Bows and arrows
- He lived in rock shelters
- He built hut using sticks, mud, grass and trees branches
- People lived in groups of up to 1000 members
- Man developed speech or spoken language
- Man wore clothes made from animal skins, fibres and barks of trees
- He decorated his body using red ochre and beads
- Man continued painting animal and hunting scenes and other designs
- Man learnt to make rough baskets and pots
- Man started performing rites and ceremonies to influence natural forces e.g. rain drought and death
- He started burying the dead with some of their tools and possessions showing man believed in life after death
- Man developed a way of maintaining law and order where he lived and this was the beginning of government
- Man started growing crops and keeping animals
- With development of agriculture there was surplus food which man exchanged with what he lacked leading to development of trade
HISTORY & GOVERNMENT TOPICS
- The meaning of History
- The meaning of Government
- Sources of information on History and Government
- Importance of studying History and Government
- Origin of man
- Evolution of man
- Cultural and economic practices of Early Man.
- Development of early agriculture
- Early agriculture in:
- a) Egypt
- b) Mesopotamia
- The Agrarian Revolution in:
- a) Britain
- b) U.S.A
- The food situation in Africa and the rest of the Third World
- Remedies of food shortages
- Origin, migration and settlement of the people of Kenya
- a) Bantu
- i. Western Bantu
- ii. Eastern Bantu
- b) Nilotes
- i. River-Lake Nilotes
- ii. Plains Nilotes
- iii. Highland Nilotes
- c) Cushites
- i. Eastern Cushites
- ii. Southern Cushites
- a) Bantu
- Results of the migration and settlement of the people of Kenya.
- a) Agikuyu
- b) Ameru
- c) Akamba
- d) Abagusii
- e) Mijikenda
- a) Luo
- b) Nandi
- c) Maasai
- a) Borana
- Early visitors to the East African Coast up to 1500.
- Trade between the East African Coast and the outside World.
- a) Development of the trade
- b) Organization of the trade
- c) Impact of the trade on the peoples of East Africa
- The corning of the Portuguese
- a) Reasons for their coming to East Africa
- b) Their conquest and rule
- c) The decline of Portuguese power
- d) Impact of Portuguese rule
- Establishment and impact of Omani rule:
- a) Seyyid Said and the development of plantation agriculture
- b) Development, organisation and consequences of:
- i) Long distance trade
- ii) International trade
- The spread of Christianity:
- a) Reasons for the coming of Christian missionaries
- b) Missionary activities and challenges
- c) Effects of missionary activities
- Kenyan citizenship
- Rights of a citizen
- Responsibilities of a citizen
- Elements of good citizenship
- National Integration
- National Unity
- Factors promoting national unity
- Factors limiting national unity
- Conflict Resolution
- Meaning of the term ‘conflict’
- Methods of resolving conflicts
- Process of resolving conflicts
MEANING OF HISTORY
- It is the study of all human experiences and record of events in relation to the environment.
- Is a branch of knowledge which deals with the past events of human beings and their response to their environment over the years.
- Is a science concerned with past human actions.
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
a) explain the meaning of the term ‘History’
b) explain the meaning of the term ‘Government’
c) identify the sources of information on History and Government
d) explain the importance of studying History and Government
- The meaning of History
- The meaning of Government
- Sources of information on History and Government
- Importance of studying History and Government
Two periods of history
Branches of history
- It is the study of government and leaders. It analyses of political thinkers and their styles of leadership
- It is the study of the way of earning a living. It deals with economic activities in a different environment e.g. agriculture, industry, trade, transport and communication, hunting and gathering etc
- It is the study of the way of the people lived together, their way of building, dressing, eating, religion, medicine and education
Meaning of government
- It is the method of ruling or exercising power or authority over a country or a state or a city and its people.
- It can also mean the management of nation, country or state (i.e. those people who oversee the running of the nation, country or state)
Types of governments
- It requires the rulers to regularly seek public mandate through popular vote. The elected officials represent the wishes of the people.
- It is a form of government in which a group from the highest social class in the society rules over the others.
- Power is passed from parent to children. King or queen is the head of state
- It’s system of government where the ruler has the total power over the subjects
- It is a state of lawlessness or absence of government. People do whatever they want
Characteristics of government
- These are rules that govern members to ensure that life run smoothly for the benefit of all
- This led us to the supreme authority of the government to exercise power within its boundaries
- A government should be acceptable to the people over whom it power
- This is the geographical area within which the government exercises power and enforces law and rules
- The government is able to take action against those who broke the law
Importance of studying history
- We learn about the economic, social and political organization of different people.
- Help us to appreciate the value of others and their contribution to civilization.
- Enables people to appreciate and understanding their past way of life.
- History trains us to develop the capacity for critical analysis of historical data.
- It creates a sense of patriotism and national pride is developed.
- It also fosters empathy –the ability to understand how people think and feel and their positions and roles in society
- Is also a way of preparing the community or society for life.
- Provides intellectual fulfillment and interest in further learning
- It is also an integral study that accounts and records social and physical happenings in the time and space for the confirmation of man
- Can also lead the learner to respected professionals such as law, business management, teaching, administration etc
Importance of studying government
- It enables us to understand how laws are made and implemented.
- It helps us to understand the structures of government and reasons why we need a government.
- Help us to understand our rights and responsibilities as citizens.
- Help us to understand duties of our leaders in government.
- It enables us to compare our government of the world.
- It helps the learner to appreciate the constitution and constitution making process.
- By studying the system of the government of other countries, political leaders can choose the best system principles.
- One understands how the three arms of government operate.
Sources of information on history and government
- Unwritten sources
- Written sources
- Electronic sources
1. Unwritten sources
- Oral traditions
a. Oral traditions
Forms of oral traditions:
- Fork tales
- It is important in the study of pre-history.
- They integrate the study of history with other social studies.
- It is cheap as it doesn’t require experts or special equipment.
- It complements other sources of history
- The stories may be exaggerated. It’s hard to tell what is real and what is imagined.
- Some information may be forgotten or omitted since human memory is not precise.
- The stories may be changed for various reasons.
- It does not provide dates or sequence of events.
- It is expensive as one has to pay for transport, lunch and accommodation of informant.
- It is time consuming interviewing people, takes a lot of time.
- Gave information about the movement of people and their relationships
- Help us to understand communities, better as people with common language may have common origin.
- Helps those using oral tradition to gather information from various sources.
- Has enabled historical linguistics to discover links between different people which were previously unknown.
- It is useful in dating of the migration of people.
- It may take a longer period to learn a particular language and therefore delay the acquisition of information
- When translating the language the historians may omit some words.
- Different languages may have similar words with different meanings.
- There has also been borrowing of words from other languages and this has interfered with or corrupted the parent language
- A linguist may find some of the words from different groups difficult to understand.
- Some languages have become archaic or extinct and are therefore difficult to translate.
Concerns itself with present day social organizations in relation to customs, cultural values, institutions, forms of government, and systems of marriage, inheritance descent and religious practices.
It gives deeper understanding of a particular of a peopled culture.
- It can help to reveal similarities in the institution of different communities and possible interactions.
- It complements other sources of information in gathering historical data.
- It gives a deeper understanding of a particular aspect of people’s culture.
- It can identify a particular community with a certain material culture e.g. name
- Information is easily obtained from the surrounding.
- It is expensive as it involves a lot of travelling
- It is time consuming living for long in the community under study
- Anthropologists risks losing their culture and adopting a foreign culture
- The anthropologist may it difficult to adapt fully to the new community.
- Stone tools
- metal objects
- Wooden implements
- Remains of plants and animals
- Carbonized seeds
- Remains of charcoals
- The beads
Methods used to locate an archaeological site
- Radio carbon 14 dating
- Potassium argon dating
- Geological dating
It is a measure of the amount of carbon remaining in a fossil or artifact.
It is a measure of potassium remaining in a fossil or artifact due to volcanic eruption.
It studies the layers of successive deposits of rocks
Fission track dating
Studies the age of artifact from the amount of uranium remaining in the track of rock
The age of objects is determined through association of events with names
Advantages of archaeology
- Gives detailed information on material culture.
- It complements other sources of information.
- It gives a sense of time as artifacts can be dated.
- It is useful in providing information about man in the pre-historical times
- It makes history real through seeing and touching objects
- It earns the country money as people come to view remains and historical sites.
- It’s expensive to hire laborers to excavate and analyze the artifacts
- It’s sometimes difficult to locate a site
- Its time consuming to excavate and analyze the data
- Some remains are fragile and can disintegrate during excavation
- The information may not be accurate as it is based conclusions and reconstruction
- The dates may not be accurate as they exact as they are only estimates
- It’s difficult to differentiate between the bones of an animals and human beings
- Climate may affect the remains and some may decay
- There are very few archaeological experts and facilities for interpreting archaeological remains in Kenya.
- It’s hard to identify exactly who the people were and the language they spoke.
- Where there is large-scale excavation it may environmental destruction.
- arrival reports
- Are more accurate than oral sources
- Methods of analysis used with written records are cheaper as is the case with oral information.
- Can be easily translated to many convectional languages
- Information may be stored for future reference.
- They are reliable as they can be easily changed
- It relies on oral traditions and archaeology to construct history to construct history for the period when writing had not delivered.
- Authors may omit essential information for one reason or another rendering if unreliable.
- It may be understood or misinterpreted by leaders either to disc red it the authors or suits one’s seed
- They are only limited to literate
- Authors write from their particular point of view and may be biased
- The cost of newspapers and books are high
- Reading written records is time consuming
- Written information may become obsolete because life is dynamic and many changes occur over the years
- Some written sources are inaccessible as government and other organization restrict it access.
e. Written sources
Refers to the scientific study of passing on of characteristics from parent to offspring
- Information is accurate as real materials and remains are analyzed.
- Information can be obtained for millions of years ago
- Enables historians to trace the origin of domestication and spread of crops and animals
- Compliments other sources of history
- It is expensive as it involves laboratory analysis of specimens
- It is time consuming to obtain results
- It can only be used by experts
2. Printed sources
3. Electronic sources
- data banks and data bases
- They capture information as it happened.
- Films and videos give better understanding of some aspects of social history of a given people.
- They make past come alive today.
- Documentaries give facts about events
- Electronic data bases which are stored in a computer facilitate easy and fast retrieval of information
- Most records contains foreign materials which carries the bias
- They may be in accurate
- Electronic gadgets are expensive
- Some films are unrealistic and therefore contain exaggerated information
- Some are addictive and may make those are watching passive and lazy
LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN KENYA
- describe types of local authorities in Kenya
- discuss the functions of local authorities
- analyse the relationship between local authorities and the Central Government
- discuss the challenges facing local authorities in Kenya.
- Types of local authorities
- Functions of local authorities
- Relationship between local authorities and the central government
- Challenges facing local authorities
Social, Economic and Political Developments and Challenges in Africa since Independence - K.C.S.E HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT NOTES
- Analyse the political, social and economic challenges in Africa since independence.
- Political challenges that have faced African countries since independence
- Economic challenges facing independent African states today
- Social challenges that have faced African states since independence
Social, Economic and Political Developments and Challenges in Tanzania since Independence - kcse history notes
- discuss the political, social and economic developments in Tanzania since independence
- Political Developments in Tanzania since Independence
- Social Developments in Tanzania since Independence.
- Economic Developments in Tanzania since Independence
- Political Challenges That Tanzania Has Faced Since Independence.
- Social Problems, Which Tanzania Faced Since Independence
SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (DRC) SINCE INDEPENDENCE - KCSE HISTORY NOTES
- Discuss the political, social and economic developments in The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since independence
- Political Developments in Democratic Republic Of Congo since Independence
- Economic Developments in DRC since Independence
- Social Developments and Challenges in DRC since Independence.
- Political Challenges That the Democratic Republic Of Congo Has Faced Since Independence.
- Economic Challenges That Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C) Faced In 1970’s.
- Discuss the political developments in Kenya since independence
- Discuss the social and economic developments in Kenya since independence
- Analyse the political, social and economic challenges in Kenya since Independence.
- Functions of the National Land Commission.
- Development in Agriculture since Independence
- Challenges Facing Kenya’s Agricultural Sector.
- Industrial Developments in Kenya since Independence
- Factors That Facilitated Industrial Development in Kenya since the Colonial Era
- Measures Taken By the Kenyan Government to Promote Industrial Development since Independence
- Factors That Have Hindered Industrial Development in Kenya
- Social Development and Challenges since Independence.
- Education Commissions.
- Main Developments in Education in Kenya since Independence
- Measures Taken To Improve the Health Sector in Postcolonial Kenya
- Major Challenges Facing The Health Sector In Kenya.
- Ways through Which the Government Has Encouraged the Preservation of African Culture since Independence.
Factors that led to the development of multi-party democracy in Kenya after 1991
- International pressure from multilateral and bilateral donors. The western donors took advantage of the collapse of the Soviet Union to set the stringiest conditionalities for aid on the government, for democratic reforms.
- Disunity in KANU. There was pressure from individuals who had been expelled from KANU without political alternatives.
- Existence of people who were ready to push democratic agenda ahead. This included the civil society, the lawyers and intellectuals. E.g the Law Society of Kenya led by Paul Muite and Gitobu Imanyara put pressure on the government for reforms.
- Success of multi-party in other African countries. In Zambia for example, Chiluba’s Movement for Multiparty Democracy defeated Kaunda’s United National Independence Party.
- Pressure from the church. Several church leaders, among them Alexander Muge, Bishop Henry Okullu and Rev. Timothy Njoya called upon the government to create an en environment in which Kenyans could participate in governance.
- Massive rigging of the elections. The most notorious of all was the 1988 general elections, which were marred with widespread rigging.
- The developments in Eastern Europe. Due to Gorbachev’s liberal reforms, one party dictatorship in Eastern Europe was replaced by regimes that were more liberal.
- Rampant corruption in particular, embezzlement and misappropriation of public funds and grabbing of public assets. Those who criticized were punished through detention, arbitrary arrests and other forms of intimidation. i) Repeal of section 2A of the constitution in December 1991
Role played by political parties in government and national building in Kenya.
- The party that gunners majority of seats and votes forms the government either alone or in coalition with other parties.
- Political parties influence government affairs and development through participation in legislation process.
- Political parties through the elected members of parliament decide on national development policies and development projects.
- Political parties provide exemplary leadership founded on freedom , justice, fair play and African socialism.
- Opposition parties provide a system of scrutinizing government expenditure through public accounts committee and public investment committee.
- Opposition parties make the government more accountable to the people through constant criticism.
- Opposition parties provide checks and balances to abuse and misuse of powers and privileges by those in the government.
Challenges of multi-party democracy in Kenya
- Since many politicians and senior government officials were not ready for Multipartism, they often incited their supporters to kick out opposition supporters from certain regions. This has been common in the Rift Valley region.
- The executive arm and the ruling party have many a times misused the members of the civil service to frustrate the opposition. In case of flawed elections, the provincial administration has always been used in rigging.
- Many of the parties formed failed to attain a national outlook. They mainly were tribal based.
- The multi party democracy has been hampered with defection of greedy politicians who become preys to bribes. This has weakened some parties.
- The former KANU for a long time retained control of the government machinery,,(the police force, the radio and television.) these were utilized for the advantage of KANU for al long time.
- There has been a problem of lack of funding from the government. Most of the political parties have been unable to sustain competition for political power due to inadequate funds.
- Interference by the international community in the running of the country. Some members of the diplomatic community openly side with certain political parties.
- Many political parties have been embroiled in wrangles. For example the Orange Democratic Movement has been bedevilled with a number of desertions due to wrangles between Ruto and his supporters and Raila Odinga. Ford Kenya has split into New Ford Kenya and Ford Kenya due to wrangles between Eugene Wamalwa and Moses Wetangula.
Identify the disadvantages of multiparty system.
- Multipartism tends to divide the people on tribal, regional and sectarian line.
- It tends to sharpen the struggle for personality and group dominance rather than policy implementation.
- Multipartism is a foreign system, which does not conform to the aspirations of independent Africa.
- It encourages the politics of destabilization.
- Political statements deadlocks on debates and tensions become too common.
- Decisions take too long to be made and implemented.
- Encourages use of violence in a state since opposition party members will be regarded as traitors by the government. The government will be regarded as oppressors by the opposition.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES:
Economic challenges that have faced Kenya since independence
- Stagnation of investment in the first years of independence due to massive transfer of capital from the country by the white settlers. The government faced the challenge of cultivating investor confidence.
- The problem of landlessness among many Africans whose arable land had been alienated. There was an urgent need for redistribution.
- Serious economic disparity in the country with the former white highlands having adequate provision of water, electricity and roads while the rest lacked enough of the same.
- Overpopulation in urban areas as result of rural-urban migration, putting facilities under pressure and creating unemployment.
- Problem of control of economy by the Europeans prior to independence and after independence. E.g. farm ownership and key industries.
- Lack of qualified manpower to run the technical sectors of the economy.
Types of landholding in Kenya.
At independence the type of landholding in Kenya was mainly communal, where land belonged to the whole community. Access to land was open every member of a social group. Community elders, clan heads or kings were empowered to control and give advice on land use.
Land alienation during the colonial period transformed land into a commodity that could be disinherited from an individual. Such colonial land policies leading to alienation of African land resulted in the following;
- Widespread landlessness as Africans lost ancestral lands.
- Reduction in land available to Africans leading to land pressure as population increased.
- Deterioration of the quality of land due to fragmentation.
- Overstocking because of limited land, leading to soil erosion.
- Displacement of pastoral and agricultural communities, leading to problems such as famine and livestock diseases.
- Disintegration of social and cultural institutions in the reserves due to ethnic boundaries being fixed, thus separating African communities.
- Land Adjudication: - verification of individual or group rights to land within a given area.
- Land consolidation: - merging of fragmented land into single economic units.
- Land registration: - recording of rights to land and the consequent issuance of a title deed.
The post-colonial landholding system in Kenya.
Private land; comprised of 6% of the total land area
Government-owned; former crown land, comprised 20% of the land area. It included the national parks, government or public forests, alienated (land acquired from customary land owners by government for own use or private development) and un alienated land (land that has not been leased or allocated by the government).
Trust land comprised 64% of the total land area as at 1990. This comprised the former native areas and was awaiting small holder registration to transform it into private tenure system.
Land ownership in Kenya has been a source of bitter conflict as manifested in the post election violence after the 2007 elections. The historical injustices in Kenya have always been related to land.
In 2010, land ownership in Kenya was classified as follows under the new constitution.
- Public land
- Community land
- Private land
a) Public land
It consists of;
- Land not set aside for any purpose (unalienated land).
- Land set aside for public utility use or land that is occupied by the State organ as lessee.
- land transferred to the State by way of sale, reversion or surrender;
- Land to which no individual or community ownership is traceable.
- Land which no heir can be identified.
- All minerals and mineral ores.
- government forests, game reserves, water catchment areas, national parks, government animal sanctuaries, and specially protected areas;
- All roads and thoroughfares.
- All rivers, lakes and other water bodies.
- The territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone and the sea bed.
- The continental shelf.
- All land between the high and low water marks.
- Any other land declared to be public land by an Act of Parliament.
It consists of:
- Land registered in the name of group representatives.
- Land transferred to a specific community through a legal process.
- Any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament.
- land that is held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
- Ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter gatherer communities;
- Land held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government.
It consists of:
- Registered land held by any person under freehold tenure.
- Land held by any person under leasehold tenure.
- Any other land declared private land under an Act of Parliament.
- Landholding by non-citizens is allowed only through lease for a period not exceeding ninety-nine years.
- A corporate body, for the purpose of land ownership can only be recognized as a citizen if it is wholly owned by one or more citizens.
- Property held in trust will only be recognized as being held by a citizen if all the beneficial interest of the trust is held by the persons who are citizens.
Land policies since independence
- Transfer of land from European large scale farmers to Africans.
- Land consolidation and registration in which the government purchased several farms from the Europeans and sub-divided them among African holders.
- The Million Acre Scheme which was began in 1963 and involved settling African families on 13.5 hectares each.
- The Harambee Scheme started in 1969, involved settling families on 16.25 hectares each.
- The Haraka Scheme where squatters were settled in small plots of land in Central, Coast, Eastern and Rift Valley Provinces.
- Shirika Scheme started in 1971 to settle the landless and unemployed on the former European lands. Under this scheme, the individual farmers would own a small plot each while the rest of the farm would be managed by a cooperative. This scheme did not succeed since people wished to have their own pieces of land.
Several commissions have addressed land issues in Kenya. For example, in 2001, President Moi appointed the Njonjo Commission to investigate the main problems of land ownership and distribution in Kenya. In 2003, the NARC government set up the
Ndung’u Commission on land. Its Recommendations are yet to be implemented.
By 1983, 29 districts in Kenya had benefitted from Land adjudication and registration, a process which began in the 1950s in Central Kenya then spread to other parts of the country after 1963.
Benefits of the land reforms in Kenya
- Farmers could use their land title deeds to get loans from banks in order to expand farming on their land.
- Land titles enabled people to purchase land with confidence. No one would alienate them from their land.
- The reforms enabled thousands of landless people to own land.
- Dairy and cash crop production increased.
Land ownership by non-citizens
Principles that govern utilization of land in Kenya
- Equitable access to land. All members of the society must have equal access to land since it is an important resource.
- Transparent and cost effective administration of land. State institutions should be given powers and responsibilities of ensuring transparent and accountable administration of land.
- Elimination of gender discrimination. in line with protection of human rights, for all, discrimination against women on issues of land ownership and access to land need be eliminated.
- Sustainable and productive management of land resources. Since land is an economic resource, it should be managed well to ensure maximum productivity.
- Sound conservation and protection of ecologically sensitive areas. Conservation measures like prohibiting settlement and agricultural activities in water catchment areas and zoning of forest lands to protect them from further degradation.
- Encouragement of communities to settle land disputes. This should happen as long as they are consistent with the constitution.
Ways in which the Kenya government has solved land related problems since independence.
- The problems related to Communal Land ownership have been solved through land demarcation and adjudication by the government. This saw the conversion from traditional system of land ownership to modern freeload tenure.
- Landlessness was solved through creation of resettlement schemes. Large-scale farms and former European farms were divided into smaller ones and given to the landless. E.g Mwea Tebere, Bura, Shirika etc.
- The government has put marginal lands to more productive use through establishment of irrigation schemes and drainage schemes.
- The government removed restriction of movements from the reserves that were created by the colonial government. This decongested the reserves and gave chance to arable farming.
- At independence, the t government embarked on land consolidation policy through which scattered plots were put into one holding.
- The government also embarked on land reclamation measure to bring previously unused land to productive use.
- The Government has established the National Land Commission which manages public land
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES;
- Lack of African technocrats who could give political direction to the country.
- Suspicion and jealousy between different communities due to the divide-and-rule tactic employed by the colonial administration for many years.
- An illiterate population, ignorant of its political obligations
Political developments in Kenya between 1963 and 1991
The post of an executive president was created to replace the post of Prime Minister. In 1966, the Limuru conference presided over replacement of the Vice-President of KANU With seven Provincial Vice Presidents and one for Nairobi Area.
On 14th April 1966, Oginga Odinga resigned from KANU and Government and formed Kenya People’s Union (KPU) where Bildad Kaggia, Achieng Oneko and Tom Odongo joined him.
In 1966, the bicameral legislature (the senate and the House of Representatives) was disbanded. A single –chamber parliament was established.
In 1966, Joseph Murumbi was appointed the country’s vice-president to replace Oginga.
He resigned in 1967to pave way for Moi’s appointment.
1969 witnessed the political assassination of the flamboyant Tom Mboya in the hands of one, Nahashon Njenga on 5th July on Nairobi’s Moi Avenue.
1n 1969, KPU was banned following riots in Kisumu.
In 1975, Josiah Mwangi Kariuki. MP for Kinangop was found brutally murdered in Ngong Forest.
In October 1975 martin Shikuku and the deputy speaker, Jean Marie Seroney, were arrested and detained for making claims in the house that KANU and parliament were dead.
In 1976, Chelagat Mutai, MP for Eldoret North was arrested and jailed for 2½ years for inciting his constituents to violence. In 1977, George Anyona, MP for Kitutu was also arrested after he accused the government of corruption.
In 1976, the change the constitution campaign was began by Kihika Kimani, Dr. Njoroge Mungai, Jackson Angaine, Paul Ngei and Njenga Karume with the objective of making sure that the then vice president, Daniel Arap Moi would not succeeded the president. On 22nd august 1978, Jomo Kenyatta died and Moi assumed presidency for 90 days and was finally elected as second president of Kenya.
In July 1980, Moi banned all tribal organizations, the Kenya Civil Servants Union and the Nairobi University Staff Union.
In June 1982, after an attempt by Anyona to form a political party, section 2A was introduced in the Kenyan constitution making it a de jure one party state.
On 2nd august 982, Kenya experienced a coup d’etat by some air force servicemen.
Charles Njonjo, the Constitutional Affairs Minister was accused of masterminding the coup.
In 1988, KANU introduced the infamous Queue voting method (mlolongo) that was open to abuse.
In February 1990, Dr, Robert Ouko, minister of foreign affairs and international cooperation was murdered.
The better part of 1991 witnessed a series of tribal clashes involving Kalenjin and Kikuyu, Kalenjin and Luhya and Luos.
Kenya’s political developments from 1991 up to 2011
The first multiparty elections were held in 1992 in December. KANU won against a disjointed opposition.
In 1994, the official leader of the opposition and MP of Bondo, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga died.
After 1997 elections, the Inter-Parliamentary Parties Group ((IPPG) passed the reforms that marked the genesis of the constitutional review process.
In 2002, several opposition parties formed a coalition that overwhelmingly defeated KANU in the general elections.
In January 2003, the National Rainbow Coalition formed the new government with Mwai Kibaki as the president.
In august 2003, Wamalwa Kijana, the vice president of the coalition government died after a short illness. Mood Awori was appointed the next Vice president.
In 2005, a new political movement, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) was formed as a campaign tool against the proposed new constitution. Raila Odinga was its leader.
The general Elections of 2007 resulted in a political crisis that provoked an unprecedented wave of political violence and killing across Kenya.
On 28th February 2008 the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan succeeded in brokering a power sharing deal between the incumbent President, Mwai Kibaki, and the opposition leader, Raila Odinga thus bringing to end the political violence.
On April 17, 2008, Raila Odinga, from Orange Democratic Movement, was sworn as Prime Minister of Kenya, after more than forty years of the abolition of office.
On 28th august 2010 Kenya promulgated a new constitution thus making it the first independent African state to depart from the independence constitution.
In 2011, the International Criminal Court seating at the Hague, begun criminal proceedings against Uhuru Kenyatta, William Ruto, former police Commissioner Hussein Ali, Henry Kosgei, the head of public service Francis Muthaura and a journalist Joshua Arap Sang over their involvement in the 2008 post-Election Violence.
In June 2011, Dr. Willy Mutunga became the first Kenya’s Chief Justice and Nancy Makokha Barasa, his deputy under the new constitution.
The Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) was also replaced with the Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission (IEBC
The constitutional changes in Kenya in the period between 1963 and 1991
The second Lancaster conference in 1962 negotiated a framework for self government.
The third and final conference in 1963 resulted in the drafting and adoption of Kenya's first independent Constitution by the British Parliament
The 1963 constitution marked the end of colonial rule and transformed the colony into a dominion.
It established a parliamentary system with executive powers vested in a cabinet headed by a Prime Minister.
The Constitution was changed in 1964 and Kenya became a republic and the executive became presidential. The senate and regions were also abolished.
In 1966, the voting majority to change the Constitution was lowered to two-thirds of the
MPs. The term ‘region’ was replaced with ‘province.’
In 1966, a constitutional amendment abolished the Bicameral Legislature and replaced it with a Unicameral Legislature, chosen directly by the electorate.
On 28th April 1966, an amendment was passed to compel MPs who defected from sponsoring party, to resign from parliament and seek re-election.
In May 1966, the Public Security Act was passed empowering the president to detain a citizen without trial on grounds of being a threat to state security.
In 1968, the president was empowered to alter provincial and district boundaries. In 1968, the procedure for presidential elections and succession in the event of his
death was laid down. The age qualification for presidential candidates was also lowered to 35 from 40 years.
In 1974, an amendment of the constitution empowered the president to pardon any election offender at his own discretion. This was done to favour Paul Ngei.
In 1975, Kiswahili was declared the national language of the national assembly.
In 1977, the Kenya court of appeal was established after the breakup of the East African Community. Voting age was lowered from 21 to 18
In 1979, both Kiswahili and English were declared languages of the national assembly. In 1982, Kenya became a de jure one party state. KANU became the only lawful party in Kenya.
In 1987, the security of tenure of the Attorney General, Chief Secretary, The Comptroller and Auditor–General was removed. Office of chief secretary was abolished.
In 1988, the security of tenure of Puisine Judges and Chairman of Public Service Commission was removed.
A parliamentary act in December 1991 repealed the one-party system provisions of the constitution and effectively established a multiparty system. Multiparty elections were held the following year in December.
Steps towards realization of a new constitution in Kenya since 1997
- In 1997, Parliament passed the Constitution of Kenya Review Act that set the pace for comprehensive constitutional reforms. The Constitution of Kenya Review Commission (CKRC) was established to provide civic education, seek public input and prepare a draft constitution).
- In 2005, after many years of struggle, the draft constitution was ultimately rejected by Kenyans at the constitutional referendum because of disagreements amongst various stakeholders.
- 28 February 2008 The National Accord and Reconciliation Act (NARA) signed by President Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga put in place arrangement for a new process to finalize the long awaited constitution of Kenya
- In 2008 the Constitution of Kenya Review Act 2008 was passed and a Committee of Experts (CoE) was established as the main technical constitutional review organ to drive the process. The CoE was chaired by Nzamba Kitonga, the deputy chair was Ms Atsango Chesoni, other members were Ms Njoki Ndung'u, Mr Otiende Amolo,Mr Abdirashid Hussein Mr Bobby Mkangi Professor Christina Murray (South Africa) Dr Chaloka Beyani (Zambia) and Dr Frederick Ssempebwav (Uganda.
- 23 February 2009 Members of the CoE were appointed by the President were later on sworn in
- On 17 November 2009 CoE released the draft to the public and invited views and comments on the draft constitution,
- By 23rd February 2010. CoE had submitted the final draft of constitution to the Parliamentary Select Committee.
- On 4th august 2010 Kenya held a Constitutional Referendum where the new constitution was overwhelmingly endorsed.
- On 28th august 2010, the new constitution was promulgated and became operational making Kenya the first independent African state to depart from the independence constitution.
Meaning and origin of African Socialism.
African socialism was born out of the desire by our leaders to create a new society, different from the colonial society and which embraced equity devoid of racism, oppression and other social injustices.
Main features that characterized African socialism in Kenya
- Political Democracy where all people are politically free and equal
- Various forms of ownership of wealth. E.g. free enterprise allowing private ownership of property, nationalization policy for key industries, partnership with private sector
- Mutual social responsibility. That the spirit of service and not greed for personal gain motivate Kenyans.
- A range of control to ensure that property is used in mutual interests of society and its members.
- Progressive taxation to ensure an equitable distribution of wealth and income.
- Diffusion of ownership to avoid concentration of economic power on a few people in the society.
Achievements of African socialism as a National Philosophy
- It has led to promotion of democratic process in governance. Multi-partism has been established in Kenya due to African socialism policies. Kenya has also witnessed the growth of the civil society.
- Since the philosophy is built on African traditions, it has promoted African cultures Kenya pursued African values consistent with her traditions.
- The philosophy has promoted national unity and coexistence among Kenyan communities.
- There has been a greater effort to achieve fairness and justice through progressive taxation and a range of other controls. The government has tried to achieve fair distribution of resources through the activities of the District Focus for Rural Development.
- The philosophy led to establishment of cooperative societies in Kenya. This has promoted social and economic development in Kenya.
- African socialism has promoted agricultural development through the land tenure system that was undertaken to ensure settlement of the landless in settlement schemes like Bura.
- Social development in education and health has been achieved. Discrimination in schools, hospitals and residential areas stopped. Uniform systems were adopted.
- The philosophy gave Africans the right to participate in their economy. This was through the policy of Africanization in which industrial enterprises hitherto owned by Asians and Europeans, changed ownership.
- African socialism has encouraged rapid development in Kenya. The policy of mutual social responsibility through self-help promotes a sense of patriotism and service to the nation as Kenyans work together to build the nation.
Problems that faced African socialism
- Progressive taxation has put an additional burden of taxation on the poor thus discouraging development.
- Political interference in public projects and wrangles among leaders retards development.
- The spirit of unity and cooperation and self-help has been discouraged by misappropriation of funds.
- Corruption leads to negative attitude from people towards contributing to national development.
Meaning and origin of Harambee philosophy
Mzee Jomo Kenyatta made it a national Motto in 1963 when he aptly advanced it as unity in all causes of national integrity and human progress.
The Harambee spirit embodies ideals of assistance, joint effort, mutual social responsibility and community self-reliance.
Harambee projects are categorized as;
- Social Projects. Educational institutions and facilities, medical centres, recreational facilities and religious institutions.
- Economic projects. Construction of rural access roads, bridges and culverts, agricultural and livestock activities.
Principles that guide the Harambee spirit.
- It is a development strategy that is aimed at mobilizing the people at local level to participate in their development
- Participation is guided by the principles of collective good as opposed to individual gain. Harambee efforts should be directed towards community projects rather than individual projects.
- The choice of project is supposed to be guided by the felt needs of the majority. Participants should be involved in decision making.
- In the implementation of projects, there should be maximum utilization of the local resources such as labour, materials and money.
Contribution of Harambee movement to the development of Kenya.
- Harambee movement has led to development of education in Kenya through Harambee fundraising to construct schools and colleges.
- Funds have been collected through Harambee to improve infrastructural facilities such as roads, rural electrification and provision of water.
- Collective participation in development programmes by people from different groups has promoted national unity.
- It has helped inculcate hard work in the people of Kenya. This has in turn encouraged various ethnic groups to develop their respective areas.
- Harambee projects especially in rural areas have attracted foreign donors especially the NGO’S
- Has led to re-distribution of resources as people with more funds have participated in the development projects in the less developed areas.
- Funds have been raised through Harambee to help the less fortunate members of the society. For example, President Moi 8th April 1989 held a Mammoth Rally where KSH 70 Million was raised to help the disabled.
- Harambee movement has promoted agricultural development e.g., through construction of cattle dips and purchase of farms through Harambee.
- Funds raised through Harambee have been used to purchase buses and Matatus to provide transport.
Ways in which the Harambee philosophy has promoted the development of education in Kenya.
- Many education institutions have been constructed using funds raised through Harambee effort. Thus enabling many children to attend school.
- Many students have been assisted to pay school fees/thus it enables the needy to go on learning.
- Physical facilities have been constructed/improved through Harambee. This enables learning in a conducive environment.
- Teaching/learning materials have been purchased/ donated to schools to improve the quality of education.
- Additional staff/workers in schools have been paid through Harambee contributions by the parents to offset inadequacy.
- Through Harambee spirit, well-wishers, thus helping the learners to exploit their talents, have supported co-curricular activities.
- School furniture has been bought through Harambee effort thus making learning /teaching comfortable.
- Parents have contributed funds to supplement the government’s school feeding programmes thus improving enrolment.
Problems that face Harambee movement in Kenya
- Misuse of Harambee funds/diverting its use and lack of commitment by leaders.
- It puts an additional burden of taxation on the poor.
- Embezzlement of public funds.
- Political interference and wrangles among leaders.
- The spirit of unity and co-operation and self-help may be killed by misappropriation of funds.
- Poor co-ordination and supervision of Harambee projects.
- Use of force or extortion of Harambee funds from the people/dictatorial tendencies.
- Corruption and negative attitude from people.
- Use of Harambee for political gains.
Meaning and origin of Nyayoism
This was a phrase coined by the former president of Kenya Daniel Arap Moi, in reference to his Endeavour to follow the footsteps of his predecessor.
Today, Nyayoism means peace, love and unity that form the pillars of the development philosophy.
It stresses the concept of being mindful of other people’s welfare.
It is closely related to the principal of mutual social responsibility as embodied in African socialism.
Sources of Nyayoism
- Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 that articulated African socialism, which is based on collective responsibility and on being mindful of other people’s welfare.
- The Biblical teaching of the Ten Commandments, summarized as Love for God, fellow man and oneself.
- Moi’s long political career inspired him to develop the philosophy when he realized that national building required love.
Pillars of Nyayoism.
- Peace: - the state of being free from war and disorder. Peace is the beginning of sustainable and cumulative progress. Peace promotes development. According to Nyayoism, peace discourages political stability.
- Love: - Love brings about trust and readiness to cooperate by working together to foster national development. Lack of love disturbs peace, creates disorder and destroys progress. Love encourages the African culture of sharing through the extended family (communalism).
- Unity: - the state of being one, being in harmony or in agreement in objectives and feelings. The diversity of Kenya’s culture, religion, races and language requires that there must be unity for nation-building.
Role played by Nyayoism in national development.
- The philosophy formed the basis for solving national development problems. The philosophy perpetuated the Harambee spirit.
- The philosophy helped in unifying different communities. The philosophy enhanced cooperation and unity of all.
- Nyayoism was used as the rallying spirit for the collective contribution and approach to national development.
- Nyayoism discouraged societal evils since it preached love, unity and peace. Corruption was discouraged through the philosophy.
- It discouraged all forms of discrimination based on religion, tribe, race, and social status.
- The philosophy created respect for public property and functions.
- It enabled the creation of a welfare state since everyone became mindful of others welfare.
- It created a sense of nationalism and patriotism necessary for national development.
Impact of National Philosophies.
Social Impact of National Philosophies
- Education has been promoted through philosophies like the Harambee that have assisted in construction of schools, laboratories and libraries.
- Medical services have been improved
- Cooperation, understanding and unity have been encouraged since the philosophies emphasized togetherness for nation-building.
- The philosophies have promoted the spiritual and social welfare of people by raising their living standards. African socialism encourages people to assist others are share with others.
- Through the Harambee spirit, the plight of persons with disabilities and other disadvantaged groups has been looked into.
- The philosophies have promoted African cultures, since they are drawn from African traditions.
- Self-reliance and The Africanization process through which the people of Kenya were able to take over from foreigners was made possible by the philosophies.
- Due to the policy of pooling together resources and the spirit of cooperation derived from African socialism, cooperative societies have been formed in agriculture and other sectors, thus contributing to the country’s development.
- Transport and communication has been improved through African socialism and Harambee spirit. Rural access roads have been constructed; Nyayo buses were bought though the scheme failed due to mismanagement.
- The agricultural sector has been boosted by the philosophies. Kenyans are encouraged to work hard to increase food production.
- The pillars of Nyayoism have created a conducive atmosphere for growth of tourism and foreign investment in the country.
- The philosophies have promoted nationalism and patriotism in the country.
- African socialism has encouraged the democratization process as it champions for political equality.
- It has promoted international cooperation and understanding
Chapter 13 Social
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....