CAUSES OF THE SCRAMBLE FOR EAST AFRICA.
Factors that contributed to the scramble and partition of East Africa.
The process of Partition.
The Berlin conference failed to fully resolve the rivalry between the Germans and the British in East Africa. The activities of Karl Peters and Harry Johnstone for the Germans and the British respectively in the Mount Kilimanjaro region depicted intense rivalry which almost led to war. The two signed treaties with local chiefs as a way of legalizing their arbitrary declaration of their spheres of influence. Karl peters even declared german protectorate over Ungulu, Uzigua, Usagara and Ukami. These activities together with those of Sir William Mackinnon of the Imperial British East Africa Company became the immediate cause of the partition of east Africa.
The partition of East Africa was sealed through the following two treaties.
Terms of the Heligoland Treaty of 1890.
BRITISH OCCUPATION OF KENYA
Methods used by the British to occupy Kenya.
The Imperial British East Africa Company of Sir William Mackinnon was given the royal charter in 1888 and thus had the following new powers;
Achievements of the IBEAC.
Reasons why Britain used the IBEA Company to administer her possession.
Achievements of the IBEAC.
Why company rule had failed by 1895.
Factors facilitated the establishment of the British control over Kenya during the 19th century
KENYA PEOPLES’ RESPONSES BRITISH INVASION OF KENYA
The Nandi Resistance (1895-1906)
Reasons why the Nandi resisted British occupation of their land.
Course of the Nandi rebellion.
Why the Nandi offered the longest and strongest ever resistance to the British intrusion in Kenya.
Why the Nandi were defeated in the hands of the British.
Results of the Nandi resistance.
A Bantu speaking group inhabiting the coastal region, their reaction to the British invasion was motivated by the reaction of the Mazrui Arabs and the Swahili who rose up against the British in 1895. The Agiriama reaction began as an offer of support to the Mazrui Arabs, with whom they had long trading links, during their conflict with the British over succession to the Takaungu Sheikhdom. The Agiriama was also hitting back against the Busaidi Arabs who were encroaching on their territory. The British had supported the Al Busaidi collaborators throughout succession conflict. The British reacted by bombarding Rashid’s Headquarters at Mweli forcing the Agiriama and the Mazrui to resort to guerilla warfare. While the Mazrui Arabs later surrendered, the Agiriama now resorted to full scale résistance against the British encroachment in 1914.
Causes of the Agiriama resistance.
Course of the resistance.
The Agiriama resistance was inspired by a Giriama prophetess, Mekatilili wa Menza. She was joined by an Elder, Wanje wa Madorika in mobilizing people to a mass resistance against the British rule. The immediate course of their reaction was the forced military recruitment into the KAR. To provoke the British to war, they barred their young men from moving outside their villages to work. Mekatilili and Wanje called on the people to return to their ancestral shrine at Kaya Fungo and offer sacrifices and denounced all appointed puppet rulers in favour of the traditional council of elders. The two administered traditional oaths to unite and inspire the people to war. I.e. the Mukushekushe oath for women and the Fisi oat for men. When a state of emergency was declared by the British over the Agiriama, they resorted to Hit-and-run warfare. They attacked the homes of loyalists, Europeans and collaborators forcing the missionaries to seeker refuge at Rabai. The British countered the hit-and-run warfare with burning villages and crops and driving away livestock. The resistance only subsided when Mekatilili and Wanje were arrested and deported to Kisii. The Arabs, under Fadhili bin Omari, mediated between the Agiriama and the British, marking the end of the war under the following terms;
Role of Mekatilili in the Agiriama resistance.
Results of the Agiriama resistance to the British
Reasons why the Bukusu resisted the British rule.
Course of the resistance.
The Bukusu resistance began with the ambush of a trade caravan heading to Ravine through Bukusuland. The Bukusu stole all the rifles. When they were commanded to surrender all the guns in 1894 and declined, the British sent a punitive expedition which however was defeated. The British administrator at Elureko, Charles Hobley sought for reinforcement from Major William Grant of the Ugandan protectorate. In 1895, at the battles of Lumboka and Chetambe, the Bukusu were summarily defeated.
Methods used by the Bukusu to resist the British.
Effects of the Bukusu resistance.
The Somali resistance.
The Somali resistance was a reaction to the British declaration that Jubaland was a British protectorate. They were led by their leader Ahmad bin Murgan.
Causes of Somali resistance.
Course of the resistance.
The British initially reacted minimally to the Somali aggression on their Kisimayu neighbourhood in 1898 due to the following reasons;
Results of the Somali resistance.
In Kenya, the Maasai, Wanga and a section of the Agikuyu, Akamba, and Luo collaborated.
The Maasai collaboration.
In the 19th century, the Maasai community changed from a once feared community to one marred by succession disputes and natural calamities. The Disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo over succession of Mbatian after he died weakened the Maasai community to the level of merely collaborating with the British intruders. Sendeyo moved with his followers to northern Tanzania leaving behind Lenana’s group who chose the path of collaboration.
Reasons for the Maasai collaboration with the British.
The process of Maasai collaboration.
The attempt by Lenana to secure assistance against Sendeyo was the beginning of his collaboration with the British. The Kedong massacre incident (Maasai warriors attacked a caravan of Swahili and Agikuyu traders travelling from Ravine) and the resultant death of 100 Maasai at the hands of three white men (Andrew Dick and two French companions) made the Maasai the immediately seek for collaboration with the British. They cooperated with the British in establishment of colonial administration. The provided mercenaries in the British punitive expedition against the Nandi, Kipsigis and Kikuyu. Maasai were rewarded with cattle acquired from uncooperative peoples e.g. The Nandi and Agikuyu They exchanged gifts and used British manufactured goods. Lenana was made a paramount chief. Between 1904 and 1923, a fair proportion of the Maasai agreed to be moved from one grazing land to another to pave way for British settlement. They signed the first Maasai agreement in 1904 by which they moved into two reserves, one to the south of Ngong and the railway and the other up on the Laikipia plateau. A corridor of five kilometres was set aside in Kinangop for the Eunoto ceremony that accompanied circumcision. The second Maasai agreement of 1911 implied the Maasai abandon the Laikipia plateau to rejoin others in the enlarged southern reserve.
Results of the Maasai collaboration.
Nabongo Mumia, the Wanga leader from 1880, was an ambitious and shrewd leader who had the desire to expand his Kingdom through collaboration with British intruders and soliciting their military assistance.
Reasons for Wanga Collaboration.
Process of Wanga Collaboration.
Mumia’s contact with the outside world began when he befriended the Swahili and Arab caravan traders and later the IBEA Company merchants when they visited Wangaland. They built a fort and a trading station at Elureko, his capital, which was to remain the headquarters of the British administration in western Kenya until 1920.
Ways in which Nabongo of Wanga collaborate with the British.
Results of the Wanga collaboration with the British.
The communities that exhibited mixed reaction were the Akamba, Agikuyu and Luo.
The Akamba Reaction.
The arrival of the British traders threatened to destabilize the prominence enjoyed by the Akamba as middlemen during the long distance trade. The British even tried to stop the Akamba from organizing raids on their Oromo, Agikuyu and Maasai neighbours.
Why the Akamba decided to resist British administration?
Course of the Akamba resistance.
Why a section of the Akamba collaborated with the British.
Reasons for the Akamba defeat.
Consequences of the Akamba reaction.
The Agikuyu reaction.
The Agikuyu was also a highly segmented nature lacking in territorial unity. This explains why they had mixed reaction against the British.
Explain the causes of Agikuyu resistance.
Reasons why some Agikuyu collaborated.
Organization of the Agikuyu reaction.
When captain Lugard established a fort at Dagoretti in 1890, he began relating with Waiyaki wa Hinga who was in charge of the area. Wayaki’s people supplied Lugard’s men with food. However, when Wilson took over from Lugard who had left for Uganda, his soldiers began looting food and livestock from the Agikuyu.
The Agikuyu reacted by setting the Dagoretti fort on fire. Waiyaki was arrested by the forces sent by Sub-commissioner Ainsworth, and died enroute to Mombasa. It is alleged that he was buried alive at Kibwezi after provoking his captors. Kinyanjui wa Gathirimu, a collaborator, succeeded Waiyaki at Dagoretti. In 1899, Fort Dagoretti was closed down due to a series of raids. Francis Hall opened another Fort at Murang’a (renamed Fort Hall after his death in 1901) after the locals were subdued and forced to accept the British Colonial rule. British trader John Boyes forged an alliance with Karuri wa Gakure, the Agikuyu leader at Fort Hall, which enabled him to subdue the resisting Agikuyu groups. He also made contacts with Wang’ombe of Gaki (Nyeri) who together with Gakure supplied the British with mercenaries in exchange for confiscated loots from resisting groups. Meinertzhagen, who succeeded Francis Hall in 1902, subdued the Muruku and Tetu section (led by Chief Gakere) of the Agikuyu. Chief Gakere was murdered and his associates deported to the coast after they wiped out the entire Asian caravan on the slopes of the Aberdares. The Agikuyu of Iriani (Nyeri) were defeated in 1904 and their Aembu and Ameru allies sought for peace in 1906, having seen the effects of resisting. By 1910, British rule had been established in the entire Mount Kenya region. With the Agikuyu settling peacefully in the reserves upto 1920s when they began to agitate again.
Results of the Agikuyu mixed reaction.
The Luo reaction.
The resisters were the Luo of Sakwa, seme, Uyoma, Ugenya and Kisumu. The collaborators were the Luo of Gem and Asembo, led by Chief (Ruoth) Odera Akang’o.
Reasons for the resistance against the British by the Luo of Ugenya.
Course of the Luo resistance.
The Luo of Ugenya set off the resistance by attacking the Wanga in an attempt to expand. They vandalized British key installations like the telegraph wires and administrative stations. In 1896, the British sent an expedition against them and 200 people were killed. When the British attacked the Seme Luo for cattle and Grains, they were provoked into revolting. They attacked the Asembo Luo who had collaborated with the British. The British invaded them in 1898 with devastating effects in terms of property and life loss. The Luo of Kisumu rose up in 1898 attacking a British Canoe party on Winam Gulf for taking their fish without paying. They were however overcome. The Gem and Asembo Luos led by Ruoth Odera Akang’o supported the British throughout all these confrontations.
Results of the Luo reaction.
International Relations refers to the cooperation or interaction between individuals or groups of nations of the world
Benefits of international relations
Ways in which nations relate internationally.
There are two types of international organizations;
Role played by International Governmental Organizations.
THE UNITED NATIONS
The UN was founded after world war Two as an organization of independent states with the following objectives;
Formation of the United Nations
The signing of the Allied declaration in London on 12th June 1941 marked the first step in the formation of the UN. On 14th August 1941, Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA and Winston Churchill of Britain, meeting in USA, proposed a set of principles for international collaboration in maintaining peace and security. This was the Atlantic Charter. The charter pledged respect for human Freedom, Allowed all nations the freedom to choose the form of government they preferred and provided that no territory should change hands after war without consent of its people.
On 1st January 1942, representatives of Allied nations meeting in Washington signed the
‘Declaration by United Nations’ and proclaimed support for the Atlantic Charter This marked the first official use of the term ‘United Nations’ as suggested by President Roosevelt in reference to the 26 nations
The first Blueprint of the UN was prepared at a conference held at Dumbarton Oaks Estate, Washington from 21st September to 7th October 1944. Representatives of USSR, USA, UK and China agreed on the aims, structure and functions of a world organization. On 11th February 1945, the Yalta Conference held by US president Roosevelt, UK PM Churchill and Russian PM Stalin declared the resolve to establish an international organization to maintain peace and security.
On 25th April 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, USA attended by delegates from 50 nations. It drew a 111-Article Charter which was adopted on 25th June 1945.
The UN began its official functions on 24th October 1945 after ratification of the charter by USSR, USA, Britain, China and France.
Organization of the UNO
Membership to the UN is open to all peace-loving nations that accept the obligations of the charter. By 1945, only 51 states had signed the charter. Kenya Joined on 16th December 1963. By April 2003 membership had grown to 191 states.
To achieve its aims, the UN spelt out in its charter the following principles;
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
This is the main deliberative organ of the UNO, but which cannot enforce action on members. It comprises all member states.
Functions of the UN General Assembly
To help in its operation, the general assembly has the following committees;
The political and security committee, the special political committee, the economic and financial committee, the committee on social ,humanitarian and cultural issues, the trusteeship committee , the administration/budget committee and the legal affairs committee.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
It has 15 members from 15 countries. Ten of these are non-permanent. It also has five permanent members namely china, France, USA, Russia and UK.
Its main function is to maintain world peace and security.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Its membership is 54. 18 are elected each year for a term of three years.
Its function is to coordinate the economic and social work of UN and its specialized agencies. E.g. in trade, status of women, Population, science and technology
It inherited the work of the Mandates Commission of the former League of Nations. It had responsibility over the territories under colonial rule-. - To promote social, economic, political and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories.
Consists of five permanent members and six additional ones appointed by the General Assembly
The head of the secretariat is the secretary general. It has its headquarters in New York. Its staff members come from 139 countries. Its work covers all areas outlined in the UN Charter.
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
It has its headquarters at Hague. It is the principal judicial body of the UN. It gives advisory opinions on legal questions. It has 15 judges.
These are separate specialized agencies which are autonomous organizations related to the UN by special agreements. (REF TO PAGE 49 OF EVOLVING WORLD)
Past Secretary Generals of the United Nations Organization since its inception
Achievements of the United Nations Organization
Problems facing the United Nations Organization in its operation
Pre-historic sites in Kenya
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....
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