SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES;
Political developments in Kenya between 1963 and 1991
On 12th December 1963, Kenya became independent under KANU led by Jomo Kenyatta. In 1964, there was voluntary disbanding of KADU and APP making Kenya a de facto one party state. There was abolition of Federal Constitution in favour of a Unitary or Republican Constitution.
The post of an executive president was created to replace the post of Prime Minister. In 1966, the Limuru conference presided over replacement of the Vice-President of KANU With seven Provincial Vice Presidents and one for Nairobi Area.
On 14th April 1966, Oginga Odinga resigned from KANU and Government and formed Kenya People’s Union (KPU) where Bildad Kaggia, Achieng Oneko and Tom Odongo joined him.
In 1966, the bicameral legislature (the senate and the House of Representatives) was disbanded. A single –chamber parliament was established.
In 1966, Joseph Murumbi was appointed the country’s vice-president to replace Oginga.
He resigned in 1967to pave way for Moi’s appointment.
1969 witnessed the political assassination of the flamboyant Tom Mboya in the hands of one, Nahashon Njenga on 5th July on Nairobi’s Moi Avenue.
1n 1969, KPU was banned following riots in Kisumu.
In 1975, Josiah Mwangi Kariuki. MP for Kinangop was found brutally murdered in Ngong Forest.
In October 1975 martin Shikuku and the deputy speaker, Jean Marie Seroney, were arrested and detained for making claims in the house that KANU and parliament were dead.
In 1976, Chelagat Mutai, MP for Eldoret North was arrested and jailed for 2½ years for inciting his constituents to violence. In 1977, George Anyona, MP for Kitutu was also arrested after he accused the government of corruption.
In 1976, the change the constitution campaign was began by Kihika Kimani, Dr. Njoroge Mungai, Jackson Angaine, Paul Ngei and Njenga Karume with the objective of making sure that the then vice president, Daniel Arap Moi would not succeeded the president. On 22nd august 1978, Jomo Kenyatta died and Moi assumed presidency for 90 days and was finally elected as second president of Kenya.
In July 1980, Moi banned all tribal organizations, the Kenya Civil Servants Union and the Nairobi University Staff Union.
In June 1982, after an attempt by Anyona to form a political party, section 2A was introduced in the Kenyan constitution making it a de jure one party state.
On 2nd august 982, Kenya experienced a coup d’etat by some air force servicemen.
Charles Njonjo, the Constitutional Affairs Minister was accused of masterminding the coup.
In 1988, KANU introduced the infamous Queue voting method (mlolongo) that was open to abuse.
In February 1990, Dr, Robert Ouko, minister of foreign affairs and international cooperation was murdered.
The better part of 1991 witnessed a series of tribal clashes involving Kalenjin and Kikuyu, Kalenjin and Luhya and Luos.
Kenya’s political developments from 1991 up to 2011
In December 1991, a parliamentary act repealed the one-party system provisions of the constitution and effectively established a multiparty system. The first political party to be formed under the repealed act was Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD) In august 1992, one of the leaders of FORD Masinde Muliro died mysteriously.
The first multiparty elections were held in 1992 in December. KANU won against a disjointed opposition.
In 1994, the official leader of the opposition and MP of Bondo, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga died.
After 1997 elections, the Inter-Parliamentary Parties Group ((IPPG) passed the reforms that marked the genesis of the constitutional review process.
In 2002, several opposition parties formed a coalition that overwhelmingly defeated KANU in the general elections.
In January 2003, the National Rainbow Coalition formed the new government with Mwai Kibaki as the president.
In august 2003, Wamalwa Kijana, the vice president of the coalition government died after a short illness. Mood Awori was appointed the next Vice president.
In 2005, a new political movement, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) was formed as a campaign tool against the proposed new constitution. Raila Odinga was its leader.
The general Elections of 2007 resulted in a political crisis that provoked an unprecedented wave of political violence and killing across Kenya.
On 28th February 2008 the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan succeeded in brokering a power sharing deal between the incumbent President, Mwai Kibaki, and the opposition leader, Raila Odinga thus bringing to end the political violence.
On April 17, 2008, Raila Odinga, from Orange Democratic Movement, was sworn as Prime Minister of Kenya, after more than forty years of the abolition of office.
On 28th august 2010 Kenya promulgated a new constitution thus making it the first independent African state to depart from the independence constitution.
In 2011, the International Criminal Court seating at the Hague, begun criminal proceedings against Uhuru Kenyatta, William Ruto, former police Commissioner Hussein Ali, Henry Kosgei, the head of public service Francis Muthaura and a journalist Joshua Arap Sang over their involvement in the 2008 post-Election Violence.
In June 2011, Dr. Willy Mutunga became the first Kenya’s Chief Justice and Nancy Makokha Barasa, his deputy under the new constitution.
The Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) was also replaced with the Independent Elections and Boundaries Commission (IEBC
The constitutional changes in Kenya in the period between 1963 and 1991
The first meeting in Lancaster in 1960 resulted in an interim constitution that failed to grant any substantial autonomy to Kenya.
The second Lancaster conference in 1962 negotiated a framework for self government.
The third and final conference in 1963 resulted in the drafting and adoption of Kenya's first independent Constitution by the British Parliament
The 1963 constitution marked the end of colonial rule and transformed the colony into a dominion.
It established a parliamentary system with executive powers vested in a cabinet headed by a Prime Minister.
The Constitution was changed in 1964 and Kenya became a republic and the executive became presidential. The senate and regions were also abolished.
In 1966, the voting majority to change the Constitution was lowered to two-thirds of the
MPs. The term ‘region’ was replaced with ‘province.’
In 1966, a constitutional amendment abolished the Bicameral Legislature and replaced it with a Unicameral Legislature, chosen directly by the electorate.
On 28th April 1966, an amendment was passed to compel MPs who defected from sponsoring party, to resign from parliament and seek re-election.
In May 1966, the Public Security Act was passed empowering the president to detain a citizen without trial on grounds of being a threat to state security.
In 1968, the president was empowered to alter provincial and district boundaries. In 1968, the procedure for presidential elections and succession in the event of his
death was laid down. The age qualification for presidential candidates was also lowered to 35 from 40 years.
In 1974, an amendment of the constitution empowered the president to pardon any election offender at his own discretion. This was done to favour Paul Ngei.
In 1975, Kiswahili was declared the national language of the national assembly.
In 1977, the Kenya court of appeal was established after the breakup of the East African Community. Voting age was lowered from 21 to 18
In 1979, both Kiswahili and English were declared languages of the national assembly. In 1982, Kenya became a de jure one party state. KANU became the only lawful party in Kenya.
In 1987, the security of tenure of the Attorney General, Chief Secretary, The Comptroller and Auditor–General was removed. Office of chief secretary was abolished.
In 1988, the security of tenure of Puisine Judges and Chairman of Public Service Commission was removed.
A parliamentary act in December 1991 repealed the one-party system provisions of the constitution and effectively established a multiparty system. Multiparty elections were held the following year in December.
Steps towards realization of a new constitution in Kenya since 1997
THE NATIONAL LAND COMMISSION - KCSE HISTORY NOTES
By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:
Table of Content
Functions of the National Land Commission.
Development in agriculture since independence
After independence, the government encouraged small scale farming of coffee and tea as opposed to large scale farming that existed during the colonial period.
The Agricultural development corporation (ADC) was set up to manage large scale farms that were established by the government in western, Rift Valley and Coast provinces. Such farms specialize in production of seeds to be used by farmers for planting. They also specialize in production of high quality dairy and beef cattle in Kenya.
The government also established the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in Muguga near Kikuyu to assist in identifying good crop breeds for different types of soils.
Irrigation Schemes were expanded in the marginal areas. For example. Mea (central), Bura (coast), Ahero (Nyanza) and Perkerra (central)
The government created development authorities to effectively manage water catchment areas. For example, TARDA, KVDA and LBDA
Challenges facing Kenya’s agricultural sector.
Industrial developments in Kenya since independence
Kenya’s industrial sector was shaped by the long period of colonization. At independence, industry was characterized by dominance of foreign capital and dominance of the agricultural sector.
Factors that facilitated industrial development in Kenya since the colonial era
Measures taken by the Kenyan government to promote industrial development since independence
Factors that have hindered industrial development in Kenya
Social Development and challenges since independence.
To solve the problems inherited at independence in the education sector (poor quality education and poor facilities available the Kenya children), the government undertook the following measures;
Main developments in education in Kenya since independence
In 1975, Kiswahili was made the official languages of parliament and learning in schools. The ministry of education established structures right from the district level to national level to help in fulfilling the national objectives of education.
Several education commissions were set up to streamline education.
The harambee strategy was employed to expand education facilities. Many schools were built.
In 1980, the government took over the responsibility of providing pre-primary education.
In the 1990s, the government in collaboration with UNICEF launched a programme to promote early childhood education.
By1998, the total number of students in the various universities was over 40,000. In 1969, the ministry of education took over the administration of primary education from local government, this witnessed increased enrolment.
In 1978, the government introduced the school milk programme to encourage children especially in drought prone areas to go to school.
The programme stalled in 1990 but had achieved higher enrolment in schools.
The Ministry of education launched school feeding programme, targeting dry areas.
In 2002, the NARC government introduced the ‘Free Primary Education’ policy.
Further reading be done from evolving world on Elementary education and Tertiary education in Kenya
MEASURES TAKEN TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH SECTOR IN POSTCOLONIAL KENYA
Major challenges facing the Health sector in Kenya.
Ways through which the government has encouraged the preservation of African culture since independence.