Development of Industry
Industry is defined as the skill of making other products from raw materials. It involves extraction and processing into finished products of raw materials
Early Sources of Energy.
Energy is the ability to do work. The following are the early sources of energy that can be identified.
Wood was developed as a source of energy after the discovery of fire. It was used as follows;
Uses of metals in Africa
The age of metals in Africa is divided into the Bronze and Iron Age. Man moved from the Stone Age to the age of metals because metals had the following advantages;
This was the first metal to be used by humankind. It was used in Meroe, Egypt, Wangara in Ghana and in Central Africa. Gold is malleable and therefore it could be easily moulded into the desired shape without smelting it. Its softness however implied that tools made from gold could bend easily. It was also heavy and could not be found everywhere.
Uses of Gold.
Though quite soft, copper as harder than Gold and could make better tools. The Egyptians were the earliest people to use copper by 3000 BC. The metal could further be hardened by mixing it with other metals to form alloys during smelting.
Uses of copper.
Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin which makes it harder than copper. It was used during the Bronze Age. In Africa Bronze was used among the Yoruba, Dahomey and Asante in Nigeria and in Benin. And also in Egypt. Benin was the centre of Bronze.
Uses of Bronze.
Two theories that explain the origin and spread of iron working in Africa are;
The Hittites were the first people to smelt and use iron in around 1500BC. The skill then spread to the Assyrians. The idea then spread to Africa between 400 and 500 BC and became widespread in the Nile Valley. By 5th c it had spread upto Meroe (the Birmingham of Africa) then to Ethiopia. From Carthage and Tunisia, it spread to West Africa, at Taruga in Nigeria’s Jos plateau at around 580BC, then to Lake Chad by 500 AD
Ways in which the iron culture spread in Africa.
Effects of iron working.
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