In Asia, intensive irrigation was practised along river valleys in the Indus plain, where food supply was adequate. Cattle keepers from central Asia gradually settled down to farming in India.
Garden cultivators of south-east Asia grew rice, which boosted productivity at the Ganges valley.
Zebu cattle, water buffaloes, elephants, horses, goats, sheep and pigs were domesticated in the Ganges region.
However, because early farmers had not yet mastered weather patterns, they were victims to long periods of drought and floods. Their crop yields were low due to lack of scientific knowledge.
In spite of these and other problems, the positive agricultural outcome in Asia was unhindered.
Early Agriculture in Europe
Identify the crops and animals that were cultivated and domesticated in ancient Europe.
Farm implements used in Europe as early agriculture was developed.
Analyzing/Discussing early farming activities in Europe.
In Europe, food production started at about the same time as in Egypt.
The Mediterranean region favoured extension of initial farming methods from the Middle East, from where early food producers passed into southern Europe.
European farmers practised shifting cultivation. In areas near river valleys, irrigation was practised.
Hoes and sticks were used, though ploughs were later introduced for tilling land.
Beans, peas and lentils were grown in the Neolithic times, but oats and rye were major cereal crops in the Iron Age. Keeping of sheep was widespread.
Impact of Early Agriculture
Explain the impact of the discovery of agriculture (What were the results of development of early agriculture?)
Population increase due to healthy feeding.
Change of man from hunter-gatherer to food producer. Man no longer relied totally on the environment for his survival
Adequate food production, with a surplus for future use.
Improved cultivation methods in addition to invention and use of better farm implements like ploughs. More land was put into use through diking and irrigation. These helped remedy the problem of drought, floods and inadequate rainfall.
Development of High Breed seeds and better quality livestock, with more yields.
Better settled life, with less migration
Emergence of villages, towns, trading and urban centres.
Development of religion, laws, rules and regulations to safeguard their fields, flocks and other aspects of life.
More division of labour and specialization in different crafts.
Development of scientific and technological knowledge and skills, influenced by agriculture as farmers had to invent and improve farm implements, interpret weather patterns, divide land geometrically, count seasons and record agricultural produce using the calendar.
Development of numerous architectural designs to decorate various buildings in towns and other centres of human settlement
Formation of distinct social classes as members of various working groups interacted
Development and provision of formal education, particularly for the upper class of society
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