The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, and then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, Northern America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world. The industrial revolution in Europe occurred in two phases; The old phase was from 175-1850 and began in Britain and spread to other European countries like France (1825), Germany (1840), Belgium (1870) and Russia (1890). In USA, it began after the American civil war of 1861 to 1865. In Japan it began in 1900. In Kenya, it is hoped to be done by 2030.
Characteristics of industrial revolution in Europe.
The use of machines to replace human and animal labour.
The use of steam power as a new source of energy to replace water, wind and animal power.
Increased exploitation and use of coal, iron and steel.
The rise of the factory system in owns instead of the cottage industries in homes.
The development of better forms of transport including the use of railways, roads and water.
Improved living standards and an increase in the human population who required more manufactured goods.
The production of goods on large scale. Machines worked faster than human labour.
The development of science and the application of scientific knowledge in production.
There was development of trade as manufactured goods were sold locally and abroad.
The rise of modern capitalism that provided enough wealth which was then invested back into industry.
The growth of trade Union Movements to carter for the rights of industrial workers.
Uses of Various Sources of Energy.
This is a compact black or dark brown, carbonaceous rock which is a fuel and source of coke, coal gas and coal tar. Abraham Darby invented the process by which coal was turned into coke in 1709 thus discovered that coal produced immense heat. Coke was used to smelt iron. Uses of coal.
To heat water to high temperatures so as to produce steam.
To provide lighting.
To drive steam engines in factories. Some generators depended on coal heat to produce steam.
To drive locomotives. This promoted transport.
It was a raw material in the manufacturing of dye and pharmaceutical products.
Disadvantages of Coal.
It is bulky and transporting it is difficult.
It produced too much smoke when used in locomotives. Also gases released during the burning of coal e.g sulphur dioxide polluted the air and caused acid rain.
Coal was expensive to mine and to transport to the required destination.
Coal mining was risky to miners who often lost their lives when mines collapsed and buried them.
Petroleum.(often referred to as oil)
Before 1850, oil was known to American farmers as a substance that affected food production in farms. It was an American Don, Bissel who carried out an analysis of oil samples at a university lab and established that oil was both a fuel and lubricant.
The use of oil became widespread with the invention of the internal combustion engine by Gotlieb Daimler.
Uses of oil.
To power vehicles, aeroplanes and ships
To generate electricity used in lighting and cooking.
To run engines in industries
Tar (Bitumen), a by-product of petroleum is used to tarmac roads.
Greasing of metals in industries was also done by petroleum by-products such as grease.
Certain petroleum chemicals are used in making of drugs, fertilizers, synthetic fibre and plastics.
Disadvantages of oil
For countries importing oil, it is expensive to transport.
Prospecting for oil is quite expensive.
Oil may also affect the environment, since extracting large quantities of petroleum may cause land to sink.
Other sources of energy.
In 1896, A French physicist, Antoine Henri Beckquerel (1852-1903), discovered that uranium produces radiation or energy in waves. (Radioactivity). This was the birth of the development of Atomic energy.
In 1938, Hahn and Stressman discovered the process of Atomic fusion which leads to production of Atomic energy.
In 1942, a group of scientists led by Enrico-Fermi at the university of Chicago, USA, built the first Nuclear research Station which resulted in the invention of the nuclear reactor and later the discovery of an Atomic Bomb like one which was used Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.
In Belgium and France, 60% of the electricity is produced from atomic power
However, atomic energy when used in war can be very fatal Radioactivity also endangers both animal and plant life.
Polluted air, where radioactivity has taken place causes fever, diarrhea and death. For example the radioaction accident in 1985 at Three Mile Island in the USA and at Chernobyl near Kiev in Ukraine in 1986 had fatal consequences.
It is obtained directly from the sun and is used to dry firewood, clothes and to cook food. In 1714, Antoine Lavoisier made a solar furnace which could melt metals.
An engine using solar power was used to run a printing press in Paris in 1880. The use of solar water heaters was widespread in USA by 1900.
In 1954, the first solar cell which turned sunlight into electricity was made. The energy was then used to heat water and generate electricity.
Uses of Solar energy.
Drying agricultural products.
Distilling of salty water to get salt crystals.
Heating water in homes and industry
Heating and lighting buildings
Cooking using solar cookers
Irrigating using solar water pumps,
Powering satellites in space.
Advantages of solar energy.
It is clean and is available in places where sunlight is readily available.
It is natural and therefore free, non-pollutant and inexhaustible source of energy.
Iron and steel
Iron was not really a source of energy but the industrial revolution was dependant on the availability of iron Uses of iron.
Production of machines for textile industry. Water pipes and ploughs were made of iron.
Production of steam engines.
Building of trains, railway lines ships, wheels, bridges and coach frames.
In an attempt to overcome the disadvantages of iron (it was too heavy and could rust easily), in 1856, an Englishman, Henry Bessemer produced steel out of Iron and Carbon. (Steel is an alloy of iron and Carbon and is lighter, flexible, stronger and harder than iron)
Stainless steel, commonly used in cutlery is an alloy of Steel and Chromium. Uses of steel.
The construction of rail lines, bridges, cars and ships.
The manufacturing of machinery especially in the agricultural and industrial sector.
Reinforcement of concrete in buildings and roofing houses.
Making of containers and utensils.
Steam is boiling water turned into gas. It was used for first time around 100 AD in a steam-powered engine developed by a Greek scientist called Hero.
In the 16th century, Thomas Savery, a Briton, built a steam engine which could pump water out of a coal mine.
In 1712, Thomas Newcomen improved Savery’s design, though he design was still ineffective. In 1764, James Watt improved on Newcomen’s engine to make it more effective and by 1800, 320 of Watt’s engines were in use in Britain.
In 1801, Richard Trevithick installed one of Watt’s engines in a road vehicle. Three years later, he produced a steam-driven locomotive that ran on rails.
In 1830, George Stephenson improved on Trevithick’s work and invented the first steam locomotive, the rocket.
In all these engines, coal was used to produce steam.
Uses of steam.
It was used to drive heavy machinery in factories and to turn turbines that generated power for industrial use, e.g driving, spinning and weaving machines.
It was used for pumping water out of coal mines.
It was used in steam –powered locomotives and ships.
The massive temple doors in Egypt were only opened using steam.
Electricity was discovered by an English Scientist called Michael Faraday (1791-1861) in 1831 when he invented the electric Dynamo.
His principal of electromagnetic induction was the beginning of both the dynamo and the electric Motor. The energy used energy from coal, oil, steam or water to produce electricity The use of electricity became widespread from 1900.
Uses of electricity.
Heating and cooking.
Powering machines in factories.
Communication. Electric signals are used in communication gadgets.
Powering transport vehicles such as electric trains and electric cars.
Disadvantages of electricity.
It can be dangerous if not properly installed or used.
The generation and distribution of electricity is very expensive thus making its use limited to fewer people in developing countries.
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