POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS AND MOVEMENTS AFTER 1945.
Factors that hastened political development in Kenya after 1945.
When Eliud Mathu was nominated to the Legco on 10th October 1944, a number of well educated Africans led by Francis Khamisi agreed to form Kenya African Union (KAU) with the following objectives;
Two weeks after its formation, the governor ordered its officials to change its name to the Kenya African Study Union as it was meant to help Mathu in studying African problems.
In January 1945, James Gichuru became the president of KASU after Harry Thuku resigned, being unable to cope with radicalism in the union.
Under Gichuru, KASU published a newspaper - Sauti ya Mwafrika that concentrated on African grievances and the proposed East African Federation which they opposed.
The organization rejected proposals to give more powers to European members in the Executive council. They refused to accept a European dominated government of the East African Federation.
Later in 1946 on KASU changed its name to KAU feeling that the former name was inappropriate.
Kenya African Union
Formed in February 1946, the main demands of KAU were;
Kenyatta travelled widely in Kenya where he urged people to join KAU. After 1947 KAU began to face the problem of a standoff between Radicals like Fred Kubai and Paul Ngei who wanted to use force to acquire independence, and moderates like Kenyatta himself. Radicals who included Bildad Kaggia took over the Nairobi branch of KAU. When the national delegates’ conference was held in 1951, Jomo Kenyatta retained presidency, J.D. Otiende became secretary General, PAUL Ngei –assistant SG and Ole Nangurai –Treasurer.
Between 1948 and 1950, KAU faced serious financial problems even failing to pay rent for its offices at the IBEA building.
Other problems that faced KAU
In 1952, KAU rallies were banned outside Nairobi after a political meeting in Nyeri, attended by the leader of Mau Mau, Dedan Kimathi, which attracted over 25,000 people thus startling the government.
When a state of emergency was declared in 1952, KAU leaders were arrested for being behind Mau Mau. Walter Odede became the acting president, Joseph Murumbi acting secretary and W.W.W.Awori-acting treasurer.
The acting official presented a 24-point memoranda to Oliver Lyttelton , secretary of state for colonies when he came to kenya during the emergency period, demanding the release of the Kapenguria six (Jomo Kenyatta, Paul Ngei, Kung’u Karumba, Bildad Kaggia, Achieng’ Oneko and Fred Kubai)
Walter Odede, the acting president was late arrested on 9th march 1953 while Murumbi escaped to Bombay, India as KAU was banned on 8th June 1953.
Achievements if KAU.
THE MAU-MAU REBELLION 1951 - 60
Mau-Mau is an abbreviation which stands for “Mzungu Arudi Ulaya, Mwafirika Apate Uhuru” (meaning let the white man go back to Europe and the Africans regain Independence).
Sometimes the movement was referred to as the ‘Land and Freedom Army’ and the Anake-a-Forty.
Sometime in the late 1940s the General Council of the banned Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) began to make preparations for a campaign of civil disobedience involving all of the Kikuyu in order to protest the land issue. The members of this initiative were bound together through oath. The rituals obliged the oath taker to fight and defend themselves from Europeans.
In These oath rituals, There were rumors about cannibalism, ritual zoophilia with goats, sexual orgies, ritual places decorated with intestines and goat eyes, and that oaths included promises to kill, dismember and burn settlers.
The oaths were a cultural symbol of the solidarity that bound Kikuyu men, women and children in loyalty together in their opposition to the colonial government. It also instilled courage and unity among people,
Nonetheless, the British were scared by the oath, made taking the Mau Mau oath a capital offence. The British also screened Mau Mau suspects and forced them to take a 'cleansing oath', a strange instance of colonialism 'gone native'.
CAUSES OF THE MAU-MAU REBELLION
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Problems caused by presence of women in forests during mau mau wars.
CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES LEADING TO INDEPENDENCE.
Chapter 15: Democracy And Human Rights
Chapter 16: European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
CHAPTER 23: The Formation
CHAPTER 24: WORLD WARS
Chapter 25: International Relations
Chapter 26: Co-Operation In Africa
Chapter 27: National Philosophies (Kenya)
Chapter 28: Social
Chapter 32: The Electoral Process And Functions Of Governments In Other Parts Of The World
CHAPTER 4: AGRARIAN REVOLUTION
CHAPTER 5: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UPTO THE 19TH CENTURY
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
Industrialization In Britain
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE AFRICAN UNION
The Coming Of The Portuguese
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
THE ESTABLISHMENT AND IMPACT OF OMANI RULE AT THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
THE LAND ENCLOSURE SYSTEM
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
The Scientific Revolution.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
WORLD WAR 1 CONTINUED....
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