POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS AND MOVEMENTS AFTER 1945.
Factors that hastened political development in Kenya after 1945.
Characteristics of political parties formed after 1945.
Kenya African Study Union
When Eliud Mathu was nominated to the Legco on 10th October 1944, a number of well educated Africans led by Francis Khamisi agreed to form Kenya African Union (KAU) with the following objectives;
The interim officials were Harry Thuku (chairman), Francis Khamisi (Secretary) and Albert Owino (treasurer). Other officials were James Gichuru, John Kebaso, Simeon Mulandi, Harry ole Nangurai, S.0. Josiah, F.M. Ng’anga, Jimmy Jeremiah, J.D. Otiende and S.D. Jakay.
Two weeks after its formation, the governor ordered its officials to change its name to the Kenya African Study Union as it was meant to help Mathu in studying African problems.
In January 1945, James Gichuru became the president of KASU after Harry Thuku resigned, being unable to cope with radicalism in the union.
Under Gichuru, KASU published a newspaper - Sauti ya Mwafrika that concentrated on African grievances and the proposed East African Federation which they opposed.
The organization rejected proposals to give more powers to European members in the Executive council. They refused to accept a European dominated government of the East African Federation.
Later in 1946 on KASU changed its name to KAU feeling that the former name was inappropriate.
Kenya African Union
Formed in February 1946, the main demands of KAU were;
The return to Kenya by Kenyatta in 1946 marked the beginning of mass nationalism. On 1st June 1947, Kenyatta became president of KAU after Gichuru stepped down for him.
W.W.W. Awori was elected vice-president and Ambrose Ofafa and Muchohi Gikonyo were elected treasurer and secretary respectively.
Kenyatta travelled widely in Kenya where he urged people to join KAU. After 1947 KAU began to face the problem of a standoff between Radicals like Fred Kubai and Paul Ngei who wanted to use force to acquire independence, and moderates like Kenyatta himself.
Radicals who included Bildad Kaggia took over the Nairobi branch of KAU. When the national delegates’ conference was held in 1951, Jomo Kenyatta retained presidency, J.D. Otiende became secretary General, PAUL Ngei –assistant SG and Ole Nangurai –Treasurer.
Between 1948 and 1950, KAU faced serious financial problems even failing to pay rent for its offices at the IBEA building.
Other problems that faced KAU
In 1952, KAU rallies were banned outside Nairobi after a political meeting in Nyeri, attended by the leader of Mau Mau, Dedan Kimathi, which attracted over 25,000 people thus startling the government.
When a state of emergency was declared in 1952, KAU leaders were arrested for being behind Mau Mau. Walter Odede became the acting president, Joseph Murumbi acting secretary and W.W.W.Awori-acting treasurer.
The acting official presented a 24-point memoranda to Oliver Lyttelton , secretary of state for colonies when he came to kenya during the emergency period, demanding the release of the Kapenguria six (Jomo Kenyatta, Paul Ngei, Kung’u Karumba, Bildad Kaggia, Achieng’ Oneko and Fred Kubai) Walter Odede, the acting president was late arrested on 9th march 1953 while Murumbi escaped to Bombay, India as KAU was banned on 8th June 1953.
Achievements if KAU.
THE MAU-MAU REBELLION 1951 - 60
Mau-Mau is an abbreviation which stands for “Mzungu Arudi Ulaya, Mwafirika Apate Uhuru” (meaning let the white man go back to Europe and the Africans regain Independence).
Sometimes the movement was referred to as the ‘Land and Freedom Army’ and the Anake-a-Forty.
Sometime in the late 1940s the General Council of the banned Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) began to make preparations for a campaign of civil disobedience involving all of the Kikuyu in order to protest the land issue. The members of this initiative were bound together through oath. The rituals obliged the oath taker to fight and defend themselves from Europeans.
In These oath rituals, There were rumors about cannibalism, ritual zoophilia with goats, sexual orgies, ritual places decorated with intestines and goat eyes, and that oaths included promises to kill, dismember and burn settlers.
The oaths were a cultural symbol of the solidarity that bound Kikuyu men, women and children in loyalty together in their opposition to the colonial government.
It also instilled courage and unity among people,
Nonetheless, the British were scared by the oath, made taking the Mau Mau oath a capital offence.
The British also screened Mau Mau suspects and forced them to take a 'cleansing oath', a strange instance of colonialism 'gone native'.
CAUSES OF THE MAU-MAU REBELLION
Problems caused by presence of women in forests during mau mau wars.
CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES LEADING TO INDEPENDENCE.
Chapter 13 Social
CHAPTER 17: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA.
CHAPTER 18: COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 20: Political Developments And Struggle For Independence In Kenya (1919-1963)
CHAPTER 21: Rise Of African Nationalism
CHAPTER 22: EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF NATIONALISM IN AFRICA
Chapter 28: Social
Christian Missionaries In East Africa
Colonial Period In Kenya
Contacts Between East Africa And The Outside World Up To The 19th Century
Co-Operation In Africa
Course Of The Cold War
Democracy And Human Rights
Development Of Industry
Dev. Of Early Agriculture
Economic And Political Developments And Challenges In Africa Since Independence
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
European Invasion And The Process Of Colonization Of Africa
European Invasion Of Africa
FORM 1 LEVEL
Form 3 Level
Functions Of Governments
HISTORY FORM 1 TOPICS
INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
LIVES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF KENYAN LEADERS
Local Authorities In Kenya
MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY IN KENYA SINCE 1991
National Philosophies (Kenya)
ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU)
Pre Colonial East Africa
Pre-Colonial East Africa
PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
Structure And Functions Of The Government Of Kenya
THE COMMON MARKETS FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
The Electoral Process
THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
THE PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESSES (1900-1945)
THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UP TO THE 19TH CENTURY
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
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