Social, Economic and Political Developments and Challenges in Tanzania since Independence - kcse history notes
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Table of Content
Political developments in Tanzania since independence
At the time of independence, Tanzania comprised of two countries. I.e. Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Tanzania became independent in 1961 under Julius Nyerere while Zanzibar became independent in 1963 under the Sultan Seyyid Abdullah.
In 1962, Tanzania became a one-party state with a republican constitution and an executive president. Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) became the sole political party.
On 22nd April 1964, Julius Nyerere and Sheikh Abeid Karume signed a union document. Nyerere became the executive head of state and government while Karume as the first vice-president.
In 1967, president Nyerere adopted the ideology of African Socialism through the Arusha Declaration
In 1972, the first Vice-president, Sheikh Abeid Karume, was assassinated. Aboud Jumbe succeeded him as Zanzibar’s president and the vice-president of Tanzania.
In 1973, the capital of Tanzania was transferred from Dar-es-Salam to Dodoma.
In 1967, the ruling party in the Mainland Tanganyika-TANU and Afro-Shirazi Party in Zanzibar merged to form Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM). Nyerere became the party chairman.
In 1978-1979, president Idi Amin invaded Tanzania to annex the Kagera Province, which he claimed, was a Ugandan territory. Nyerere swiftly repulsed Ugandan soldiers.
In 1985, Nyerere retired as president and was replaced by Ali Hassan Mwinyi who had succeeded Jumbe as head of Zanzibar and Tanzania’s first vice president.
In May 1992, Tanzania adopted multi-partism after the 8th constitutional Amendment Act.
In 1995, Tanzania conducted the first multi-party election, where Benjamin Mkapa was elected president.
Social developments in Tanzania since independence.
The major highlight in the social development of an independent Tanzania was an attempt to create a classless society with e reduced gap, between the rich and the poor. Through the Ujamaa policy, president Nyerere tried to turn Tanzania into a country that had political and economic policies based on African traditions and aspirations.
Under the policy, communal farms were created.
Primary education was made free in 1977 and became compulsory in 1978.
At present, Tanzania boasts of the highest number of literate persons in eastern Africa. Upto late 1980s, government provided free health services, until the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programmes by the Donor community.
Kiswahili was adopted as a national language and a major medium of instruction in schools.
Economic developments in Tanzania since independence
The main landmark in Tanzania’s economic the launch of Ujamaa as a development policy in 1967 during the Arusha declaration..
Ujamaa was meant to transform production in rural areas and to increase labour productivity and even allow specialization introduction.
The government nationalized all the major means of production and essential services in order to empower people economically.
The Tanzam railway was constructed with the help of china and was completed in 1975. In 1976, cooperative societies were abolished and replaced with centralized corporations owned by the government.
The period between 1979 and 1985 witnessed economic stagnation in Tanzania as investors pulled out of the country.
The collapse of the East African Community also affected the economy of the country. After 1985, Nyerere’s economic policies began to be challenged openly by scholars and economists
When president Mwinyi took over, he undertook to reform the economy of Tanzania.
Political challenges that Tanzania has faced since independence.
Social problems, which Tanzania faced since independence
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